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Convergence of series

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successive terms follow some regular law.

For e.g.

1 + 3 + 5 + 7+.+ 2n-1+

1+ x + x2 + x3 + ..+ xn + ., |x| < 1

1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 +

1 1 1

1 ..........

2 4 8

If a series terminates at some particular term, it is called a finite series.

series is said to be convergent to a number S if

lim S n S

n

i.e. An infinite series converges to a sum S if for any given small positive

no. we can find a positive no N, st |Sn S| < , n N, where sn is the

sum of the first n terms of un

The series Sn is said to be divergent if

lim S n or

finite or infinite.

Example

Sn = 1+ 2 + 3 + + n

= n(n+1)/2

n (n 1)

lim S n lim

n

n

2

Hence, this series is divergent.

Sn = 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 .

S1 = 2, S2 = 0, S3 = 2, S4 = 0

lim S n does not exist. Hence it is oscillatory.

n

Geometric Series

a ar ar 2 ..... ar n 1 ........ ar n 1

S n a ar ar ..... ar

2

r Sn

n 1

n 1

ar ar 2 ..... ar n 1 ar n

(1 r )S n a (1 r n )

a (1 r n )

a

ar n

lim S n

n

(1 r )

1 r 1 r

Case I

than r n 0

| r | 1

lim S n

a

1 r

Convergent Series

Case II

| r | 1

than r n

lim S n

n

Case III

Divergent series

r=1

a + a + a + ..+ a = na Divergent Series

Case IV

r = -1

a - a + a - ..

Sn = a, if n is odd

Sn = 0, if n is even

Oscillatory Series

Case IV

r n (1) n k n

a (1 r n ) a (1 (1) n k n )

lim S n

n

(1 r )

(1 (k ))

if n is odd

- if n is even

1 2 4 8 .........

9 27

.........

2 4

5 5 5

.........

4 16 16

23

Oscillatory Series

Oscillatory Series

Divergent Series

Convergent Series to -1

N th Term Test

If

u

n 1

n

i.e if lim u n 0 then the series may not be convergent. It may diverge.

n

Hence lim u n is a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition for convergence.

n

Pf : S n u 1 u 2 .......... u n

S n S n 1 u n

Let the series be convergent, and its sum upto infinity be S.

lim S n S

n

lim S n 1 S

n

n

lim u n S S 0

n

2 3 4

n

.......

..........

3 4 5

n 1

2 3 4

n

S n 1 .......

3 3 5

n 1

n

1

un

lim u n

1

n

n 1

1 1/ n

1

2

3

1

Sn 1

2

1

un

1

1

2

4

1

3

1

4

1

n

..........

.......

1

n

Sn n

lim S n

.......

lim u n

n

1

.......

0

1

n

n

n

n

n

Hence the series diverges.

...........

1

n

Ratio Test

(b) The series diverges if r > 1.

(c) The test fails for r = 1.

lim

u n 1

then

r

un

Example

3

4 2 5 3

Test the series 2 x x x ...........

2

3

4

(n 1) n 1

un

x

n

u n 1

( n 2) n

x

(n 1)

u n 1 n (n 2)

lim

x x

2

un

(n 1)

Hence if x < 1, the series is convergent; and if x > 1, the series is divergent.

3 4 5

2

...........

If x = 1

2 3 4

n 1

u n lim

1 0

Thus the series is divergent.

n

Root Test

(c) The test fails for r = 1.

lim n u n r

then

Example

Discuss the convergence of the series

1

2

2

2

1

1

2

3

3

3

2

2

3

(n 1)

u n

n 1

n

lim u n

1/ n

e 1

n 1

n 1

1

lim 1

n

n

1

1

e 1

4

4

4

3

3

4

.............

u n 1/ n

1

n 1

(n 1) n 1 n 1

n 1

n

n

1

1 lim

n

n

1

1

1

1 1 1

n

n

n

A positive term series f(1) + f(2) + f(3) ++ f(n) +. where f(n)

decreases as n increases, converges or diverges according to the integral

ne

n 2

n 1

f ( x ) xe

x2

e

x 2

xe dx lim

m 2

x2

e m

e 1

lim

m 2

2

1

is finite.

