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PROJECT

ON
PROBABILITY
Presented by Name : Bhawesh Tiwari
Class X B
Roll No. 35
Subject - Mathematics

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I,Bhawesh Tiwari of Std. X B of St. Marys English
High School is submitting my Maths Project; as per
CBSE syllabus for Class X A. I am grateful to my
teachers, friends and parents for helping and
guiding and co-operating me in completing my
Maths Project.
Once again I sincerely thank my Maths teacher,
Mrs. Banani Das for guiding me to complete my
Maths Project.

INDEX
Probability
Experiment
Random Exp.

Some details about these exp.


Looking at all possible outcomes in various exp.
Probability of
Occurrence of event
Examples Ex. 1, 2, 3 and 4
Conclusion
Bibliography
End

INTRODUCTION
We have
studied the
concept of
empirical
probability.
Since empirical
probability is
based on
experiments,
we also call it
experimental
probability.

Suppose we
toss a con 500
times and get
a head, say,
240 times and
tail 260 times.
Then we would
say that in a
single throw of
a con, the
probability of
getting a head
as 240/500 i.e.
12/25

Again, suppose
we toss a con
1000 times
and get a
head, say, 530
times and tail
470 times.
Then, we
would say that
in a single
throw of a
coin, the
probability of
getting a head
is 530/1000,
i.e. 53/1000

Thus, in various experiments, we would get different


probabilities for the same event
However, theoretical probability overcomes the above
problem. In this project by probability, we shall mean
theoretical probability.

PROBABILITY
Probability is a concept which numerically measures the
degree of certainty of the occurrence of events.
Before defining probability, we shall define certain
concepts used there.
Experiment : An operation which can produce more welldefined outcomes is called an experiment.
Random Experiment : An experiment in which all possible
outcomes are known, and the exact outcome cannot be
predicted in advance, is called a random experiment.
By a trial, we mean performing a random experiment.
Examples (i) Tossing a fair coin
(ii) Drawing a card from a pack of well-shuffled
cards.
These are all examples of a random experiment.

SOME DETAILS ABOUT THESE


EXPERIEMENTS
I.
II.

Tossing a coin When we throw a coin, either a head


(H) or a tail (T) appears on the upper face.
Drawing a card from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards.
A deck of playing cards has in all 52 cards.
(i) It has 13 cards each of four suits, namely
spades, clubs, hearts and diamonds.
(a) Cards of spades and clubs are black cards.
(b) Cards of hearts and diamonds are red cards.

Spades

Clubs

Hearts

Diamonds

(ii) Kings, queens and jacks (or knaves) are known as


face
cards. Thus, there are in all 12 face cards.

LOOKING AT ALL POSSIBLE OUTCOMES IN


VARIOUS EXPERIMENTS
When we toss a coin, we get either a head (H) or a tail (T). Thus, all
possible outcomes are H, T :
II. Suppose two coins are tossed simultaneously. Then, all possible
outcomes are HH, HT, TH, TT
(HH means head on first coin and head on second coin. HT means
head on first coin and tail on second coin etc.)
III. In drawing a card from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards, total number of
possible outcomes is 52.
EVENT : The collection of all or some of the possible outcomes is called an
event.
Examples (i) In throwing a coin, H is the event of getting a head, (ii)
Suppose we throw two coins simultaneously and let E be the event of
getting at least one head. Then, E contains HT, TH, HH.
EQUALLY LIKELY EVENTS A given number of events are said to be equally
likely if none of them is expected to occur in preference to the others.
For example, if we roll an unbiased die, each number is equally likely to
occur. If, however, a die is so formed that a particular face occurs most
often then the die is biased. In this case, the outcomes are not equally
likely to happen.
I.

PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE
OF AN EVENT
Probability of occurrence of an event E, denoted by P (E) is defined as :
P(E) = Number of outcomes favourable to E
Total number of possible outcomes
SURE EVENT - It is evident that in a single toss of die, we will always get a
number less than 7
So, getting a number less than 7 is a sure event.
P (getting a number less than 7) = 6/6 = 1.
Thus, the probability of a sure event is 1.
IMPOSSIBLE EVENT - In a single toss of a die, what is the probability of getting
a number 8?
We know that in tossing a die, 8 will never come up.
So, getting 8 is an impossible event.
P (getting 8 in a single throw of a die) = 0/6 = 0.
Thus, the probability of an impossible event is zero.
COMPLEMENTARY EVENT Let E be an event and (not E) be an event which
occurs only when E does not occur.
The event (not E) is called the complementary event of E.
Clearly, P(E) + P (not E) = 1
P(E) = 1 P(not E).

SOLVED EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE-1 : A coin is tossed once, what is the
probability of getting a head?
SOLUTION : When a coin is tossed once, all
possible outcomes are H and T.
Total number of possible outcomes = 2.
The favourable outcome is H.
Number of favourable outcomes = 1.
P (getting a head)
= P (H) = number of favourable outcomes
= 1
total number of possible outcomes
2

SOLVED EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE-2 : A die is thrown once. What is the
probability of getting a prime number?
SOLUTION : In a single throw of a die, all
possible outcomes are 1,2,3,4,5,6
Total number of possible outcomes = 6.
Let E be the event of getting a prime number.
Then, the favourable outcomes are 2,3,5
Number of favourable outcomes = 3.
P (getting a prime number) = P(E) = 1 = 1
6 2

SOLVED EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE-3 : A bag contains 5 red balls and some
blue balls. If the probability of drawing a blue ball
from the bag is thrice that of a red ball, find the
number of blue balls in the bag.
SOLUTION : Let the number of blue balls in the
bag be x.
Then, total number of balls = (5 + x).
Given: P(a blue ball) = 3 x P (a red ball)

x
=3X
5
x = 15.
(5+x)
(5+x)
Hence, the number of blue balls in the bag is 15.

SOLVED EXAMPLES
EXAMPLE-4 : One card is drawn at random from a
well-shuffled pack of 52 cards. What is the probability
that the card drawn is either a red card or a king?
SOLUTION : Total number of all possible outcomes =
52.
Let E be the event of getting a red card or a king.
There are 26 red cards (including 2 kings) and there
are 2 more kings.
So, the number of favourable outcomes = (26+2) =
28.
P (getting a red card or a king) = P(E) = 28 = 7
52
13

CONCLUSION
To conclude I should say that each student
should develop interest or rather equal interest
in all topics as to serve good marks in Maths
Project. A student should concentrate more in
which he/she is unable to do or in which they
are lacking interest.
The teachers as well as take interest in a
particular topic and they should develop
interest in all topics.

THANK
YOU.