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Job Analysis

A process of gathering information about


job & evaluating such information in
terms of what is necessary & relevant

Components of Job
Analysis

What is a Job:
A group of essentially similar activities or
tasks performed by a person or group of
persons.
What should be analyzed:

Fundamental purpose of job.

Work elements in the job. Study of specific


tasks, area of responsibility

Specific equipment or techniques required for


the job

Job climate including objectives & work envt.

Job Conditions like physical effort, hazards,


travel needs, innovation required etc.

Data collectionInstruments

By talking to job performer

By direct observation of work performed.

By line manager or immediate superior

By a questionnaire response

By drawing a job picture

By method studies, organizational manuals

Methods of Collecting Job


Analysis Information: The
Interview

Information Sources

Interview Formats

Individual employees

Structured (Checklist)

Groups of employees

Unstructured

Supervisors with
knowledge of the job

Advantages

Quick, direct way to find


overlooked information

Disadvantages

Distorted information
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Job Analysis: Interviewing


Guidelines

The job analyst and supervisor should work together


to identify the workers who know the job best.

It is advisable to quickly establish rapport with the


interviewee.

Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists


open-ended questions and provides space for answers.

Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of


importance and frequency of occurrence.

After completing the interview, review and verify


the data.

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Methods of Collecting Job


Analysis Information:
Questionnaires

Information Source

Have employees fill out


questionnaires to
describe their jobrelated duties and
responsibilities

Questionnaire
Formats

Structured checklists
Open-ended questions

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Advantages

Quick and efficient way


to gather information
from large numbers of
employees

Disadvantages

Expense and time


consumed in preparing
and testing the
questionnaire

Job Questionnaire
1.

2.

3.

A special tool for consolidating job


information.
Gives each employee an opportunity to
contribute.
Success depends on the understanding &
inconsistencies creep in.

Preferable through a combination of direct


observation & job questionnaire.
A structured position Analysis Questionnaire
(PAQ) consisting of 194 job elements of a
worker oriented nature divided into 6
major categories.

Methods of Collecting Job


Analysis Information:
Observation

Information Source

Observing and noting


the physical activities
of employees as they
go about their jobs

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Advantages

Provides first-hand
information

Reduces distortion of
information

Disadvantages

Time consuming

Difficulty in capturing
entire job cycle

Of little use if job involves


a high level of mental
activity

Methods of Collecting Job


Analysis Information:
Participant Diary/Logs

Information Source

Workers keep a
chronological diary/ log
of what they do and
the time spent on each
activity

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Advantages

Produces a more
complete picture of the
job

Employee participation

Disadvantages

Distortion of information

Depends upon
employees to accurately
recall their activities

What is analysis

IT IS A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF DATA


COLLECTED BY WAY OF A DISCIPLINED
QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE

How job analysis is done


Data collected is subjected to following
fundamental questions:

WHAT

WHERE

WHY

WHEN

WHO

HOW

EDIT , MODIFY AND DEFINE JOBS


AFTER THE JOBS HAVE BEEN
CRITICALLY ANALYSED

Job Descriptions
1.

2.

3.

4.

Written Records of job duties &


responsibilities & provide a factual
basis for job evaluation.
Recorded on a standard form in
uniform manner.
Title of the job to be such which
summarizes duties assigned.
Level of the position & purpose decides
what is to be listed in job duties.

Job Specifications

1.

2.

Outlines specification of the job covering education, experience


required & skill set.
Also identifies soft skills like interpersonal skills, analytical ability.

Writing Job Descriptions


Job
Identification

Job
Summary

Job
Specifications

Working
Conditions

Standards of
Performance

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Sections of a
Typical Job
Description

Responsibilities
and Duties

Authority of the
Incumbent

How to write Job Description


1.

Identification

2.

Job summary ( 2-3 lines )

3.

Job Definition

4.

Accountability

5.

Job specifications

6.

Employment standards

The Job Description

Job Identification

Job title

Preparation date

Preparer

Responsibilities and
Duties

Major responsibilities
and duties (essential
functions)

Decision-making
authority

Direct supervision

Budgetary limitations

Job Summary

General nature of the job

Major functions/activities

Relationships

Reports to:

Supervises:

Works with:

Outside the company:

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Standards of
Performance and
Working Conditions

What it takes to do

Writing Job Specifications


What traits and
experience are
required to do this
job well?

