Chapter 3_ Electrics & Direct Current_20

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Chapter 3_ Electrics & Direct Current_20

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ELECTRIC CURRENT

AND DIRECTCURRENT CIRCUITS

DIRECT-CURRENT CIRCUITS

3.1 Electric Conduction

3.2 Ohms law and Resistivity

3.3 Variation of resistance with temperature

3.4 Electromotive force (emf), internal resistance and

potential difference

3.5 Electrical energy and power

3.6 Resistors in series and parallel

3.7 Kirchhoffs Laws

3.8 Potential divider

3.9 Potentiometer and Wheatstone Bridge

3.1.1 Electrical Current

Fe

Area, A

difference between the ends of the loop that are

connected to the terminals of the battery.

The battery thus produces an electric field within

the loop from terminal to terminal & the field causes

charges to move around the loop.

The movement of charges is a current, I

there is a potential difference.

Without a potential difference, no charge flows since

no electric field and electric force produced. Therefore

no current produced.

This is analogue to

of flow of electrons.

Positive to negative terminal

Direction of electron flows :

Negative to positive terminal

Current, I

electron

flow

The total charge, Q flowing through an area per unit

time, t.

dQ

I

dt

or

instantaneous current

Q

I

t

average current

Scalar quantity

Can be measured using an ammeter.

1 ampere of current is defined as one coulomb of

charge passing through the surface area in one

second.

OR

1 coulomb

1

1 ampere

1C s

1 second

Note:

If the charge move around a circuit in the same direction

at all times, the current is called direct current (dc), which is

produced by the battery.

Metal is good electric conductor. In metal, the

charge carrier is free electrons and a lot of

free electrons are available in it.

In the absence of an electric field (the

potential difference across it is zero) these

free electrons undergo random motion

throughout the lattice structure.

This motion is analogous to the motion of gas

molecules.

applied across the metal (ex,

battery), an electric field is

metal.

This field exerts an electric

freely moving electrons.

difference is

by means of a

set up in the

force on the

constant average velocity (drift velocity, vd)

slowly along the metal in a direction opposite

that of the electric field.

direction producing a current.

Example

There is a current of 0.5 A in a flashlight bulb for 2 min.

How much charge passes through the bulb during this

time ?

Solution

Given : I = 0.5 A , t = 2 min = 120 s

From:

Q I t 0.5 (120) 60 C

Follow Up Exercise

A silver wire carries a current of 3.0 A. Determine

a) the number of electrons per second pass through the

wire,

b) the amount of charge flows through a cross-sectional

area of the wire in 55 s.

(Given charge of electron, e= 1.60 1019 C)

Answer : (a) 1.881019 electrons per second; (b) 165 C

3.2.1 Ohms Law

states that the potential difference

(voltage) across a conductor, V is

proportional to the current, I flowing

through it if its physical conditions &

temperature are constant.

Expressed mathematically :

V I

V IR

where V : potential difference (voltage)

I : current flow through

R : Resistance of the conductor

V (V)

Gradient,

m=R

0

I (A)

Materials that obey Ohms law are materials that have

constant resistance over a wide range of voltage.

These materials are called ohmic conductor (ex: pure

metals).

Materials that do not obey the Ohms law are called

non-ohmic conductors (ex: carbon and semiconductor

diode).

3.2.2 Resistance ( R )

-- is a property which opposes or limits current in an

electrical circuit.

Analogue

to

is defined as the ratio of potential difference (V) across

conductor to the current (I) that flows through it.

Mathematically,

V

R

I

where

I : current

In general, resistance of a conductor depends on :

1.

2.

3.

4.

Its length

Its cross sectional area

Its temperature

RUN ANIMATION!

3.2.3 Resistivity ( )

is defined as the resistance of a unit cross-sectional

area per unit length of the material.

Mathematically,

RA

(l)

where R : resistance

l : length of the material

o It is a scalar quantity

o Unit is ohm meter ( m)

o It is a measure of a materials ability to

oppose the flow of an electric current.

(A)

RUN ANIMATION!

on the temperature.

o A good electric conductors have a very low

resistivities and good insulators have very high

resistivities.

o Table below shows the resistivity for various

materials at 20 C.

