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DIMENSIONS OF

CULTURAL VARIABILITY

FRAMEWORKS FOR STUDYING


CROSS-CULTURAL VARIABILITY
* Halls concepts of time, space and
context
* Hofstedes value dimensions
* Trompenaars value dilemmas
Cultural Dimensions

HALLS CONCEPTS
Polychronic versus monochronic time
orientation
Space
High versus low context of information

HOFSTEDES VALUE DIMENSIONS

Individualism versus Collectivism


Power Distance
Uncertainty Avoidance
Masculinity versus Femininity

Individualism pertains to societies in which


the ties between individuals are loose:
everyone is expected to look after himself
or herself and his or her immediate family.
Collectivism as its opposite pertains to
societies in which people form birth onwards
are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups
which throughout peoples lifetime continue
to protect them in exchange for
unquestioning loyalty.

Power distance- amount of respect


and deference between those in
superior and subordinate positions

Uncertainty Avoidance- the focus


on planning and the creation of
stability as a way of dealing
with lifes uncertainties

Masculinity- emphasis on
dominance, achievement, recognition,
task-orientation
Femininity - emphasis on
Harmony, co-operation, social
relationships

TRIANDIS CULTURAL PATTERNS


* Individualism-collectivism
* Cultural looseness-tightness
* Cultural Complexity

Individualist cultures:I consciousness,


prioritizing personal goals, independence
Collectivist cultures: We consciousness,
relational, group oriented

Cultural tightness: cultures where


norms are clear, deviations are
prohibited
Cultural complexity: developed,
industrialized, urbanized societies

TROMPENAARS DIMENSIONS
Individualism-Communitarianism
Universalism-Particularism
Ascription Oriented- Achievement
Oriented
Diffuse-Specific

TROMPENAARS DIMENSIONS
Neutral- Affective
Internal-External control
Past, present, future time orientation

ADDITIONAL DIMENSIONS

Direct versus indirect style of communication


Saving face
Focus on past, presence or future
Matter-of-fact versus building up social relationships
Action versus results
Problem-solving styles

I. Attitudes towards Work


High

Low

2. Uncertainty Avoidance

Ready to take risks

Sceptical

3. Attitudes

Performance

Quality of life

4. Key to Productivity

Facts

Harmony

5. Problem-solving Style

Results

Action

1. Social Relations

Less important

Very important

2. Significance of Group

Low

High

1. Concept of Time

Monochronic

Polychronic

2. Time and Other People

One after another

All at once

3. Orientation

Past

Future

direct

indirect

2. Context

Low

High

3. Saving Face

Less important

More important

1.

Power Distance

II. Social Relationships

III. Time Orientation

IV. Communication
1.

Style

QUESTIONS
Why are dimensions of cultural
variability important?
Does New Zealands positioning on
Individualism,Uncertainty Avoidance,
Masculinity, Power Distance surprise
you?