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Chapter # 6


Telecom m unications and

N etw orking in Todays B usiness
in the past used two fundamentally different
types of networks:

telephone networks
computer networks

Telephone and computer networks are slowly

converging into a single digital network using

shared Internet-based standards and equipment
More than 60% of U.S. Internet users have broadband


Broadband wireless:
Voice and data communication as well as Internet

access are increasingly taking place over broadband

wireless platforms

W hat is a com puter netw ork?

Two or more connected computers
Major components in simple network
Client computer
Aclientis a piece ofcomputerhardware or software that

accesses a service made available by a server. The server is

often (but not always) on anothercomputersystem, in which
case theclientaccesses the service by way of a network.

Server computer
Aserveris acomputerprogram or a machine that waits for

requests from other machines or software (clients) and responds

to them. A servertypically processes data.[a]The purpose of
aserveris to share data or hardware and software resources
among clients.

Network interfaces (NICs)

Anetwork interface card(NIC) is a circuit board or card that is

installed in a computer so that it can be connected to a network

Connection medium
Link through with devices communicate

Network operating system

A network operating system (NOS) is a computer operating

system that is designed primarily to support workstation,

personal computer, and, in some instances, older terminal that
are connected on alocal area network(LAN).

Hub or switch
Hubsand switchesfunctionas a common connection point for

the workstations, printers, file servers and other devices that

make up a network. The main difference betweenhubs and
switches is the way in which they communicate with the
network. Ahub functionsas the central connection point of a

Arouter[a]is a networking device that forwards data packets

between computer networks.Routersperform the "traffic

directing"functionson the Internet. A data packet is typically
forwarded from onerouterto another through the networks that
constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node.

C om ponents of a Sim ple

C om puter N etw ork

N etw orks in large

can include:

Hundreds of local area networks (LANs)

linked to firm wide corporate network

Various powerful servers
Web site
Corporate intranet, extranet
Backend systems
Mobile wireless LANs (Wi-Fi networks)
Video conferencing system
Telephone network
Wireless cell phones

C orporate
N etw ork

K ey digital netw orking

Client/server computing
Distributed computing model
Clients linked through network controlled by

network server computer

Server sets rules of communication for
network and provides every client with an
address so others can find it on the network
Has largely replaced centralized mainframe
The Internet: Largest implementation of
client/server computing

Packet sw itching
Method of slicing digital messages into

parcels (packets), sending packets

along different communication paths
as they become available, and then
reassembling packets at destination
Previous circuit-switched networks
required assembly of complete pointto-point circuit
Packet switching more efficient use of
networks communications capacity

Packet-Sw itched N etw orks and

Packet Com m unications

TCP/IP and connectivity

Connectivity between computers enabled by protocols
Rules that govern transmission of information between two


Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

Common worldwide standard that is basis for Internet

Department of Defense reference model for TCP/IP

Four layers
Application layer
Transport layer
Internet layer
Network interface layer

Reference m odelfor TCP/IP

The Transm ission C ontrol

P rotocol/Internet P rotocol
(TC P /IP ) R eference M odel

C om m unications N etw orks

Signals: digital vs. analog
Modem: Translates digital signals into
analog form
Types of networks
Local-area networks (LANs)
Client/server or peer-to-peer
Ethernet physical network standard
Topologies: star, bus, ring
Wide-area networks (WANs)
Metropolitan-area networks (MANs)

Function ofM O D EM

N etw ork

Transm ission M edia

Atransmission mediumis a material substance (solid, liquid,

gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy waves. For example,

thetransmission mediumfor sounds is usually air, but solids
and liquids may also act astransmission mediafor sound.
Physical transmission media
Twisted wire
a cable consisting of two wires twisted round each other,
used especially for telephone or computer applications.
Coaxial cable
Coaxial cablesare a type ofcablethat is used bycableTV
and that is common for data communications
Fiber optics and optical networks
Afiber optic cableconsists of a bundle of glass threads, each
of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated
onto light waves.Fiber opticshas several advantages over
traditional metal communications lines:Fiber optic cables
have a much greater bandwidth than metal cables.

Wireless transmission media and

Cellular telephones
Transmission speed
Frequency: the number of times
that something happens during a
particular period
In computing, bandwidth is the
bit-rate of available or consumed
information capacity expressed
typically in metric multiples of
bits per second. Variously,
bandwidth may be characterized

G lobalinternet
What is the Internet?
Connecting to the Internet
Internet service providers (ISPs)
DSL, cable, satellite, T lines (T1, T3)
Internet addressing and architecture
IP addresses

A unique string of numbers separated by full

stops that identifies each computer using the
Internet Protocol to communicate over a
The domain name system

DNSis an abbreviation forDomain Name System,

a system for naming computers and network
services that is organized into a hierarchy of
domains.DNSnaming is used in TCP/IP networks,
such as the Internet, to locate computers and
services through user-friendly names.

