The Political System of UK»

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The Political System of UK

The British Monarchy Today
‡ The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. This means that it has a monarch (a king or a queen) as its Head of State. The monarch reigns with the support of Parliament. The powers of the monarch are not defined precisely. Everything today is done in the Queen`s name. It is her government , her armed forces , her law courts and so on. She appoints all the Ministers , including the Prime Minister . Everything is done however on the advice of the of the elected Government , and the monarch takes no part in the decisionmaking process.

The Government of the UK
The Government of the UK

The monarch (The Queen Elizabeth 2)

The Parliament: the House of Lords

The Parliament: The House of Commons

The Parliament
The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The legislative power in the country is exercised by the Houses of Parliament. The House of Lords is composed of hereditary and life peers and peeresses. The members of the House of Commons are elected by the people. They are elected from the constituencies in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The House of Commons is the real governing body of the United Kingdom.

The British Parliament
‡ The House of Lords: the chairman is the Lord Chancellor who sits on a special seat called the Woolsack. The members debate a bill after it has been passed by the House of Commons and when the Lords agree, the bill is taken to the Queen for Royal assent. ‡ The House Of Commons:is presided over by the Speaker. If the majority of the members vote the bill, it is sent to the House of Lords for discussion.

The Main Political Parties
The House of Commons (the oldest parties)

The Tories (the Conservative Party)

The Liberal Democrats (the Liberal Party)

The Labour Party

The Conservative Party
‡ The Conservative Party , often called the Tory Party, is one of those which can trace its roots back to the early period. Today the Tory Party is that of big business, industry, commerce and landowners. Most of the money needed to run the party comes from large firms and companies. The party represents those who believe in private enterprise as opposed to state-owned undertakings. There is some division within the party itself: the more aristocratic wing and the low-middleclass group. The Tories are a mixture of the rich and privileged± the monopolists and landowners. The Conservative Party is the most powerful and it is often called a party of business directors.

The Conservative Party
The word «tory» means an Irish high-way-man and was applied to the conservatives by their opponents but later they adopted the name to describe themselves. The Tories opposed the ideas of the French Revolution, Parliamentary Reform and the development of the Trade Unionism. They represent colonial policy. In home policy they opposed the tendencies of the Labour Party to nationalize gas, electricity, coal and the railways. Today the Conservative Party can broadly be described as the party of the middle and upper classes.

The Liberal Party
‡ The Conservative Party and the Liberal Party are more than three hundred years old. The Tories called the Liberals «Whigs». A «whig» was a Scottish preached who could go on for 4 or 5 hours at a time preaching moralising sermons.

1. : . . Britain in Brief.- .:

,1999. 2. Golitsinski Yu. Great Britain.-S.Peterburg.: « « »,1999. 3. . . 95 . - .: ,1997.

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