2e

1

1

1

1

1

p p p .......... p .........

p

1

2

3

n

n 1 n

( p a real constant ) converges if p > 1, and diverges if p 1

1

If p 1, then f(x) p is a positive decreasing function of x.

x

p 1 m

1

x

p

dx

x

dx

lim

1 x p

1

m p 1

1

1

1

1

is finite.

lim p 1 1

p 1

1 p m m

When p = 1

1 1 1

1

.......... .........

1 2 3

n

f ( x )dx

dx log x 1

x

When 0 < p < 1

1

1 p

lim

m

1

f

(

x

)

dx

1

1 p m

The series diverges by Cauchys Integral Test for 0 < p < 1.

When p < 0

p

n

n 1

un np

Lt u n Lt n p

Comparison Test

un

lim

r (finite and nonzero)

n v

n

Here un is given and vn is chosen for which convergence and divergence is

known.

Example

Test the convergence of series

1

3

5

........

1.2.3 2.3.4 3.4.5

1

2

1

1

2n 1

n

vn 2

un

2

1

2

n

n

n (n 1)(n 2)

1 1

n

n

1

2

un

n

lim

lim

2

n v

n

1

2

n

1 1

n

n

un

n

1 r then

If un is a series of positive terms such that nlim

u

n 1

(b) The series diverges if r < 1.

(c) The test fails for r = 1.

It is applied only when ratio test fails.

x

x2 x3 x4

...........

Test the convergence of series

1.2 3.4 5.6 7.8

n 1

xn

x

un

u n 1

(2n 1)(2n )

(2n 1)(2n 2)

1

1

u n 1

x n 1

(2n 1)(2n )

2n

x

1

2

un

(2n 1)(2n 2)

xn

2n

2n

u n 1

lim

x

n u

n

Hence if x < 1, the series is convergent; and if x > 1, the series is divergent.

If x = 1 test fails

un

lim n

1 r

n u

n 1

un

(2n 1)(2n 2)

lim n

1 lim n

1

n

u n 1

n (2n 1)(2n )

(8n 2)

2

lim n

n

(2n 1)(2n )

un

1

( 2n 1)(2n )

un

n log

r

If un is a series of positive terms such that lim

n

u n 1

(b) The series diverges if r < 1.

(c) The test fails for r = 1.

then

2x 32 x 2 4 3 x 3

1

................., x 0

2!

3!

4!

(n 1) n x n

n n 1 x n 1

u n 1

un

(n 1)!

n!

u n 1 (n 1) n x n

(n 1) n

n!

1

x 1

n 1

n 1 n 1

n

un

(n 1)! n x

(n 1)n

u n 1

1

1

lim

lim x 1 1

n u

n

n

n

n 1

xe

Hence if x < 1/e, the series is convergent; and if x > 1/e, the series is

divergent.

u n 1 (n 1) n e n 1 n!

1

1

n 1 n

un

(n 1)! n e

n

un

e

n 1

u n 1

1

1

n

un

1

log

log e (n 1) log 1

u n 1

n

n 1

1

e

un

1

1

1

log

1 (n 1) 2 3 ..........

u n 1

3n

n 2n

n n 1

un

n!e n 1

un

1

1

1

1

1

log

1 1

2 .......... 2 3 ..........

u n 1

2n 3n

3n

n 2n

un

log

u n 1

1 1 1

1

2 ...............

2

2n

2n n 3n

3

5

2 ..........

2n 6n

un

3 5

n log

....

u n 1 2 6n

un

3

3 5

lim n log

.... 1

n

u n 1 2 6n

2

Alternating Series

an alternating series.

u1 u 2 u 3 u 4 ...............

1 1 1

(1) n 1

1 .............

......

2 3 4

n

n 1

un un+1 for all n N, for some integer N.

n

lim u n 0

u1

u2

s2

s4

u3

u4

s3

s1

3 4 5 6

2 .......

2 3 4 5

n

1 0

n n 1

lim u n lim

1

1

1

1

(1 1) 1 1 1 1 ..........

2

3

4

5

1 1 1

(1 1 1 1 1 .....) 1 .....

2 3 4

Series is oscillatory.

corresponding series of absolute values |un| converges.

1 1 1

1 .........

2 4 8

1

1 1 1

.........

2 4 8

series of absolute values converges.

1 1 1 1

1 .........

2 3 4 5

1 1 1 1

1 .........is divergent.

2 3 4 5

converge absolutely.

sin n

is absolutely convergent.

2

n 1 n

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