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EE201

Lecture 26

P. 1

Op Amp Basics
The operation amplifier is a high gain amplifier.
Traditionally used to perform math operations, the
op amp has many uses (e.g feedback). Below is a
typical package for an op amp.

A Signetics a741
operational amplifier
(courtesy Wikipedia)

pinout designations
1. Offset null
3. Noninverting input
5. Offset null
7. pos. power supply

2. Inverting input
4. neg. power supply
6. Output
8. no connection

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 2

Device-level diagram of operational amplifier

Our interests:
1. Introduce basics of operational amplifiers
2. Use circuit elements developed in ECE 201 to
model characteristics of op amp.

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 3

Op Amp Symbol and Notation


Noninverting
v+
Inverting
v-

Positive power
supply
vout
+
_
Output
Negative power
supply

Note: only 5 terminal leads are important


and of those, we will primarily use 3
(inverting, noninverting, and output)

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 4

Op Amp Voltage Variables

v+ (vp)
_

+
_

+
+
v- (vn)
_

_
vS+

vo

vS+

Note: Negative and positive power supplies do not have to be equal

Op Amp Current Variables


i+ (ip)
i- (in)

iS+

+
_
_
vS+

io
iS-

+
vS+
_

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 5

Because the op amp is a high gain voltage


amplifier, we are interested in the voltage transfer
characteristics of the device, as shown below.
The output voltage is plotted as a function of the
difference in input potential.
vsat

vout

Large gain device


A = 104 - 107
(v+ - v-)

slope=
-vsat
III
Negative
Saturation
region

I
II
Linear
Positive
region Saturation
region

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 6

Output voltage for regimes of operation


-vsat = -vS-

vo =

A(v+ - v-)

(v+ - v-) < -vS-/A


-vS-/A (v+ - v-) vS+/A

vsat = vS+
Typical op amp parameters:
A = 104 ;

vS+/- = 10 V

(v+ - v-) > vS+/A


(v+ - v-) = 1 mV

Op Amp Model (two resistors, one VCVS)


i-

Ro

v+
_

Ri
i+

+
vo
v+ - v-) _

v+
All attributes of vo are
satisfied by dependent source model

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 7

Redrawing figure on p. 5
i-

Rout

vRin

+
_

i+
v+

+
v+ - v-)

vo
_

Question: how does the op amp know it is


operating in its linear regime?
Negative feedback! Connect the output
voltage to the inverting input terminal. This
causes input potential difference to decrease.

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 8

Op Amp with negative feedback


Rf
Rout
vRin

v+

+
_

+
v+ - v-)

vo
_

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 9

Analysis of Inverting Op Amp


Rf

a
Rs

+
_
vs

Ro

vRi

v+

+
_

+
v+ - v-)

Strategy: perform KCL analysis at nodes a


and b, then solve for vo as a function of vs.

vo
_

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Lecture 26

P. 10

v vs v v vo
KCL @ a:

0
Rs
Ri
Rf
vo v vo A(v )
KCL @ b:

0
Rf
Ro
(

1
1
1
1
1
) v
vo vs
Rs Ri R f
Rf
Rs
(

vo

A
1
1
1
)v ( )vo 0
Ro R f
R f Ro
A ( Ro / R f )

( Rs / R f )(1 A Ro / Ri ) ( Rs / Ri 1) ( Ro / R f )

vs

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 11

Analysis of noninverting Op Amp


Rf
Rg

Ri
Rs
v+
+
_

vs

Ro

v-

+
_

+
v+ - v-)

vo
_

Strategy: perform KCL analysis at nodes a


and b, then solve for vo as a function of vs.

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Lecture 26

P. 12

v v vs v vo
KCL @ a:

0
Rg Rs Ri
Rf

vo v vo A(v v )
KCL @ b:

0
Rf
Ro
Note that,
v vs v vs

Rs Ri
Rs
Rearranging and solving for vo = f(vg),
vo

[( R f Rs ) Rs Ro / ARi ]vg
Rs ( Ro / A)[1 ( Rs Rg ) / Ri ] (1 / ARi )[ R f Rs ( R f Rs )( Ri Rg )]

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 13

Buffer Amplifier/Voltage Follower


if
i_ +

i+

_
Vd
+

+
vo _

vi
Equivalent circuit

v_ +
vi

v+

+
_

v+ - v-)

EE201

Lecture 26

P. 14

Analyze equivalent circuit


vo = A v+ - v-)
vi = v+
vo = vRelating vo to vi,
vo = A vi - vo)
vo = [A / (A + 1)] vi vi
vo is said to follow vi. This is called a
voltage follower. This circuit buffers or
isolates vo from vi, so that circuits connected
to the output are not adversely affected by
input circuitry. A wire directly connecting
outputs and inputs would not serve this
function.