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Lecture 5: Introduction to Physics

PHY101

Chapter 2:
Equations of Kinematics for Constant
Acceleration in 1 Dim. (2.4, 2.5, 2.7)
Free Fall (2.6)
Chapter 3:
Equations of Kinematics for Constant
Acceleration in 2 Dim. (3.1, 3.2)

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 1

Summary of concepts from last lecture

position: your coordinates (just x in 1-D)


displacement: x = change of position
velocity: rate of change of position
average : x/t
instantaneous: slope of x vs. t : lim t->0 x/t
acceleration: rate of change of velocity
average: v/t
instantaneous: slope of v vs. t : lim t->0 v/t

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 2

Concept Question

A car is moving along the negative x direction. During part of the trip,
the speed increases from 16 to 28 m/s in 1.5 s. Which of the
following is correct?
v
1) v>0, a>0
+x
a
2) v>0, a<0
3) v<0, a>0
4) v<0, a<0 correct
During another part of the trip, the speed decreases from 48
to 26 m/s in 11 s. Which of the following is correct?
1) v>0, a>0
2) v>0, a<0
v
3) v<0, a>0 correct
+x
a
4) v<0, a<0

If speed is increasing, v and a are in same direction.


If speed is decreasing, v and a are in opposite direction.
Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 3

Concept Question
Which of the following statements is most nearly correct?
1 - A car travels around a circular track with constant velocity.
2 - A car travels around a circular track with constant speed.
3- Both statements are equally correct.

correct

On a circular track, the direction that the car


is traveling in is always changing, and since velocity
takes into account the direction of travel, the
velocity is always changing. Speed, however,
is independent of direction and so the speed
can stay constant.

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 4

Kinematics in One Dimension


Constant Acceleration
Consider an object which moves from the initial position x 0, at time t0
with velocity v0, with constant acceleration along a straight line.
How does displacement and velocity of this object change with time ?
aav=a = (v-v0) / (t-t0) =>

v(t) = v0 + a (t-t0)

(1)

vav = (x-x0) / (t-t0) = (v+v0)/2 => x = x0 + (t-t0) (v+v0)/2 (2)


Use Eq. (1) to replace v in Eq.(2):
x(t) = x0 + (t-t0) v0 + a/2 (t-t0) 2

(3)

Use Eq. (1) to replace (t-t0) in Eq.(2):


v2 = v02 + 2 a (x-x0 )

(4)
Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 5

Application of Eqs. of Kinematics

A runner accelerates to a velocity of 5.36 m/s due west


in 3.00 s. His average velocity is 0.640 m/s2 due west.
What was his velocity when he began accelerating ?
[Chapter 2, problem #15]
t0= 0 s, v= -5.36 m/s, t=3.00 s, aav=-0.640 m/s2
v0 = ? m/s
aav = (v-v0)/(t-t0) => v0= v- aav (t-t0) = -3.44 m/s
v0 = 3.44 m/s due west

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 6

Application of Eqs. of Kinematics


A drag racer starting from rest, speeds up for 402 m
with a=+17 m/s2. A parachute then opens, slowing the
car down with a=-6.10 m/s2. How fast is the racer after
moving 3.50 x 102 m after the parachute opens ? [2-28]
1. Before the parachute opens (car moves +x direction):
t0= 0 s, v01 = 0 m/s, x1=+402 m, a1=+17 m/s2

2. After the parachute opens:


t0= 0 s, x2=+3.50 x 102 m, a2=-6.10 m/s2, v=? m/s
v2=v022+2 a2 x2 Get v022 from 1.: v02=(2 a1 x1 )1/2=+117 m/s
=> v2=(v02+2 a 2 x2)1/2=+96.9 m/s

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 7

Free Fall

Free fall is the idealized description of the motion of a


downward falling body due to gravity:

Air resistance is neglected

Acceleration due to gravity is considered to be


constant

The acceleration due to gravity is always pointing


downward with magnitude g=9.80 m/s2.

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 8

Concept Question
An object is dropped from rest. If it falls a distance D in time t then how far will it fall in a time 2t ?
1. D/4
2. D/2
3. D
4. 2D
5. 4D

Correct x = 1/2at2

Followup question: If the object has speed v at time t then what is the speed at time 2t ?
1. v/4
2. v/2
3. v
4. 2v
5. 4v

Correct v=at

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 9

Concept Question
A ball is thrown vertically upward. At the very top of its trajectory, which of the following statements is true:
1. velocity is zero and acceleration is zero

2. velocity is not zero and acceleration is zero


3. velocity is zero and acceleration is not zero
4. velocity is not zero and acceleration is not zero

correct
The velocity vector changes from moment to moment,
buts its acceleration vector does not change. Though
the velocity at the top is zero, the acceleration is still
constant because the velocity is changing.

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 10

Free Fall
A wrecking ball is hanging from rest from a crane when
suddenly the cable breaks. The time it takes the ball to
fly half way to the ground is 1.2 s. Find the time for the
ball to fall from rest all the way to the ground.
[2-45]
1. Half way to the ground (-y direction)
t0= 0 s, v0 = 0 m/s, t=1.2 s, a=-9.80 m/s2

Y1/2=v0 t + a t2 = -7.1 m
2. From rest all the way to the ground, y=2 Y 1/2
t0= 0 s, v0 = 0 m/s, a=-9.80 m/s2, t= ? s
Y=v0 t + a t2 = a t2 => t= (2 y/a)1/2=1.7 s

Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 11

Concept Question
Dennis and Carmen are standing on the edge of a cliff. Dennis throws a basketball vertically upward, and at the same time Carmen throws a basketball vertically
downward with the same initial speed. You are standing below the cliff observing this strange behavior. Whose ball is moving fastest when it hits the ground?
1. Dennis' ball
2. Carmen's ball
3. Same

Correct: v2 = v02 -2gy

Carmen v0
v0

Dennis
H

vA

vB
Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 12

Kinematics in Two Dimensions


Constant Acceleration
Consider an object which moves in the (x,y) plane from the initial
position r0, at time t0 with velocity v0, with constant acceleration.

position: your coordinates (just r=(x,y) in 2-D)


displacement: r = r-r0 change of position
velocity: rate of change of position
average : r/t
instantaneous: lim t->0 r/t
acceleration: rate of change of velocity
average: v/t
instantaneous: lim t->0 v/t
Same concepts as in one dimension !

Equations of kinematics are derived for the x and y components


separately. Same equations as in one dimension !
Physics 101: Lecture 6, Pg 13