Specifications
for Trained
Versus
Untrained
Personnel

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Specifications
Based on
Judgment

Specifications
Based on
Statistical
Analysis

Writing Job Specifications

Steps in the Statistical Approach

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Analyze the job and decide how to


measure job performance.

Select personal traits that you believe


should predict successful
performance.

Test candidates for these traits.

Measure the candidates subsequent


job performance.

Statistically analyze the relationship


between the human traits and job

A Central Peripheral relational Model of Job


Analysis
Industri
al
Relation
s
Setting Safety &
Health
Standards
Compensatio
n Planning
Performance
Appraisal

Skills &
Competenc
y Mapping

Job Analysis
Job Descriptions
Job Specifications

Setting
Performanc
e
Standards
KPA/ KRA

HRP
Recruitme
nt
Selectio
n
Training
& Dev.
Mgt. Dev.
Career
Planning
& Dev.

Purpose & Objectives of Job Analysis

Manpower planning, utilization and


right sizing of work force

Recruitment & Selection

Wage & salary Administration

Performance appraisal

Health & safety

Competency-Based Job Analysis

Competencies

Demonstrable characteristics of a person


that enable performance of a job.

Reasons for Competency-Based Job Analysis

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To support a high-performance work system.

To create strategically-focused job


descriptions.

To support the performance management


process in fostering, measuring, and
rewarding:

General competencies

Leadership competencies

Technical competencies

FIGURE 411 The Skills Matrix for One Job

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Competency-Based Job
Analysis (continued)

How to Write Job Competencies-Based


Job Descriptions

Interview job incumbents and their


supervisors

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Ask open-ended questions about job


responsibilities and activities.
Identify critical incidents that pinpoint success
on the job.

Use off-the-shelf competencies databanks

Specimen Job Description


Title:
Code:
Department:
Summary:

Compensation Manager
HR/2310
HR Department
Responsible for the design and administration
of employee compensation program.
Duties
-Conduct job analysis
-Prepare JD for current and projected positions.
-Rate salary to the performance of each
employee.
- Develop and administer performance appraisal
programme.
- Develop an integrated HR information
system.
Working Conditions: Normal. Eight hours per day. Five days .
Report To:
Director, Human Resource Department.

Writing Clear and Specific JD


1.

JD should indicate nature and scope of the Job.

2.

Should be brief , factual and precise.

3.

Specific words to be chosen to show:

4.

i.

Kind of work

ii.

The degree of complexity

iii.

The degree of skill required

iv.

Degree and Type of accountability.

Reporting relationships must also be clearly indicated.

Job Specification
JS summarizes the human characteristics needed for the satisfactory
completion of the job . It tries to describe the key qualifications someone
needs to perform the job successfully
For each job description it is desirable to have a job specification:
1.

Essential attributes

2.

Desirable attributes-Qualification a person ought to be possess.

3.

Contra-Indicators-attributes that will become a handicap to successful job


performance.

JS of a compensation manager
Education:

MBA/PGDBM with specialization in HRM.


A degree in labor laws is desirable.

Experience:
At least 3 years' experience in a similar position in a
manufacturing company.
SKA:

Knowledge of compensation practices in


competing industries.

Skills in writing JD, in conducting JA interviews,


making group presentations, in performing
statistical computations.
Age:

Preferably below 30 years.

Job Analysis in a Jobless


World
Job Design:
Specialization
and Efficiency?

Job
Enlargement

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Job
Rotation

Job
Enrichment

Job Analysis in a Jobless


World (continued)
Dejobbing the
Organization

Flattening the
Organization

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Using SelfManaged Work


Teams

Reengineering
Business
Processes

Steps in Job Analysis


Steps in doing a job
analysis:

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Decide how youll use the information.

2
3

Review relevant background


information.
Select representative positions.

Actually analyze the job.

Verify the job analysis information.

Develop a job description and job


specification.

Should employees see their Job


Descriptions

1. If job descriptions are well developed, it can


be shared with employees as it spells out list
of duties.
2. By sharing with employees, organization can
make their process participative - not left
with any doubts about their duties.
3. Also identifies soft skills like interpersonal
skills, analytical ability.