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CHAPTER 2

SOLID LIQUID SEPARATION


(Drying and Filtration)

Introduction
Drying

Filtration

Desired &
Undesired
Component

Desired &
Undesired
Component

Principles of
Drying :
Adiabatic Dryer

Principles of
Filtration

Application:
Tray and Spray
Dryer

Application:
Plate and
Frame Filter

Definition:
Method of removing water or
organic solvents from wet
solids at a specified moisture
content
Desired & Undesired Phase
Desired : Solid
Undesired : Liquid

Purpose of Drying
To reduce the cost of
transportation
To make product suitable
for handling
To avoid the presence of
moisture-deteriorate
product; corrosion

Method 1: DRYING

DRYING: Principles of Drying


NonAdiabatic/
adiabatic/In
Direct
direct
Drying
Drying

Expose the solids to a hot gas.

1. Heat is transferred from an external


medium (indirect heating by contact
with a metal wall).
2. Dryers heated by dielectric, radiant, or
microwave energy.

DRYING: Adiabatic Drying


1. CrossCirculation

5. Co
current
Flash Dryer

Method/
Mechanism
of Drying

4. Fluidized
Bed

2.
ThroughCirculation

3.
Showering
Action

Adiabatic: Method/ Mechanism of Drying


Through-circulation

Cross-circulation

Showering action

Fluidized bed

Co-current flash dryer

Adiabatic: Method/ Mechanism of Drying


Cross-circulation

Gas is blown across the surface of a bed or slab of solids or


across one or both faces of a continuous sheet or film.

Through-circulation

Gas is blown through a bed of coarse granular solids


that are supported on a screen.
The gas velocity is kept low to avoid any entrainment
of solid particles.
Showering action

Fluidized bed

Co-current flash dryer

Adiabatic: Method/ Mechanism of Drying


Showering action

Solids are showered downward through a slowly moving gas


stream, often with some undesired entrainment of fine particles
in the gas.

Fluidized bed

Gas passes through the solids at a velocity sufficient to fluidize


the bed.

Adiabatic: Method/ Mechanism of Drying


Co-current flash dryer

The solids are all entrained in a high-velocity gas stream and


are pneumatically conveyed from a mixing device to a
mechanical separator .

Cabinet Dryer

Application: Tray Dryer

Cabinet Dryer

Application: Tray Dryer

Application: Tray Dryer


A: Fresh air inlet
B: Exhaust duct
C: Fan
D: Motor of fan
E: Heaters
F: Circulated baffle
G: Baffles

Application: Tray Dryer


1. Heated air is circulated at
between the trays by fan C
and motor D and passes
over heaters E

2. distribute the
air uniformly
over the stack of
trays.

3. Some moist air is


continuously vented through
exhaust duct B

A: Fresh air inlet


B: Exhaust duct
C: Fan
D: Motor of fan
E: Heaters
F: Circulated baffle
G: Baffles
H: Rack Supports

4. fresh air enters through inlet A

Application: Spray Dryer

Application: Spray Dryer

Application: Spray Dryer


1. From feed inlet, slurry
dispersed into small,
fine droplets of liquid
via nozzle/atomiser

2. The liquid droplets will


contact with hot gas.
3. The moisture from
liquid droplets will
rapidly vapourized,
leaving residual particles
of dry solid, which are
then separated from the
gas stream.

4. All dry solid will be


collected at the bottom of
chamber/silo/cone

Desired & Undesired


Phase
In filtration process, the
desired and undesired can be
both phases (liquid or solid)

Definition:
The separation of solid from
liquid by using porous
medium, which retains the
solid and allows liquid to
pass through.

Desired : Solid/Liquid

Undesired : Liquid/Solid
Method
2:
FILTRATION

FILTRATION: Rate of Filtration


Area of filtering
surface

Drop of Pressure
from feed to filter
medium

Viscosity of the
filtrate

Resistant of the
filter medium and
initial layer of the
cake

FILTRATION: Method/Mechanism
Cake filter

Clarifying filter

Cross flow filter

Application: Plate and Frame Filter

Learning Outcome

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