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Introduction

Project
A project is a specific task that has a beginning

and an end.
According to ISO 8402, a project is defined as a

unique process, consisting of a set of coordinated


and controlled activities with start and finish dates,
undertaken to achieve an objective conforming to
specific requirements including constrains of time,
cost and resources.
Hence, it is seen as a complex, non-routine, one

time effort to complete a particular task.

Project Management
The term project management is used for

defining the process of executing a project in


a systematic & scientific manner.
Examples:
Taj Mahal
The Great wall of China
Pyramids
Etc.

Project Attributes
Most of the modern successful projects, such

as tata nano project have all been made


possible by the careful implementation of
project management techniques.
Target
Unique
A Start And An End
Complicated
Time, Cost & Resource Requirements

Target
A project works towards specific goal or

target. Time or cost can be one of the


important targets.
In case of Singur Tata Nano car project,

the objective was to establish an


automobile plant to produce a small and
inexpensive
car,
targeting
potential
consumers both in domestic and foreign
markets.

Unique
Every project has unique attributes that set it

apart from similar initiatives.


This unique nature, most of the times, is the

driving force behind the conception and


completion of a project.
In case of Singur Plant, it was unique by

the price by which it offered a car to its


consumers, Rs. 1 lack.

A start and an end


As project means accomplishing of a certain

task, it has to have a beginning and an end.


Nano

promised
to
deliver
car
on
deadlines, though they have to face a
shifting of a plant, as publicity was carried
out much before its manufacturing has
begun.

Complicated
A project involves coordination, integration

and
management
of
several
complex
processes. These processes may have various
technical, legal, or social issues.
Nano Plant has to be shifted because of

some serious political protests due to


certain land acquisition issues. Eventually
the project was shifted to Gujarat.

Time, Cost & Resource


Requirements
Time cost and resource are the three core

factors that define a project.


Proper

utilization
of
these
three
interdependent components determines the
value of the final project i.e. the success of
the project.
Tata Motors promised in March 2006 that

it would roll out the car by 2008 and it


would be priced at $2000 (Rs. 1,00,000)

Uncertainty and Risks


In the planning stage time schedule for completion,

cost and resource requirements are planned based on


prediction, anticipation and earlier experience.
However, actual conditions are likely to be different.

Hence, uncertainty and risk are the integral part of


the project management.
In case of Nano,

critics were skeptical about


safety of the vehicle. The low-cost car will
compromise on safety & quality. But inclusion of
safety and quality features helped in minimizing
the uncertainty and thus ensured better
acceptance of the car.

Project Life Cycle


Although, every project is unique in its own

way, the following stages are common to most


of them.
The

defining
stage
(team,
task,
responsibilities, levels)
The planning stage ( 5W, what, when, why,
who, whom)
The executing stage (monitoring)
The delivering stage (final stage)

Project Life Cycle


(Cont.)

Role of Project Manager


Coordinate among various functional areas
Communication & interpersonal skills
Familiarly with the tasks, teams & technology
Limited authority & high responsibility

Project Integration
Top management
Subcontractors
Customer or client
Financial system
Line personal
Technical support
Computer programmers
Social contacts
Line management
Suppliers
Other projects

Project Interfaces
Project

interface refers to the links or


relationships among the various organizations,
units, groups, and individuals associated with
the project.
1. Personal

interface

(among

members

of

project)
2. Organizational interface (between network/team of
individuals)

3. System interface (systems working for project

i.e. construction, transport, storage, etc.)

Management interface

Phases of Project
Management
Concept phase
Definition phase
Planning phase
Scheduling phase
Control phase
Termination phase

Example

Kolkata Metro Rail


The idea of a tube rail was conceptualized.
The definition phase, three things were to be
defined goal, scope & strategy
Planning phase, a feasibility study for the
preparation of the entire road map & estimation of
time & resources for metro rail project was
completed.
Scheduling phase started with the sequencing of
various activities for the completion of the metro
rail.
the monitoring of all the activities (control
phase)
Termination phase