Material

Resistivity, ( m)

Silver

1.59 108

Copper

1.68 108

Aluminum

2.82 108

Gold

2.44 108

Glass

10101014

Example

A constantan wire of length 1.0m and cross sectional

area of 0.5 mm2 has a resistivity of 4.9 x 107 m. Find

the resistance of the wire.

Solution

Given: L = 1.0 m , A = 0.5 mm2 = 0.5 x 106 m2

= 4.9 x 107 m

Using:

L

R

A

4.9 107 (1.0)

0.5 106

R 0.98

Example

Two wires P and Q with circular cross section are

made of the same metal and have equal length. If the

resistance of wire P is three times greater than that of

wire Q, determine the ratio of their diameters.

Solution :

Given : same metal : P Q ; same length: lP lQ

From:

RP 3RQ

Q l Q

P l P

3

AP

AQ

d 2

Knowing that : A

4

4 QlQ

dQ 2

4 PlP

3

2

2

2

d P

dP

d Q

dQ

dP

3.3.1 Effect of temperature on resistance

o Since the resistivity of a material depends on the

length, l and the cross-sectional area, A which are

affected as temperature changes, thus resistivity

also changes as temperature changes.

Metal:

o The electrical resistance in metal always increases

with increasing temperature.

o As the temperature increases, the ions of the metal

vibrate with greater amplitude and cause the number

of collisions between the free moving electrons and

metal atoms increase. This impedes the drift of free

electrons through the metal and hence reduces the

current, increasing the resistance.

Superconductor

In superconductor, as the temperature decreases, the

resistance (or resistivity) at first decreases smoothly, like that

of any metal.

But then, at a certain critical temperature Tc , the

resistance (or resistivity) suddenly drops to zero.

Table shows the critical temperature for various

superconductors.

Material

Tc(K)

Lead

7.18

Mercury

4.15

Tin

3.72

Aluminum

1.19

Zinc

0.88

applications such as magnetic resonance

imaging (MRI),magnetic levitation of train,

faster computer chips, powerful electric

motors and etc

o Over a small temperature range (up to 100C), the

resistivity of a metal can be represented

approximately by to the equation:

O 1 T TO

where

To

= reference temperature(0 C or 20 C)

= final temperature

ratio of the change of resistivity in a material due to a

change of temperature of 1C to its resistivity at 0C.

1

0 T

Where:

The unit for Is OC-1 or K1

Because resistance is proportional to resistivity, thus we can write the

formulae of resistance as:

R RO 1 T TO

Various material have various values of .

For example :

Example

A platinum wire has a resistance of 0.5 at 0C. It is

placed in a water bath where its resistance rises to a final

value of 0.6 . What is the temperature of the bath ?

Solution

From:

R Ro [ 1 (T To ) ]

R Ro Ro (T To )

Ro (T To ) R Ro

0.6 0.5

R Ro

T

To

0

3

Ro

0.5(3.93 10 )

T 50.89 C

Resistance (r) & Potential Difference (V)

3.4.1 Electromotive Force, e.m.f () and Potential

difference, (V)

Figure a

Figure b

when it is not connected to a circuits. ( Refer Figure a )

Terminal voltage, V is the p.d across the terminals of a battery

when there is a current flowing through it. ( Refer Figure b )

SI unit & V : volt ( V )

o Consider a circuit consisting of a battery (cell) that is

connected by wires to an external resistor R as

shown in Figure

R

I

Battery (cell)

terminal voltage is less than its e.m.f,

o This reduces of voltage is due to energy dissipation

in the battery. In effect, the battery has internal

resistance (r).

Mathematically,

I R r

But V = IR , so :

V Ir

where

: e.m.f.

I : current flows through the circuit

R : total external resistance

r : internal resistance of a cell (battery)

V : terminal potential difference (voltage)

to the chemicals in the cell.

o The internal resistance of a cell constitutes part of

the total resistance in a circuit.

o The maximum current that can flow out from a cell is

determined by the internal resistance of the cell.

o The emf of a battery is constant but the internal

resistance of the battery increases with time as a

result of chemical reaction.

