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You are on page 1of 59

Inventory Management

Chapter 2: Inventory management

William J. Stevenson

9th edition

11-2

Inventory Management

Types of Inventories

work-in-process (WIP)

Finished-goods inventories

11-3

Inventory Management

Functions of Inventory

To decouple operations

To permit operations

11-4

Inventory Management

service while keeping inventory costs within

reasonable bounds

11-5

Inventory Management

To be effective, management must have the following:

Ordering costs

Shortage costs

11-6

Inventory Management

Periodic System

Physical count of items made at periodic

intervals

System that keeps track

of removals from inventory

continuously, thus

monitoring

current levels of

each item

11-7

Inventory Management

Perpetual inventory system ranges between

very simple to very sophisticated such as:

Two-Bin System - Two containers of

inventory; reorder when the first is empty

Universal Bar Code (UBC)- Bar code

printed on a label that has

information about the item 0

to which it is attached

214800 232087768

11-8

Inventory Management

Lead time: time interval between ordering and receiving the order

Holding (carrying) costs: cost to carry an item in inventory for a

length of time, usually a year (heat, light, rent, security,

deterioration, spoilage, breakage, depreciation, opportunity cost,,

etc.,)

Ordering costs: costs of ordering and receiving inventory (shipping

cost, cost of preparing how much is needed, preparing invoices, cost

of inspecting goods upon arrival for quality and quantity, moving the

goods to temporary storage)

Shortage costs: costs when demand exceeds supply (the opportunity

cost of not making a sale, loss of customer goodwill, late charges,

the cost of lost of production or downtime)

11-9

Inventory Management

Classification system

items held in inventory are not of equal importance in

terms of dollar invested, profit potential, sales or usage

volume, or stockout penalties. For instance, a producer of

electrical equipment might have electric generators, coils

of wire, and miscellaneous nuts and bolts among items

carried in inventory. It would be unrealistic to devote

equal attention to each of these items. Instead, a more

reasonable approach would allocate control efforts

according to the relative importance of various items in

inventory. This approach is called A-B-C classification

approach

Figure 11.1

of importance and allocating control efforts

accordingly.

A - very important

B moderate important

C - least important

High

Annual

$ value

of items

A

B

C

Low

Few

Many

Number of Items

11-11

Inventory Management

Example

The annual dollar value of 12 items has been calculated based on annual demand and unit

cost. The annual dollar values were then arrayed from highest to lowest to simplify

classification of items. It is reasonable to classify the first two items as A, the next three

items as B and the remainder are C items.

Item number

Annual demand

Unit cost

Dollar value

classification

1000

4000

4,000,000

3900

700

2,730,000

1900

500

950,000

1000

915

915,000

2500

330

825,000

1500

100

150,000

12

400

300

120,000

500

200

100,000

8000

10

80,000

1000

70

70,000

200

210

42,000

10

9000

18,000

total

10,000,000

Cycle Counting

guide to cycle counting, which is a physical count of items in

inventory. The purpose of cycle counting is to reduce

discrepancies between the amounts indicated by inventory

records and the actual quantities of inventory on hand.

N.B.

The American Production and Inventory Control Society (APICS)

recommends the following guidelines for inventory record accuracy:

0.2 percent for A items, 1 percent for B items, and 5 percent for

C items.

The question of how much to order is frequently

determined by using an Economic Order Quantity

(EOQ) model. EOQ models identify the optimal

order quantity by minimizing the sum of certain

annual costs that vary with order size. Three order

size models are described:

Assumptions of EOQ Model

1. Only one product is involved

2. Annual demand requirements are known

3. Demand is even throughout the year

4. Lead time does not vary

5. Each order is received in a single delivery

6. There are no quantity discounts

of Q units, which are withdrawn at a constant rate

over time. When the quantity on hand is just

sufficient to satisfy demand during lead time, an

order for Q units is submitted to the supplier.

Because it is assumed that both the usage rate and

lead time dont vary, the order will be received at

the precise instant that the inventory on hand falls

to zero. Thus, orders are timed to avoid both

excess and stockouts (i.e., running out of stock).

The following figure illustrate this idea.

Figure 11.2

Q

Quantity

on hand

Usage

rate

Reorder

point

Receive

order

Place Receive

order order

Lead time

Place Receive

order order

Time

Total Cost

The total annual cost associated with carrying and

ordering inventory when Q units are ordered each

time is:

Annual

Annual

Total cost = carrying + ordering

cost

cost

Where

TC =

Q

H

2

DS

Q

Q = quantity to be ordered

H= holding cost per unit (carrying cost per unit)

D = annual demand

S = ordering (setup cost) per order

H must be in the

same units, e.g.,

months, years

Figure 11.4C

Annual Cost

Q

D

TC H S

2

Q

Holding

cost

Ordering Costs

QO (optimal order quantity)

Order Quantity

(Q)

Using calculus, we take the derivative of the

total cost function and set the derivative

(slope) equal to zero and solve for Q.

