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Computed

Tomography
Basic principles
V.G.Wimalasena
Principal
School of Radiography

Introduction

Computed tomography (CT) is a medical


imaging method employing tomography.
The word "tomography" is derived from the
Greek tomos (slice) and graphein (to write).
A large series of two-dimensional X-ray
images (slices) of the inside of an object are
taken around a single axis of rotation.
Digital geometry processing is used to
generate three-dimensional image s of the
object from those slices.

History

The first commercially viable CT


scanner was invented by Sir
Godfrey Hounsfield in Hayes,
United Kingdom at EMI Central
Research Laboratories using X-rays.
Hounsfield conceived his idea in 1967.
and it was publicly announced in 1972.
Allan McLeod Cormack of
Tufts University in Massachusetts
independently invented a similar
process, and both Hounsfield and
Cormack shared the 1979
Nobel Prize in Medicine .

Prototype CT scanner

Historic EMI Scanner

Modern CT scanner

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gantry aperture (720mm diameter)


microphone
sagittal laser alignment light
patient guide lights
x-ray exposure indicator light
emergency stop buttons
gantry control panels
external laser alignment lights
patient couch
ECG gating monitor

CT Gantry Internal
structure

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x-ray tube
filters, collimator, and reference
detector
internal projector
x-ray tube heat exchanger (oil
cooler)
high voltage generator (0-75kV)
direct drive gantry motor
rotation control unit
data acquisition system (DAS)
detectors
slip rings

Understanding Basic
Absorption
factors

:-stopping of x-rays
with transfer of
energy
Scatter:- deflection
of x-rays
Incident Intensity :No. of x-ray photons
falling on an object
Transmitted
Incident xIntensity:- No. of
ray beam
photons passing
through

Scattered x-rays

Transmitted
X-ray beam

Attenuation
The reduction of the
beam intensity on
passing through the
material due to
absorption plus
scatter
The degree of
attenuation is
obtained by
measuring and
comparing the
incident and
transmitted
intensities

More dense
material

Less
transmitted
x-rays
More
transmitted
x-rays

Less dense
material

Applications of X-ray
attenuation & detection

Conventional X-ray
(Radiography)
Conventional Tomography
Computed Tomography

Conventional X-Ray

Conventional x-ray
produces a
compression of a
volume to a plane
The detector is the
Silver halide crystal
on a x-ray film
The degree of
blackening
represents the total
attenuation through
the path of x-ray
photons

The higher the


attenuation the
lesser is the
blackness
The structure
which results more
attenuation or
more transmission
predominates in
the image

Conventional
Tomography

The source and


detector moves
Produces Images
of coronal or
sagittal sections
(cuts) of areas of
interest
Eliminates the
superimposition of
structures above
and below

CT Scan

CT scan produces
axial
sections/cuts /Slices
The CT image is
recorded through a
SCAN.

Scan?

A scan is made up
of multiple X-Ray
attenuation
measurements
around an objects
periphery

X-ray tube

Detector

Slice / Cut

The cross sectional


portion of the body
which is scanned for
the production of CT
image is called a slice.
The slice has width
and therefore volume.
The width is
determined by the
width of the x-ray
beam

To be continued
.CTComplementary2