Example

A battery has an e.m.f. of 12 V and an internal

resistance of 0.05 . Its terminals are connected to a

load resistance of 3 .

Find the current in the circuit & the terminal voltage of

the battery.

Solution

Using :

I RI r

12

I

(R r)

3 0.05

I 3.93A

V IR

3.93(3)

V 11.8 V

Another alternative :

Using :

V I r

V I r

12 3.93(0.05)

V 11.8 V

FOLLOW UP EXERCISE

(1) A battery of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal resistance 5.0 is

connected to a switch by a wire of resistance 100 . The

voltage across the battery is measured by a voltmeter.

What is the voltmeter reading when the switch is

a.

off ? b. on ?

ANS : (a) 3V, (b) 2.86 V

(2) An idealized voltmeter is

connected across the terminals

of a battery while the current is

varied. Figure shows a graph of

the voltmeter reading V as a

function of the current I

through the battery.

Find (a)the emf, and (b) the

internal resistance of the

battery

ANS : (a) 9V, 4,5

3.5.1 Electrical Energy (W)

The electric energy, W is the amount of energy given up

by a charge Q in passing through an electric device.

W QV

But Q = It , so :

W VIt

(1)

W I Rt L (2)

2

Vt

W

L (3)

R

o Power, P is defined as the energy liberated per unit

time in the electrical device.

o The electrical power P supplied to the electrical device

is given by

W VIt

P

t

t

P IV

resistor, hence the potential difference across it is

V IR

then the electrical power can be written as

2

PI R

OR

V

P

R

FOLLOW UP EXERCISE

1.

when immersed in the water at 20.0 C. When the wire is

placed in the boiling water, its resistance rises to 47.6 .

Calculate the temperature on a hot day when the wire has a

resistance of 37.8 .

(Physics,7th edition, Cutnell & Johnson, Q15, p.639)

ANS. : 37.78 C

a. A battery of emf 6.0 V is connected across a 10

resistor.

If the potential difference across the resistor is 5.0

V, determine

i. the current in the circuit,

ii. the internal resistance of the battery.

b. When a 1.5 V dry cell is short-circuited, a current of 3.0 A

flows through the cell. What is the internal resistance of

the cell?

ANS. : 0.50 A, 2.0 ; 0.50

2.

3.

100 . A 15 V of potential difference is applied across the

wire. Determine

a. the current in the wire,

b. the resistivity of the wire,

c. the rate at which heat is being produced in the wire.

(College Physics,6th edition, Wilson, Buffa & Lou, Q75, p.589)

A copper wire has a resistance of 25 m at 20 C. When the

wire is carrying a current, heat produced by the current

causes the temperature of the wire to increase by 27 C.

a. Calculate the change in the wires resistance.

b. If its original current was 10.0 mA and the potential difference

across wire remains constant, what is its final current?

(Given the temperature coefficient of resistivity for copper is

6.80 103 C1)

ANS. : (a) 4.59103 ; (b) 8.45103 A

4.

3.6.1 Resistors in series

Consider three resistors are connected in series to the

battery as shown in Figure below.

I I1 I 2 I 3

series combination of resistors will divide between the

resistors.

V V1 V2 V3

V IR1 IR 2 IR 3 (1)

To replace the resistors by one resistor which has an

equivalent resistance, RE & maintain the same current,

we have :

V IRE L (2)

Substitute (2) into (1) :

IRE IR1 IR 2 IR 3

RE R1 R 2 R 3

Extending this result to the case of n resistors connected

in series combination:

RE R1 R 2 R 3 ... Rn

where RE is the effective (equivalent) resistance

V V1 V2 V3

Current divides into different path at the junction.

I I1 I 2 I 3

V V V

I

(1)

R1 R 2 R 3

equivalent resistor, RE that has the same potential

difference V & the same total current I as the actual

resistors.

V

I

L (2)

RE

V V V V

RE R 1 R 2 R 3

Canceling the common Vs , we get :

1

1 1 1

RE R 1 R 2 R 3

in parallel combination:

1

1 1 1

1

...

