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Convergence of Series

A series is an expression of the form u1 + u2 + u3 + ..+ un in which the


successive terms follow some regular law.
For e.g.
1 + 3 + 5 + 7+.+ 2n-1+
1+ x + x2 + x3 + ..+ xn + ., |x| < 1
1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 +
1 1 1
1 ..........
2 4 8
If a series terminates at some particular term, it is called a finite series.

If the number of terms is unlimited, it is called an infinite series.

Let Sn be sum of first n terms of the series i.e. S n = u1 + u2 + u3 + ..un. The


series is said to be convergent to a number S if
lim S n S
n

i.e. An infinite series converges to a sum S if for any given small positive
no. we can find a positive no N, st |Sn S| < , n N, where sn is the
sum of the first n terms of un
The series Sn is said to be divergent if
lim S n or

The series Sn is said to be oscillatory if it does not tend to a unique limit,


finite or infinite.

Example
Sn = 1+ 2 + 3 + + n

= n(n+1)/2
n (n 1)
lim S n lim

n
n
2
Hence, this series is divergent.
Sn = 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 .
S1 = 2, S2 = 0, S3 = 2, S4 = 0
lim S n does not exist. Hence it is oscillatory.
n

Geometric Series

a ar ar 2 ..... ar n 1 ........ ar n 1
S n a ar ar ..... ar
2

r Sn

n 1

n 1

ar ar 2 ..... ar n 1 ar n

(1 r )S n a (1 r n )
a (1 r n )
a
ar n
lim S n

n
(1 r )
1 r 1 r
Case I

than r n 0

| r | 1

lim S n

a
1 r

Convergent Series

Case II

| r | 1

than r n

lim S n
n

Case III

Divergent series

r=1
a + a + a + ..+ a = na Divergent Series

Case IV

r = -1
a - a + a - ..
Sn = a, if n is odd
Sn = 0, if n is even

Oscillatory Series

Case IV

r < -1, let r = -k where k > 1


r n (1) n k n
a (1 r n ) a (1 (1) n k n )
lim S n

n
(1 r )
(1 (k ))
if n is odd
- if n is even

1 2 4 8 .........
9 27

.........
2 4
5 5 5
.........
4 16 16

23

Oscillatory Series
Oscillatory Series
Divergent Series
Convergent Series to -1

N th Term Test
If

u
n 1

converges, then lim u n 0


n

The converse of above is not true.

i.e if lim u n 0 then the series may not be convergent. It may diverge.
n

Hence lim u n is a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition for convergence.
n

Pf : S n u 1 u 2 .......... u n
S n S n 1 u n
Let the series be convergent, and its sum upto infinity be S.
lim S n S
n

lim S n 1 S
n

lim S n lim S n 1 lim u n


n

lim u n S S 0

If lim u n 0 or fails to exist then the series diverge.


n

2 3 4
n
.......
..........
3 4 5
n 1
2 3 4
n
S n 1 .......
3 3 5
n 1
n
1
un
lim u n
1
n
n 1
1 1/ n

Hence the series is divergent.

1
2

3
1

Sn 1

2
1

un
1

1
2

4
1
3

1
4

1
n

..........

.......

1
n

Sn n
lim S n

.......

lim u n

n
1

.......

0
1

n
n

n
n

n
Hence the series diverges.

...........

1
n

Ratio Test

Let un be a series of positive terms such that

(a) The series converges if r < 1.


(b) The series diverges if r > 1.
(c) The test fails for r = 1.

lim

u n 1
then
r
un

Example
3
4 2 5 3
Test the series 2 x x x ...........
2
3
4
(n 1) n 1
un
x
n

u n 1

( n 2) n
x
(n 1)

u n 1 n (n 2)
lim

x x
2
un
(n 1)

Hence if x < 1, the series is convergent; and if x > 1, the series is divergent.
3 4 5
2

...........
If x = 1
2 3 4
n 1
u n lim
1 0
Thus the series is divergent.
n

Root Test

(b) The series diverges if r > 1.


(c) The test fails for r = 1.

lim n u n r

(a) The series converges if r < 1.

Let un be a series of positive terms such that

then

Example
Discuss the convergence of the series
1

2
2
2
1
1
2

3
3
3
2
2
3

(n 1)
u n
n 1
n

lim u n

1/ n

e 1

n 1

n 1

1
lim 1
n
n

1

1
e 1

4
4
4
3
3
4

.............

u n 1/ n
1

n 1

(n 1) n 1 n 1

n 1
n
n

1
1 lim
n
n

1
1
1
1 1 1
n
n
n

Thus the series is convergent.

Cauchys Integral Test


A positive term series f(1) + f(2) + f(3) ++ f(n) +. where f(n)
decreases as n increases, converges or diverges according to the integral

f ( x )dx is finite or infinite.

Examine the convergence of

ne

n 2

n 1

f ( x ) xe

x2

e
x 2
xe dx lim

m 2

x2

e m
e 1
lim

m 2
2

Hence the series is convergent by Integral Test .