Q OPT =

2DS

=

H

Annual Holding Cost

Length of order cycle = Q0/ D

Where Q0 = QOPT

The total cost curve reaches its minimum where the

carrying and ordering costs are equal. This minimum

cost can be found by substituting Q0 for Q in the Total

cost (TC) formula:

TC

Q0

D

H

S

2

Q0

EOQ

Example

A local distributor for a national tire company expects to

sell approximately 9600 steel-belted radial tires of a

certain size and tread design next year. Annual carrying

cost is $16 per tire, and ordering cost is $75. the

distributor operates 288 days a year.

What is the EOQ?

How many times per year does the store reorder?

What is the length of an order cycle?

What is the total annual cost if the EOQ is ordered?

EOQ

Solution

D = 9600 tires per year

H = $16 per unit per year

S = $75 per order

a) Q0 =

2 DS

2(9600)75

300

16

c) Length of order cycle: Q0/ D = 300/9600 =1/32 of a year ,

which is 1/32 (288 days a year) = 9 workdays

EOQ

Solution (cont.)

d) Tc = Carrying cost + Ordering cost

= (Q0/2) H + (D/Q0) S

= (300/2) 16 + (9600/300) 75

= 2400 + 2400

= $4800

Production done in batches or lots

Capacity to produce a part exceeds the parts

usage or demand rate

Assumptions of EPQ are similar to EOQ

except orders are received incrementally

during production

Only one item is involved

Annual demand is known

Usage rate is constant

Usage occurs continually, but production occurs

periodically

Production rate is constant

Lead time does not vary

No quantity discounts

The Economic run size can be determined by using the following

formula:

Q0

2DS

p

H p u

Where:

P = production or delivery rate

U = usage rate

The minimum total cost is determined as follows:

TC min = carrying cost + setup cost =

I max

Q0

(P u)

P

Q0

cycle

u

Q0

Run

P

D

I max

S

H

2

Q0

= Maximum inventory

= cycle length

run length

Example

a.

b.

c.

for its popular dump truck series. The firm makes its

own wheels, which it can produce at rate of 800 per

day. The toy trucks are assembled uniformly over the

entire year. Carrying cost is $1 per wheel a year. Setup

cost for a production run of wheels is $45. the firm

operates 240 days per year. Determine the

Optimal run size

Minimum total annual cost for carrying and setup

Run time

Solution

D = 48000 wheels per year

S = $45

H = $1 per wheel per year

P = 800 wheels per day

U = 48000 wheels per 240 days, or 200 wheels per day

a.

a.

Q0 =

2 DS

H

P

2(48000)45

800

2400

P u

1

800 200

D

I max

S

H

2

Q0

Solution (cont.)

I max

Q0

2400

( P u)

(800 200) 1800

P

800

1800

48000

TC

$1

$45 $900 $900 $1800

2

2400

Q0

2400

cycle

12days

u

200

Q0

2400

Run

3days

P

800

offered to customers to induce them to buy in large

quantities. In this case the price per unit decreases as

order quantity increases.

If the quantity discounts are offered, the buyer must

weigh the potential benefits of reduced purchase price and

fewer orders that will result from buying in large

quantities against the increase in carrying cost caused by

higher average inventories.

The buyers goal with quantity discounts is to select the

order quantity that will minimize the total cost, where the

total cost is the sum of carrying cost, ordering cost, and

purchasing (i.e., product) cost.

Annual

Annual

Purchasing

+

TC = carrying + ordering cost

cost

cost

Q

H

TC =

2

DS

Q

PD

doesnt involve the purchasing cost. The rationale for not

including unit price is that under the assumption of no quantity

discounts, price per unit is the same for all order size. The

inclusion of the unit price in the total cost computation in that

case would merely increase the total cost by the amount P times

the demand (D). See the following graph.

Cost

Figure 11.7

Adding Purchasing cost

doesnt change EOQ

TC with PD

TC without PD

PD

EOQ

Quantity

U-shaped total-cost curve for each unit price.

Because the unit prices are all different, each curve is

raised by a different amount: smaller unit price will raise

the total cost curve less than larger unit price.

No one curve applies to the entire range of quantities;

each curve applies to only a portion of the curve.

Each total cost curve has its own minimum.

There are two general cases of the quantity discount

model:

1. the carrying cost is constant

2. the carrying cost is a percentage of the purchase price.

Costs

Figure 11.9

Total Cost

TCa

single minimum point; all

curves will have their

minimum point at the

same quantity

TCb

Decreasing

Price

TCc

CC a,b,c

OC

EOQ

Quantity

When carrying cost is expressed as a percentage of the unit price, each curve will

have different minimum point.

