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PHY101

Chapter 2:

Equations of Kinematics for Constant

Acceleration in 1 Dim. (2.4, 2.5, 2.7)

Free Fall (2.6)

Chapter 3:

Equations of Kinematics for Constant

Acceleration in 2 Dim. (3.1, 3.2)

displacement: x = change of position

velocity: rate of change of position

average : x/t

instantaneous: slope of x vs. t : lim t->0 x/t

acceleration: rate of change of velocity

average: v/t

instantaneous: slope of v vs. t : lim t->0 v/t

Concept Question

A car is moving along the negative x direction. During part of the trip,

the speed increases from 16 to 28 m/s in 1.5 s. Which of the

following is correct?

v

1) v>0, a>0

+x

a

2) v>0, a<0

3) v<0, a>0

4) v<0, a<0 correct

During another part of the trip, the speed decreases from 48

to 26 m/s in 11 s. Which of the following is correct?

1) v>0, a>0

2) v>0, a<0

v

3) v<0, a>0 correct

+x

a

4) v<0, a<0

If speed is decreasing, v and a are in opposite direction.

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 3

Concept Question

Which of the following statements is most nearly correct?

1 - A car travels around a circular track with constant velocity.

2 - A car travels around a circular track with constant speed.

3- Both statements are equally correct.

correct

is traveling in is always changing, and since velocity

takes into account the direction of travel, the

velocity is always changing. Speed, however,

is independent of direction and so the speed

can stay constant.

Constant Acceleration

Consider an object which moves from the initial position x 0, at time t0

with velocity v0, with constant acceleration along a straight line.

How does displacement and velocity of this object change with time ?

aav=a = (v-v0) / (t-t0) =>

v(t) = v0 + a (t-t0)

(1)

Use Eq. (1) to replace v in Eq.(2):

x(t) = x0 + (t-t0) v0 + a/2 (t-t0) 2

(3)

v2 = v02 + 2 a (x-x0 )

(4)

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 5

in 3.00 s. His average velocity is 0.640 m/s2 due west.

What was his velocity when he began accelerating ?

[Chapter 2, problem #15]

t0= 0 s, v= -5.36 m/s, t=3.00 s, aav=-0.640 m/s2

v0 = ? m/s

aav = (v-v0)/(t-t0) => v0= v- aav (t-t0) = -3.44 m/s

v0 = 3.44 m/s due west

A drag racer starting from rest, speeds up for 402 m

with a=+17 m/s2. A parachute then opens, slowing the

car down with a=-6.10 m/s2. How fast is the racer after

moving 3.50 x 102 m after the parachute opens ? [2-28]

1. Before the parachute opens (car moves +x direction):

t0= 0 s, v01 = 0 m/s, x1=+402 m, a1=+17 m/s2

t0= 0 s, x2=+3.50 x 102 m, a2=-6.10 m/s2, v=? m/s

v2=v022+2 a2 x2 Get v022 from 1.: v02=(2 a1 x1 )1/2=+117 m/s

=> v2=(v02+2 a 2 x2)1/2=+96.9 m/s

Free Fall

downward falling body due to gravity:

constant

downward with magnitude g=9.80 m/s2.

Concept Question

An object is dropped from rest. If it falls a distance D in time t then how far will it fall in a time 2t ?

1. D/4

2. D/2

3. D

4. 2D

5. 4D

Correct x = 1/2at2

Followup question: If the object has speed v at time t then what is the speed at time 2t ?

1. v/4

2. v/2

3. v

4. 2v

5. 4v

Correct v=at

Concept Question

A ball is thrown vertically upward. At the very top of its trajectory, which of the following statements is true:

1. velocity is zero and acceleration is zero

3. velocity is zero and acceleration is not zero

4. velocity is not zero and acceleration is not zero

correct

The velocity vector changes from moment to moment,

buts its acceleration vector does not change. Though

the velocity at the top is zero, the acceleration is still

constant because the velocity is changing.

Free Fall

A wrecking ball is hanging from rest from a crane when

suddenly the cable breaks. The time it takes the ball to

fly half way to the ground is 1.2 s. Find the time for the

ball to fall from rest all the way to the ground.

[2-45]

1. Half way to the ground (-y direction)

t0= 0 s, v0 = 0 m/s, t=1.2 s, a=-9.80 m/s2

Y1/2=v0 t + a t2 = -7.1 m

2. From rest all the way to the ground, y=2 Y 1/2

t0= 0 s, v0 = 0 m/s, a=-9.80 m/s2, t= ? s

Y=v0 t + a t2 = a t2 => t= (2 y/a)1/2=1.7 s

Concept Question

Dennis and Carmen are standing on the edge of a cliff. Dennis throws a basketball vertically upward, and at the same time Carmen throws a basketball vertically

downward with the same initial speed. You are standing below the cliff observing this strange behavior. Whose ball is moving fastest when it hits the ground?

1. Dennis' ball

2. Carmen's ball

3. Same

Carmen v0

v0

Dennis

H

vA

vB

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 12

Constant Acceleration

Consider an object which moves in the (x,y) plane from the initial

position r0, at time t0 with velocity v0, with constant acceleration.

displacement: r = r-r0 change of position

velocity: rate of change of position

average : r/t

instantaneous: lim t->0 r/t

acceleration: rate of change of velocity

average: v/t

instantaneous: lim t->0 v/t

Same concepts as in one dimension !

separately. Same equations as in one dimension !

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 13

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