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Week 1:

(1) Introduction to Pedagogy:

Pedagogy and andragogy
(2) Teaching and learning
(3) Learning styles

Definitions of Pedagogy
Pedagogue = a teacher, educator, a strict one
Old French; Latin: paedaggus, slave who
supervised children and took them to and from
school, from Greek paidaggos : paido-, boy; +
aggos, leader or guide.
Pedagogy is the art and science of helping
children learn
Androgogy = the art and science of helping
adults learn


The art or science of teaching

The study of methods and application of
educational theory to create learning
contexts and environments
Pedagogical issues are related to teaching
and learning


5 core principles:
1. Commitment to students and learning
2. Teachers know their subjects
3. Teachers know how to teach those
4. Teachers are responsible to managing
and monitoring student learning
5. Teachers think systematicaly about
their practices and learn from

Quality pedagogy:
a. Democratic classroom
b. Assurance of quality learning opportunities
c. Utilization of strong model of information
d. Assurance of content standards being met
e. Students at the centre of their own


the art and science of helping
children learn.

the art and science of helping adults learn


Concept of Learner
Teacher expected to
determine what is
learned, when, and if it
has been

Moves from dependency
to increasing selfdirectedness. Teachers
encourage and nurture


Learners Experience
Of little value, learners
will gain the most from
teachers lecture, text
related mediums.

People attach more
meaning to learning
gained from experience.
Labs problem solving,
discussions. (Inductive)


Readiness to Learn
With pressure, people
are ready to learn what
society says they ought
to, step-by-step style

Experience a need to
Educator provides tools,
should be organizrd
around life-application.


Orientation to Learning
Process for acquiring
subject matter, content
to be used later.
Basic subjects.

Need to be able to apply
whatever knowledge
and skill they gain soon.


Dimensions Of Matirotu


2) Passivity


3) Subjectivity


4) Ignorance


5) Small Abilities

Large Abilities

6) Few


7) Narrow Interests

Broad Interest

8) Selfishness


Dimensions Of Maturity
9) Self-rejection

Self- acceptance

10) Amorphous

Integrated selfidentity

11) Focus on

12) Superficial
13) Imitation
14) Need for


Focus on Principles
Deep Concerns
Tolerance of

Definitions of teaching
Creation of environment for the best learning to
take place
Helping students acquire information, ideas,
skills, values, ways of thinking, and means of
expressing themselves (Joyce, Weil, & Calhaun, 2011).
Long-term outcome: students increased capabilities to learn
more easily and effectively in the future
Thus, a major role in teaching is to create powerful learners


Teaching is a combination of both artistry and science

(Henderson, 2001).
-- teaching as in art, we call this ability
Helping students acquire information, ideas, skills, values,
ways of thinking, and means of expressing themselves
(Joyce & Weil, 1996).
Long-term outcome: students increased capabilities to learn
more easily and effectively in the future
Thus, a major role in teaching is to create powerful learners


Reflective Teaching
Traditional teacher-training programs have been directive
in nature
Teacher educators have to prepare prospective teachers to
be self-monitoring individuals
Effective teachers must inquire into students experiences,
understand their learners, and have the capacity to analyze
what occurs in classrooms and in the lives of their students
Self-monitoring: self-analysis of teaching episodes,
reflection and focusing on events rather than personalities,
systematic observation for patterns and trends of T and L

Reflective Teaching
o Donald Cruickshank (1987) suggests that reflective
teachers want to learn about teaching from both theory and
practice - teach and reflect on their teaching, and through
the process, become more thoughtful and wiser teachers
o Schon (1987): Reflective T requires careful planning and
continual reflecting-in-practice and reflecting-on-practice
o Reflective T (self-monitoring):
-- ask basic questions about the appropriateness and
success of your T
-- how to change your T and classroom behaviors to
improve their success
-- ask self-evaluative questions and conclude whether you
are satisfied or dissatified


A Passion for Teaching

What is passionate about teaching?
1. A passion for the subject teaching in your
2. A passion for the teaching life to have
opportunities to see students become excited
about learning
3. A passion for the teaching-learning process
helping students learn; quickly and gracefully act
on the stituation seen

What is it like to be a teacher?