TCa

Cost

TCb

TCc

OC

CCa

CCb

CCc

Quantity

1.

2.

is as follows:

Compute the common minimum point by using the

basic economic order quantity model.

Only one of the unit prices will have the minimum

point in its feasible range since the ranges do not

overlap. Identify that range:

a. if the feasible minimum point is on the lowest price

range, that is the optimal order quantity.

b. if the feasible minimum point is any other range,

compute the total cost for the minimum point and for

the price breaks of all lower unit cost. Compare the

total costs; the quantity that yields the lowest cost is the

optimal order quantity.

Example

the maintenance department of a large hospital uses

about 816 cases of liquid cleanser annually.

Ordering costs are $12, carrying costs are $4 per

case a year, and the new price schedule indicates

that orders of less than 50 cases will cost $20 per

case, 50 to 79 cases will cost $18 per case, 80 to

99 cases will cost $17 per case. And larger orders

will cost $16 per case. Determine the optimal

order quantity and the total cost.

Solution

Range

1 to 49

50 to 79

80 to 99

100 and more

H= $4 per case per year.

The price schedule is:

1. Compute the common EOQ

EOQ =

2 DS

2(816)12

69.97 70

4

Price

$20

18

17

16

2. The 70 cases can be bought at $18 per case because 70 falls in the

range of 50 to 79 cases. Therefore the total cost to purchase 816

cases a year, at the rate of 70 cases per order, will be:

TC70 = carrying cost + ordering cost + purchasing cost

= (Q0/2)H

+ (D/Q0) S

+ PD

= (70/2)4

Solution (cont.)

Because lower cost ranges exist, each must be checked

against the minimum total cost generated by 70 cases at

$18 each. In order to buy at $17 per case, at least 80 cases

must be purchased. The total cost at 80 cases will be:

TC80 = (80/2) 4 + (816/80)12 + 17(816) = $14,154

To obtain a cost of $16 per case, at least 100 cases per

order are required and the total cost at that price break

point will be:

TC100 = (100/2)4 + (816/100) 12 + 16(816) = $13,354

cost, 100 cases is the overall optimal order quantity.

the unit price

1.

2.

price, determine the best purchase quantity with the

following procedure:

Beginning with the lowest unit price, compute the

minimum points for each price range until you find a

feasible minimum point (i.e., until a minimum point falls

in the quantity range of its price).

If the minimum point for the lowest unit price is

feasible, it is the optimal order quantity. If the minimum

point is not feasible in the lowest price range, compare

the total cost at the price break for all lower prices with

the total cost of the feasible minimum point. The

quantity which yield the lowest total cost is the optimum

Example

Switches are priced as follows: 1 to 499, 90 cents

each; 500 to 999, 85 cents each; and 1000 or more,

80 cents each. It costs approximately $30 to

prepare an order and receive it, and carrying costs

are 40 percent of purchase price per unit on an

annual basis. Determine the optimal order quantity

and the total annual cost

Solution

Range

Unit price

1 to 499

$0.90

0.40(0.90) = 0.36

500 to 999

0.85

0.40(0.85) = 0.34

0.80

0.40(0.80) = 0.32

Find the minimum point for each price, starting with the lowest price, until you locate a

feasible minimum point.

2 DS

2( 4000)30

866 switches

Minimum point0.80 =

H

0.32

Because an order size of 866 switches will cost $0.85 each rather than $0.80, 866 is not a

feasible minimum point for $0.80 per switch. Next try $0.85 per unit.

Minimum point0.85 =

2( 4000)30

840 switches

0.34

this is a feasible point; it falls in the $0.85 per switch range of 500 to 999

Solution (cont.)

Now compute the total cost for 840, and compare it

to the total cost of the minimum quantity necessary

to obtain a price of $0.80 per switch

TC = carrying cost + ordering cost + purchasing cost

= (Q/2) H + (D/Q)S + PD

TC1000 = (1000/2) (0.32) + (4000/1000) (30) + 0.80(4000) = $3,480

The EOQ models answer the equation of how much to order, but

not the question of when to order. The latter is the function of

models that identify the reorder point (ROP) in terms of a quantity:

the reorder point occurs when the quantity on hand drops to

predetermined amount.

That amount generally includes expected demand during lead time

and perhaps an extra cushion of stock, which serves to reduce the

probability of experiencing a stockout during lead time.

In order to know when the reorder point has been reached, a

perpetual inventory is required.

The goal of ordering is to place an order when the amount of

inventory on hand is sufficient to satisfy demand during the time it

takes to receive that order (i.e., lead time)

an item drops to this amount, the item is

reordered

expected demand due to variable demand rate

and/or lead time.

exceed supply during lead time.

