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You are on page 1of 14

ON

PROBABILITY

Presented by Name : Bhawesh Tiwari

Class X B

Roll No. 35

Subject - Mathematics

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I,Bhawesh Tiwari of Std. X B of St. Marys English

High School is submitting my Maths Project; as per

CBSE syllabus for Class X A. I am grateful to my

teachers, friends and parents for helping and

guiding and co-operating me in completing my

Maths Project.

Once again I sincerely thank my Maths teacher,

Mrs. Banani Das for guiding me to complete my

Maths Project.

INDEX

Probability

Experiment

Random Exp.

Looking at all possible outcomes in various exp.

Probability of

Occurrence of event

Examples Ex. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Conclusion

Bibliography

End

INTRODUCTION

We have

studied the

concept of

empirical

probability.

Since empirical

probability is

based on

experiments,

we also call it

experimental

probability.

Suppose we

toss a con 500

times and get

a head, say,

240 times and

tail 260 times.

Then we would

say that in a

single throw of

a con, the

probability of

getting a head

as 240/500 i.e.

12/25

Again, suppose

we toss a con

1000 times

and get a

head, say, 530

times and tail

470 times.

Then, we

would say that

in a single

throw of a

coin, the

probability of

getting a head

is 530/1000,

i.e. 53/1000

probabilities for the same event

However, theoretical probability overcomes the above

problem. In this project by probability, we shall mean

theoretical probability.

PROBABILITY

Probability is a concept which numerically measures the

degree of certainty of the occurrence of events.

Before defining probability, we shall define certain

concepts used there.

Experiment : An operation which can produce more welldefined outcomes is called an experiment.

Random Experiment : An experiment in which all possible

outcomes are known, and the exact outcome cannot be

predicted in advance, is called a random experiment.

By a trial, we mean performing a random experiment.

Examples (i) Tossing a fair coin

(ii) Drawing a card from a pack of well-shuffled

cards.

These are all examples of a random experiment.

EXPERIEMENTS

I.

II.

(H) or a tail (T) appears on the upper face.

Drawing a card from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards.

A deck of playing cards has in all 52 cards.

(i) It has 13 cards each of four suits, namely

spades, clubs, hearts and diamonds.

(a) Cards of spades and clubs are black cards.

(b) Cards of hearts and diamonds are red cards.

Spades

Clubs

Hearts

Diamonds

face

cards. Thus, there are in all 12 face cards.

VARIOUS EXPERIMENTS

When we toss a coin, we get either a head (H) or a tail (T). Thus, all

possible outcomes are H, T :

II. Suppose two coins are tossed simultaneously. Then, all possible

outcomes are HH, HT, TH, TT

(HH means head on first coin and head on second coin. HT means

head on first coin and tail on second coin etc.)

III. In drawing a card from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards, total number of

possible outcomes is 52.

EVENT : The collection of all or some of the possible outcomes is called an

event.

Examples (i) In throwing a coin, H is the event of getting a head, (ii)

Suppose we throw two coins simultaneously and let E be the event of

getting at least one head. Then, E contains HT, TH, HH.

EQUALLY LIKELY EVENTS A given number of events are said to be equally

likely if none of them is expected to occur in preference to the others.

For example, if we roll an unbiased die, each number is equally likely to

occur. If, however, a die is so formed that a particular face occurs most

often then the die is biased. In this case, the outcomes are not equally

likely to happen.

I.

PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE

OF AN EVENT

Probability of occurrence of an event E, denoted by P (E) is defined as :

P(E) = Number of outcomes favourable to E

Total number of possible outcomes

SURE EVENT - It is evident that in a single toss of die, we will always get a

number less than 7

So, getting a number less than 7 is a sure event.

P (getting a number less than 7) = 6/6 = 1.

Thus, the probability of a sure event is 1.

IMPOSSIBLE EVENT - In a single toss of a die, what is the probability of getting

a number 8?

We know that in tossing a die, 8 will never come up.

So, getting 8 is an impossible event.

P (getting 8 in a single throw of a die) = 0/6 = 0.

Thus, the probability of an impossible event is zero.

COMPLEMENTARY EVENT Let E be an event and (not E) be an event which

occurs only when E does not occur.

The event (not E) is called the complementary event of E.

Clearly, P(E) + P (not E) = 1

P(E) = 1 P(not E).

SOLVED EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE-1 : A coin is tossed once, what is the

probability of getting a head?

SOLUTION : When a coin is tossed once, all

possible outcomes are H and T.

Total number of possible outcomes = 2.

The favourable outcome is H.

Number of favourable outcomes = 1.

P (getting a head)

= P (H) = number of favourable outcomes

= 1

total number of possible outcomes

2

SOLVED EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE-2 : A die is thrown once. What is the

probability of getting a prime number?

SOLUTION : In a single throw of a die, all

possible outcomes are 1,2,3,4,5,6

Total number of possible outcomes = 6.

Let E be the event of getting a prime number.

Then, the favourable outcomes are 2,3,5

Number of favourable outcomes = 3.

P (getting a prime number) = P(E) = 1 = 1

6 2

SOLVED EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE-3 : A bag contains 5 red balls and some

blue balls. If the probability of drawing a blue ball

from the bag is thrice that of a red ball, find the

number of blue balls in the bag.

SOLUTION : Let the number of blue balls in the

bag be x.

Then, total number of balls = (5 + x).

Given: P(a blue ball) = 3 x P (a red ball)

x

=3X

5

x = 15.

(5+x)

(5+x)

Hence, the number of blue balls in the bag is 15.

SOLVED EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE-4 : One card is drawn at random from a

well-shuffled pack of 52 cards. What is the probability

that the card drawn is either a red card or a king?

SOLUTION : Total number of all possible outcomes =

52.

Let E be the event of getting a red card or a king.

There are 26 red cards (including 2 kings) and there

are 2 more kings.

So, the number of favourable outcomes = (26+2) =

28.

P (getting a red card or a king) = P(E) = 28 = 7

52

13

CONCLUSION

To conclude I should say that each student

should develop interest or rather equal interest

in all topics as to serve good marks in Maths

Project. A student should concentrate more in

which he/she is unable to do or in which they

are lacking interest.

The teachers as well as take interest in a

particular topic and they should develop

interest in all topics.

THANK

YOU.

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