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Humidification:

Humidification operation is a example for an inter


phase transfer of mass and energy, when a gas and
a pure liquid are brought into contact.
In humidification process - liquid is transfer to gas
phase - it is vaporizes
In dehumidification process - liquid is transfer from
gas phase to liquid phase - It is condenses

Basic Terms in
Humidification
Moles of water
Moles of air
p A Partial pressure of water
pt Total pressure
M A Molecular weight of water
M B Molecular weight of air

Ys Absolute Humidity at saturation condition


p A Equillibrium vapour pressure

Basic Terms in
Humidification
Unsaturated
vapor-gas mixture
Dry Bulb Temperature - Temperature of air at unsaturated
condition
Wet bulb Temperature - Temperature of air at saturated
condition
Re lative saturation or relative humidity
p
RH A
pA
p A partial pressure of A
p A partial pressure of A at saturation condition

Percentage of saturation or Percentage absolute humidity


Y
Y
100
or
100
Ys
Ys

Basic Terms in
Volume
Humidification

of unit mass of dry gas and its


accompanying
vapor
at
the
prevailing
temperature and pressure

Heat required to raise the temperature of unit


mass of gas and its accompanying vapor by one
degree at constant pressure

Adiabatic saturation
process

Air

Air
Water

Psychrometric chart

TDP

Tad

or

T2

Applications of Humidification

Cooling of liquid (Cooling Towers)

Cooling of gases

Recovery of vapors from gas mixtures

Dehumidification in pharmaceutical industries

Application in drying technology

Drying
The separation operation of drying converts a solid, semi-solid or liquid
feedstock
into a solid product by evaporation of the liquid into a vapor phase via
application
of
heat is applied
Drying
Chemical Industries,
Agricultural,
Biotechnology,
Food,
Ceramics,
Pharmaceutical,
Pulp and paper,
Mineral processing, and
Wood processing industries.
Drying is more energy-intensive unit operations
due to the high latent heat of vaporization and
the inherent inefficiency of using hot air as the (most common)
drying medium.

Basic Terms in Drying


Moisture Content: (Wet basis)
Weight of moisture per unit weight
of wet substance
Moisture Content: (dry basis)
Weight of moisture per unit weight
of bone dry substance
Constant rate drying period:
Rate of drying per unit dry area is
constant.
It occurs during surface water
evaporation
Falling rate drying period:
Rate of drying per unit dry area is varies with respect to time.
It occurs when evaporation of water present in the pores starts
Critical moisture content
It is the moisture content when the constant rate drying period ends and
falling rate drying period starts.

Equilibrium moisture
At a given temperature and pressure, the moisture content of the solid is
equilibrium with the gas-vapor mixture. It is the limiting moisture content to
which a given material can be dried under specific temperature of air and
humidity.
Bound moisture:
Liquid is physically or chemically bounded in the solid pores and hence it exert a
vapor pressure lower than that of pure liquid at the same temperature.
Unbound moisture:
Moisture in solid which exerts vapor pressure equal to that of pure liquid at the
same temperature.
Free moisture content:
Moisture content in excess of the equilibrium moisture content at given air
humidity and temperature

Determination of drying
time
Drying time

Ms

Ms
(Xi XC )
A NC

cons tan t rate period


Mass of solids

Xc Xe
Ms
( X c X e ) ln
X X
A NC
f
e

falling rate period

A Drying surface
X i Intial moisture content
XC

Critical moisture content

Xe

Equilibrium moisture content

Xf

Final moisture content

NC

Drying rate

NC

k y Ys Y

k y is mass transfer coefficient

Ys is Absolute Humidity at saturation condition

Y is Absolute Humidity

Crystallization

Crystallization is the process of formation of


solid
crystals
precipitatingfrom
a
solution. Crystallization is also a chemical
solidliquid separation technique, in
which mass transfer of a solute from the
liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline
phase
occurs.mechanical and rheological
Many physical,
chemical,
properties of solid materials depend on the size and
shape of the particle.
examples :
pigments for paintings (TiO2),
catalysts,
pharmaceuticals,
food products,

Solubility (kg of solute/kg of


solvant)

Cs(T) generally increases


with temperature

Temperature

(C)

C
Principle of cooling crystallization is
purely thermal transition from an
undersaturation state (T1) to a
supersaturation state (T2)

T
T