Reality 1: Unpredictable outcomes
Outcomes of teaching are often unpredictable and
Reality 2: Assessing students learning
It is difficult to assess what students learn as a
result of being taught
It is difficult, perhaps imposssible, to determine precisely
what another human being does or does not understand.
Teachers must become aware of the latest approaches to
assessing students learning
Parkay, F. W. & Stanford, B. H. (2007). Becoming a teacher.Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., pg. 22-28

What is it like to be a teacher?

Reality 3: Limited influence on students behavior
The teachers ability to influence student behavior
is actually quite limited.
Reality 4: The importance of teachers attitudes
With the role of a teacher also comes the power to
influence others by example.
Educational psychologist, Jeanne Ellis Ormrod
(2003, 342): as teachers, we teach not only by
what we say but also by what we do.

What is it like to be a teacher?

Reality 5: The unpredictability and immediacy of
Interactive teaching is characterized by events that
are rapid-changing, multidimensional, and
The face-to-face interaction (interactive teaching) are
themselves rapid-changing, multidimensional, and irregular.
Gmelch and Parkay (1995, 47): Day in and day out,
teachers spend much of their lives on stage before
audiences that are not always receptive....Teachers must
orchestrate a daunting array of interpersonal interactions
and build a cohesive, positivie climate for learning.

What is it like to be a teacher?

Reality 6: The uniquesness of teaching
Teaching involves a unique mode of being between
teacher and student a mode of being that can be
experienced but not fully defined or described.
On your journey to become a teacher, you will
gradually develop your capacity to listen to
students and to convey an authentic sense of
concern for their learning

What are the roles of a teacher?

1. As a counselor
2. As a manager
3. As an instructional expert


The professional teacher


Definitions of learning
Process of progressive change:
Learning is a social process: occurs through interpersonal
interaction within a cooperative context (David, Johnson,
Johnson, R., & Smith,1992).
relatively permanent change in behavioural potentiality and
as a result of reinforced practice


Woolfolk (2010):
Learning occurs when experience causes
relatively permanent change in an individuals
knowledge or behaviour.
ODonnell (2011)
Learning is a relevantly permanent change in
behaviour or knowledge that occurs as a result of
Ciccarelli, S.K. & Meyer, G.E. (2006):
Learning is any relevantly permanent change in behaviour
brought about by experiece or practice.

Quotations on teaching, learning,

The task of the excellent teacher is to
stimulate "apparently ordinary" people to
unusual effort. The tough problem is not in
identifying winners: it is in making winners
out of ordinary people.
K. Patricia Cross


Teaching is the highest form of understanding


Good teaching is one-fourth preparation and

three-fourths theatre.
Gail Godwin

The educator must above all understand how

to wait; to reckon all effects in the light of the
future, not of the present.
Ellen Key, 1911


No man can be a good teacher unless he

has feelings of warm affection toward his
pupils and a genuine desire to impart to
them what he himself believes to be of
Bertrand Russell

Teaching = helping someone else learn

L. Dee Fink


On learning:
Memorization is what we resort to
when what we are learning makes no

It is what we think we know already

that often prevents us from learning.
Claude Bernard

On education:
The main hope of a nation lies in the proper education of
its youth.
All education springs from some image of the future. If the
image of the future held by a society is grossly
inaccurate, its education system will betray its youth.
Alvin Toffler
Education's purpose is to replace an empty mind with an
open one.
Malcom S. Forbes

Every act of conscious learning requires the

willingness to suffer an injury to one's selfesteem. That is why young children, before they
are aware of their own self-importance learn so
easily; and why older persons, especially if vain or
important, cannot learn at all.

Thomas Szasz, 1973


Learning Styles
Learning styles are important because they
are the educational-relevant expressions of
the uniqueness of the individual (Joyce & Weil,2010)
Learning styles, also called cognitive styles
are students preferred ways of learning or
processing information (Messick, 1994; Sternbert &
Crignorenko, 1997)

Learning styles

Examples of learning styles

a. Dunn & Dunn

b. Kolbs theory
c. McCarthys 4MAT
d. Howard Gardners Multiple intelligences

Learning styles

Learning by Dunn & Dunn (1987)

Students differed in terms of their response to

three key dimensions of learning:
a. Environment (e.g. Sound, light, temperature)
b. Physical stimuli (oral versus written)
c. Structure and support (working alone or in

Learning styles: Dunn & Dunn

Learning Style Dimensions


Learning Style Differences


Is a quiet or nosy environment best for learning?