1
is finite.
2e

Show that the p-series

1
1
1
1
1
p p p .......... p .........

p
1
2
3
n
n 1 n
( p a real constant ) converges if p > 1, and diverges if p 1
1
If p 1, then f(x) p is a positive decreasing function of x.
x
p 1 m
1

x
p
dx

x
dx

lim
1 x p
1
m p 1
1
1
1
1

is finite.

lim p 1 1
p 1
1 p m m

The series converges by Cauchys Integral Test for p > 1.

When p = 1
1 1 1
1
.......... .........
1 2 3
n

f ( x )dx

dx log x 1
x

The series diverges by Cauchys Integral Test for p = 1.


When 0 < p < 1
1

1 p

lim
m
1
f
(
x
)
dx

1
1 p m
The series diverges by Cauchys Integral Test for 0 < p < 1.

When p < 0

p
n

n 1

un np
Lt u n Lt n p

The series diverges by Nth Test for p < 0.

Comparison Test

If two positive term series un and vn be such that


un
lim
r (finite and nonzero)
n v
n

then both series converge or diverge together.


Here un is given and vn is chosen for which convergence and divergence is
known.

Example
Test the convergence of series
1
3
5

........
1.2.3 2.3.4 3.4.5
1
2
1
1
2n 1
n

vn 2
un
2
1
2
n
n
n (n 1)(n 2)
1 1
n
n

1
2
un
n
lim
lim
2
n v
n
1
2
n
1 1
n
n

vn is convergent as p = 2. So by comparison test un is convergent.

Higher Ratio Test


un

n
1 r then
If un is a series of positive terms such that nlim
u
n 1

(a) The series converges if r > 1.


(b) The series diverges if r < 1.
(c) The test fails for r = 1.
It is applied only when ratio test fails.

x
x2 x3 x4

...........
Test the convergence of series
1.2 3.4 5.6 7.8
n 1
xn
x
un
u n 1
(2n 1)(2n )
(2n 1)(2n 2)
1
1
u n 1
x n 1
(2n 1)(2n )
2n

x
1
2
un
(2n 1)(2n 2)
xn

2n
2n

u n 1
lim
x
n u
n

Hence if x < 1, the series is convergent; and if x > 1, the series is divergent.
If x = 1 test fails

un

lim n
1 r
n u
n 1

un

(2n 1)(2n 2)
lim n
1 lim n
1
n

u n 1
n (2n 1)(2n )

(8n 2)
2
lim n
n
(2n 1)(2n )

So the series is convergent.

un

1
( 2n 1)(2n )

Logarithmic Ratio Test

un
n log
r
If un is a series of positive terms such that lim
n
u n 1

(a) The series converges if r > 1.


(b) The series diverges if r < 1.
(c) The test fails for r = 1.

then

Test the convergence of series


2x 32 x 2 4 3 x 3
1

................., x 0
2!
3!
4!
(n 1) n x n
n n 1 x n 1
u n 1
un
(n 1)!
n!
u n 1 (n 1) n x n
(n 1) n
n!
1

x 1
n 1
n 1 n 1
n
un
(n 1)! n x
(n 1)n

u n 1
1
1

lim
lim x 1 1
n u
n
n
n

n 1

xe

Hence if x < 1/e, the series is convergent; and if x > 1/e, the series is
divergent.

If x = 1/e, the test fails.


u n 1 (n 1) n e n 1 n!
1

1
n 1 n
un
(n 1)! n e
n

un
e

n 1
u n 1
1
1
n

un
1

log
log e (n 1) log 1
u n 1
n

n 1

1
e

un
1
1
1

log
1 (n 1) 2 3 ..........
u n 1
3n
n 2n

n n 1
un
n!e n 1

un

1
1
1
1
1

log
1 1
2 .......... 2 3 ..........
u n 1
2n 3n
3n
n 2n

un
log
u n 1

1 1 1

1


2 ...............
2
2n
2n n 3n

3
5

2 ..........
2n 6n

un
3 5

n log

....
u n 1 2 6n

un
3
3 5

lim n log

.... 1
n
u n 1 2 6n
2

The series is convergent.

Alternating Series

A series in which the terms are alternately positive and negative is


an alternating series.
u1 u 2 u 3 u 4 ...............
1 1 1
(1) n 1
1 .............
......
2 3 4
n

Lebnitzs Rule for convergence of an alternating series.

The series (-1)n 1 u n u1 u 2 u 3 u 4 ..........converges if


n 1

uns are all positive.


un un+1 for all n N, for some integer N.
n

lim u n 0

u1
u2

s2

s4

u3
u4

s3

s1

Test the convergence of the series


3 4 5 6
2 .......
2 3 4 5
n
1 0
n n 1

lim u n lim

1
1
1
1
(1 1) 1 1 1 1 ..........
2
3
4
5

1 1 1

(1 1 1 1 1 .....) 1 .....
2 3 4

Series is oscillatory.

Absolute Convergence : A series un converges absolutely if the


corresponding series of absolute values |un| converges.
1 1 1
1 .........
2 4 8
1

1 1 1
.........
2 4 8

The geometric series converges absolutely because the corresponding


series of absolute values converges.

1 1 1 1
1 .........
2 3 4 5

The series is convergent by Lebnitz Test


1 1 1 1
1 .........is divergent.
2 3 4 5

Conditional Convergence : A series that converges but does not


converge absolutely.

sin n
is absolutely convergent.

2
n 1 n