D om ain nam e system

Internet Architecture
Trunk lines (backbone networks)
Transcontinental, 45mbps to 2.5 gbps
Regional networks

Internet Governance
No formal management
Policies established by professional, government


Manage overall structure of internet

Assign IP addresses

Sets standards for HTML and other programming

The Future Internet


IPv6is the successor to the firstaddressing

infrastructure of the Internet, Internet Protocol
version 4 (IPv4). In contrast to IPv4, which
defined an IPaddressas a 32-bit value,IPv6
addresseshave a size of 128 bits.
Therefore,IPv6has a vastly
enlargedaddressspace compared to IPv4.
Internet2, NGI
Internet2is a not-for-profit United States
computer networking consortium led by
members from the research and education
communities, industry, and government.
TheNext Generation InternetProgram (also NGI,
NGI Initiative) was a United States Government
project intended to drastically increase the speed
of theInternet.
For high bandwidth 2.5 gbps to 9.6 gbps
Effective routing,

Internet services and

com m unication tools


messages distributed by electronic means from one

computer user to one or more recipients via a


Chatting and instant messaging

Typically, theinstant messagingsystem alerts you

whenever somebody on your private list is online. You can

then initiate a chat session with that particular Person

Live, interactive conversation


Anewsgroupis a discussion about a particular

subject consisting of notes written to a central
Internet site and redistributed through Usenet, a
worldwide network of news discussion groups.
Usenet uses the Network News Transfer Protocol


Telnetis a user command and an underlying

TCP/IP protocol for accessing remote computers.

ThroughTelnet, an administrator or another user
can access someone else's computer remotely.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard

network protocol used to transfer computer files

between a client and server on a computer

Voice over IP (VoIP)

VoIP is short forVoice over Internet

Protocol.Voice over Internet Protocolis a

category of hardware and software that enables
people to use the Internet as the transmission
medium for telephone calls by sending voice data
in packets using IP rather than by traditional
circuit transmissions of the PSTN.

Voice over IP (VoIP )

Virtual private networks (VPNs)

VPN, orvirtual private network, is a

network that is constructed by using public

wires usually the Internet to connect to a
private network, such as a company's internal
network. There are a number of systems that
enable you to create networks using the
Internet as the medium for transporting data.

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (WWW) is an open

source information space where

documents and other web resources are
identified by URLs, interlinked by
hypertext links, and can be accessed
via the Internet. It has become known
simply as the Web.

The W orld W ide W eb

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language):

Formats documents for display on Web

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP):
Communications standard used for
transferring Web pages
Uniform resource locators (URLs):
Addresses of Web pages
Web servers
Software for locating and managing Web

Search engines
Started in early 1990s as relatively simple

software programs using keyword indexes

Today, major source of Internet

advertising revenue via search engine

marketing, using complex algorithms and
page ranking techniques to locate results

Shopping bots
Use intelligent agent software for

searching Internet for shopping


W eb 2.0
Second-generation interactive Internet-based

services enabling people to collaborate, share

information, and create new services online
Cloud computing
Software mashups and widgets
Blogs: informal Web sites created by individuals
using easy-to-use weblog publishing tools
RSS (Rich Site Summary; originallyRDF Site

Summary; often called Really Simple

Syndication) uses a family of standard web feed
formats to publish frequently updated information:
blog entries, news headlines, audio, videos
Wikis: Collaborative Web sites where visitors

can add, delete, or modify content on the site

Use existing network infrastructure with
Internet connectivity standards software
developed for the Web
Create networked applications that can
run on many types of computers
Protected by firewalls
Allow authorized vendors and customers
access to an internal intranet
Used for collaboration
Also subject to firewall protection

The W ireless R evolution

Wireless devices
PDAs, BlackBerry, smart phones

Cellular systems
Competing standards for cellular

United States: CDMA
Most of rest of world: GSM

Third-generation (3G) networks

Higher transmission speeds suitable for

broadband Internet access

CDMA (Code-Division Multiple Access) refers to any of

several protocols used in second-generation (2G) and thirdgeneration (3G)wireless communications. As the term
implies, CDMA is a form ofmultiplexing, which allows
numerous signals to occupy a single transmissionchannel,
optimizing the use of availablebandwidth. The technology
is used in ultra-high-frequency (UHF)cellular telephone
systems in the 800-MHzand 1.9-GHz bands.

(Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital

mobile telephony system that is widely used in Europe and

other parts of the world.GSMuses a variation of time
division multiple access (TDMA)

The term 3Ginternetrefers to the third generation of

mobile phone standards, as set by the International

Telecommunications Union (ITU). 3G technologies allow
mobile operators to offer more service options to their
users, including mobile broadband.

The W ireless R evolution

Wireless computer networks and Internet access
Bluetooth (802.15)

Bluetoothis a wirelesstechnologystandard for

exchanging data over short distances (using shortwavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to
2.485 GHz) from fixed and mobiledevices, and building
personal area networks (PANs).
Links up to 8 devices in 10-m area using low-power, radiobased communication
Useful for personal networking (PANs)
Wi-Fi (802.11)
Set of standards: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n
Used for wireless LAN and wireless Internet access
Use access points: Device with radio receiver/transmitter
for connecting wireless devices to a wired LAN
Hotspots: One or more access points in public place to
provide maximum wireless coverage for a specific area

A Bluetooth N etw ork (PAN )

An 802.11 W ireless LAN

W iM A X
WiMAX(Worldwide Interoperability

for Microwave Access) is a wireless

industry coalition dedicated to the
advancement of IEEE 802.16
standards for broadband wireless
access (BWA) networks.
Wireless access range of 31 miles
Require WiMax antennas

R adio frequency
identif c
iation (R FID )
Use tiny tags with embedded microchips

containing data about an item and location, and

Tags transmit radio signals over short distances
to special RFID readers, which send data over
network to computer for processing
Common uses:
Automated toll-collection
Tracking goods in a supply chain

Requires companies to have special hardware

and software
Reduction in cost

R adio frequency
identif c
iation (R FID )