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Chapter

TWO

Foundations of
Individual Behavior

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Ability,
Ability,Intellect,
Intellect, and
and Intelligence
Intelligence
Ability
An individuals capacity to
perform the various tasks in a
job.
Intellectual Ability
The capacity to do mental
activities.
Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence contains four subparts:
cognitive, social, emotional, and
cultural.
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Dimensions
Dimensions of
of
Intellectual
Intellectual Ability
Ability
Number
Numberaptitude
aptitude
Verbal
Verbalcomprehension
comprehension
Perceptual
Perceptualspeed
speed
Inductive
Inductivereasoning
reasoning
Deductive
Deductivereasoning
reasoning
Memory
Memory
Etc
Etc
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E X H I B I T 21
E X H I B I T 21

Physical
Physical Abilities
Abilities
Physical Abilities
The capacity to do tasks
demanding stamina,
dexterity, strength, and
similar characteristics.

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The
The Ability-Job
Ability-Job Fit
Fit

Employees
Abilities

Ability-Job
Fit

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Jobs Ability
Requirements

Biographical
Biographical Characteristics
Characteristics (consideration)
(consideration)
Biographical Characteristics
Personal characteristicssuch as age,
gender, race, domestic environment and
dynamics etcthat are objective and
easily obtained from personnel records.

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Learning
Learning
Learning
Any relatively permanent change in
behavior that occurs as a result of
experience.
Learning
Learning
Involves
Involveschange
change
Is
Isrelatively
relativelypermanent
permanent
Is
Isacquired
acquiredthrough
throughexperience
experience
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Theories
Theories of
of Learning
Learning
Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual
responds to some stimulus that would not
ordinarily produce such a response.

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Theories
Theories of
of Learning
Learning (contd)
(contd)
Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary
behavior leads to a reward or prevents a
punishment.

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Theories
Theories of
of Learning
Learning (contd)
(contd)
Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through
observation and direct experience.

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Theories
Theories of
of Learning
Learning (contd)
(contd)
Shaping Behavior
Systematically reinforcing each successive step
that moves an individual closer to the desired
response.
Key
KeyConcepts
Conceptsin
inshaping
shapingaabehavior
behavior
Reinforcement
Reinforcementis
isrequired
requiredto
tochange
changebehavior.
behavior.
Some
Somerewards
rewardsare
aremore
moreeffective
effectivethan
thanothers.
others.
The
Thetiming
timingof
ofreinforcement
reinforcementaffects
affectslearning
learning
speed
speedand
andpermanence.
permanence.
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Types
Types of
of Reinforcement
Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Providing a reward for a desired behavior.

Negative reinforcement
Removing an unpleasant consequence when the
desired behavior occurs.to retain desired
behavior

Punishment
Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate
an undesirable behavior.

Etc.

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Schedules
Schedules of
of Reinforcement
Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement
A desired behavior is
reinforced each time it is
demonstrated.
Intermittent Reinforcement
A desired behavior is
reinforced often enough to
make the behavior worth
repeating but not every time
it is demonstrated.
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Schedules
Schedules of
of Reinforcement
Reinforcement (contd)
(contd)
Fixed-Interval Schedule
Rewards are spaced at
uniform time intervals.

Variable-Interval Schedule
Rewards are initiated
after a fixed or constant
number of responses.

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Behavior
Behavior Modification
Modification
OB Model
The application of reinforcement
concepts to individuals in the work
setting.
Five
FiveStep
StepProblem-Solving
Problem-SolvingModel
Model
1.1. Identify
Identifycritical
criticalbehaviors
behaviors
2.2. Develop
Developbaseline
baselinedata
data
3.3. Identify
Identifybehavioral
behavioralconsequences
consequences
4.4. Develop
Developand
andapply
applyintervention
intervention
5. Evaluate
performance improvement
Evaluate
improvement
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