The rate of demand (usually based on a forecast)

The lead time

Demand and/or lead time variability

Stockout risk (safety stock)

If the demand and lead time are both constant, the

reorder point is simply:

ROP = d LT

Where:

d = demand rate (units per day or week)

LT = lead time in days or weeks

Note that demand and lead time must be

expressed in the same time units.

When to reorder

it creates the possibility that actual demand will

exceed expected demand. Consequently, it becomes

necessary to carry additional inventory, called

safety stock, to reduce the risk of running out of

stock during lead time. The reorder point then

increases by the amount of the safety stock:

The following graph shows how safety stock can reduce

the risk of stock out during lead time

Safety Stock

Quantity

Figure 11.12

during lead time

Expected demand

during lead time

ROP

Safety stock

Safety stock reduces risk of

stockout during lead time

LT

Time

Safety stock

1.

2.

3.

carefully weigh the cost of carrying safety stock against the

reduction in stockout risk it provides.

The customer service level increases as the risk of stockout

decreases.

The order cycle service level can be defined as the probability

that demand will not exceed supply during lead time. This means a

service level 95% implies a probability of 95% that demand will

not exceed supply during lead time.

The risk of stockout is the complement of service level

The amount of safety stock depends on:

The average demand rate and average lead time

Demand and lead time variability

The desired service level

There are many models that can be used in cases when variability

is present. These models are:

1.

The expected demand during lead time and its standard

deviation are available. In this case the formula is:

ROP = expected demand during lead time + ZdLT

Where:

Z = number of standard deviations

dLT = the standard deviation of lead time demand = safety stock

This model assume that any variability in demand rate or lead time

can be adequately described by a normal distribution, this is not a

strict requirements; the model provide approximate reorder points

even where actual distributions depart from a normal distribution.

Reorder Point

Figure 11.13

The ROP based on a normal

Distribution of lead time demand

Service level

Risk of

a stockout

Probability of

no stockout

Expected

demand

0

ROP

Quantity

Safety

stock

z

z-scale

Example

a.

b.

c.

determined from historical records that demand for sand

during lead time averages 50 tones. In addition, suppose

the manager determined that demand during lead time

could be described by a normal distribution that has a

mean of 50 tons and standard deviation of 5 tons.

Answer the questions, assuming that the manager is

willing to accept a stock out risk of no more than 3

percent.

What value of Z is appropriate?

How much safety stock should be held?

What reorder point should be used?

solution

The expected lead time demand = 50 tons

dLT= 5 tons

Risk = 3 percent

Service level = 1- risk = 0.97

a.

From Appendix B, table B, using a service level 0.97,

you obtain a value of Z = + 1.88

b.

Safety stock = Z dLT= 1.88(5) = 9.4 tons

c.

ROP = expected demand during lead time + safety

stock

= 50 + 9.4 = 59.4 tons

ROP Models

2. If only demand is variable, then dLT=

and the reorder point is:

ROP =

LT d

d LT z LT d

Where:

d =average daily or weekly demand

d = standard deviation of demand per day or week

LT = lead time in days or weeks

3. If only lead time is variable, then dLT =dLT, and then the reorder point is:

ROP =

d LT zd LT

Where:

d = daily or weekly demand

LT = average lead time in days or weeks

LT = standard deviation of lead time in days or weeks

ROP models

4. If both demand and lead time are variable, then

2

2

dLT LT d LT

2

d

2

2

ROP d LT z LT d2 d LT

time are independent

Example

a.

b.

c.

sauce each week. Weekly usage of sauce has a standard

deviation of 3 jars. The manager is willing to accept no

more than a 10 percent risk of stockout during lead

time, which is two weeks. Assume the distribution of

usage is normal.

Which of the above formulas is appropriate for this

situation? Why?

Determine the value of z?

Determine the ROP?

Solution

d = 50 jars/week, LT = 2 weeks, d = 3 jars/week

Acceptable risk = 10 percent, so service level is 0.90

a.

Because only demand is variable ( i.e., has a standard

deviation) the second model is appropriate.

b.

From appendix B, table B, using a service level of 0.90, you

obtain z = 1.28.

c.

ROP = d LT z LT d

= 50(2) + 1.28 2 (3) = 100 + 5.43 = 105.43

Because the inventory is discrete units (jars) we round this amount

to 106 (generally, round up.)

Note that a 2-bin ordering system involves ROP re-ordering: the

quantity in the second bin is equal to ROP

Comment

The logic of the last three formulas for the reorder

point is as follows:

1. The first part of each formula is the expected

demand, which is the product of daily (or weekly)

demand and the number of days (or weeks) of lead

time.

2. The second part of the formula is z times the

standard deviation of lead time demand, i.e., the

safety stock.

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