Do students prefer bright or subdued light?


Is a warm or cool room preferred?


Are individual desks or clusters of desks best for learning?

Physical Stimuli

How does attention span influence the optimal length of



Does the student prefer to read or hear new information?


Do students learn best when actively involved, or do they

prefer more passive roles?

Structure / Support

Do students need external rewards, or are they internally



Do students need constant support and monitoring, or are

they independent learners?

Individual / Group

Do students prefer to work alone or in a group?

Implications for teaching :

Teachers should treat each student as an
inividual human being and not just another
face in a class of 30.
Help our students understand themselves as
Self-awareness can be developed through
self-instruction training.
Learning styles: Dunn & Dunn

Kolbs theory : classification of

a. Activitists
b. Reflectors
c. Theorists
d. Pragmatists

Learning styles: Kolb

Like practical work such as labs, field work, observation
exercises and using visual source material for
information, etc.
Like to learn by watcing others, by taking time to
consider observations of their own experiences, etc
Like lectures, reading papers on topics, considering
analogies, etc.
Like simulations, case studies, homework, etc.
Learning styles: Kolb

Implications :
Activists might just start using it and feel their
way into it
Reflectors might have a go at using it and then
take time to think about what they have
just done
Theorists might begin by reading the manual
Pragmatists might start using the programme,
but make frequent references to the Help files
Learning styles: Kolb

McCarthys 4MAT analysis

This learning style developed the notion of cycle through which
leearners progress in a classroom topic or block of work. It made use of
the left / right brain science.
Learners are classified as:

Common sense

Learning styles: 4MAT

G a r d n e rs T h e o ry o f M u ltip le In te llig e n c e s
D im e n s io n

E x a m p le

L in g u is tic / v e rb a l in te llig e n c e :
S e n s itivity to th e m e a n in g a n d o rd e r o f w o rd s a n d th e
va rie d u s e s o f la n g ua g e

P o e t, jo u rn a lis t

L o g ic a l-m a th e m a tic a l in te llig e n c e :

T h e a b ility to h a n d le lo n g c h a in s o f re a s o n in g a n d to
R e c o g n ize p a tte rn s a n d o rd e r in th e w o rld

S c ie n tis t, m a th e m a tic ia n

M u s ic a l in te llig e n c e :
S e n s itivity to p itc h , m e lo d y, a n d to n e
S p a tia l in te llig e n c e :
T h e a b ility to p e rc e iv e th e v is u a l w o rld a c c u ra te ly, a n d
T o re -c re a te , tra n s fo rm , o r m o d ify a s p e c ts o f th e w o rld
B a s e d o n o n e s p e rc e p tio n s
B o d ily -kin e s th e tic in te llig e n c e :
A fin e -tu n e d a b ility to u s e th e b o d y a n d to h a n d le o b je c ts

C o m p o s e r, vio lin is t

S c u lp to r, n av ig a to r

D a n c e r, a th le te

In te rp e rs o n a l in te llig e n c e :
T h e a b ility to n o tic e a n d m a k e dis tin c tio n s a m o n g o th e rs

T h e ra p is t, s a le s p e rs o n

In tra p e rs o n a l in te llig e n c e :
A c c e s s to o n e s o w n fe e lin g life

s e lf-a w are in d ivid u a l

N a tu ra lis tic in te llig e n c e :

M a k e d is tin c tio n s a nd re c o g n ize p a tte rn s in th e n a tu ra l
W orld : a re c u rio u s a b o u t p la n ts a n d a n im a ls ; a re c o n c e rn e d
th e e c o lo g y / e n v iro n m e nt

B io lo g is t, b o ta n is t

S o u rc e : A d a p te d fro m G a rdn e r, 1 9 9 9 ; G a rd n e r & H a tc h , 1 9 8 9 a n d w w w . h ig h lan d s c h o o lvirtu a lib .o rg .u k

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