RE R1 R 2 R 3

Rn

Example

What is the equivalent resistance of the resistors in

figure below ?

R2

R4

R3

R1

A

B

R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = 1

Solution

Another view of the circuit :

A

R2

R4

R3

1

1 1

1 1

2

R 34 R 3 R 4 1 1

R1

1

R 34

2

A

R2

R34

R1

R 2 34 R 2 R 34

1 3

1

2 2

A

R234

1

1

1

1 2 5

RE R1 R 234 1 3 3

R1

3

RE

5

Example

Find the current in & voltage of the 10 resistor shown

in Figure.

R1

R3

R2

Solution

1st, find the RE for the circuit & get the current, I flow in

the circuit

1

1 1 1 1 6

Rp R1 R 2 10 2 10

Rp 1.67

RE R 3 R p

1.67 5.0

RE 6.67

V 18 2.7 A

I

RE 6.67

As R3 & R1 in series combination

V V 3 V 1

V 1 V IR 3 18 2.7(5)

V 1 4.5 V

V 1 4.5

0.45 A

I1

R1

10

same current flows

through both bulbs.

If one of the bulbs

burns out, there will

be no current at all in

the

circuit, and neither

bulb will glow

difference across either bulb

remains equal if one of the bulbs

burns out. The

current through the functional bulb

remains equal and the power

delivered to that bulb remains the

same . This is another of the merits of

a parallel arrangement of light bulbs: If

one fails, the other bulbs are

unaffected. This principle is used in

household wiring systems,

FOLLOW UP EXERCISE

(1)

resistors in a circuit. Calculate

i. the equivalent resistance between point x and y.

ii. the voltage across point b and c.

iii. the voltage across point c and y.

ANS : (i) 8 ; (ii) 3 V ; (iii) 9 V

(2)

4.0

12

2.0

8.0 V

For the circuit above, calculate

a. the effective resistance of the circuit,

b. the current passes through the 12 resistor,

c. the potential difference across 4.0 resistor,

d. the power delivered by the battery.

The internal resistance of the battery may be ignored.

ANS : (a) 1.28 ; (b) 0.50A (c) 2 V ; (d) 36 W

3.7.1 Kirchhoffs 1st Law : Junction Rule

A statement of

conservation

of electric

charge

must equal the sum of the currents leaving that junction.

in

out

Example:

I2

I3

I1

I1 I 2 I 3

I3

I2

I1

I 3 I 2 I1

The algebraic sum of the constant voltage e.m.f s is

always equal to the voltage drops around any closed

electrical loop.

Follows from

the laws of

conservation

of energy

IR

Sign convention for & IR ( voltage drop )

direction of loop

direction of loop

direction of loop

direction of loop

R

I

IR

R

I

IR

o Choose and labeling the current at each junction in the

circuit given.

o Choose any one junction in the circuit and apply the

Kirchhoffs first law.

o Choose any two closed loops in the circuit and

designate a direction (clockwise OR anticlockwise) to

travel around the loop in applying the Kirchhoffs

second law.

o Solving the simultaneous equation to determine the

unknown currents and unknown variables.

Example

8.50

11.5 V, 2

15.0 V, 4

6.22

15.1

and its direction in the circuit.

Solution :

8.50

11.5 V, 2 I

I

15.0 V, 4

Loop 1

6.22

15.1

By applying the Kirchhoffs 2nd law, thus

IR

15.0 11.5 15.1I 6.22 I 2 I 8.50 I 4 I

I 0.74 A

(anticlockwise)

Example

12V

D

1

I 1 1A

3

I 2 2A

e.m.f,

Solution

Consider Junction B & apply the Kirchhoffs 1st law :

I1

I

I2

Iin Iout

I I 1 I 2 1 2

I 3A

circuits & apply the Kirchhoffs 2nd law:

For closed loop DCEFD : ( traverse clock

wise )

IR

12 IR I 2(3)

12 3R 2(3)

R2

IR

I 1(1) I 2(3)

1 6

5 V

5 V

* The ve sign shows that the polarity of is

actually the reverse of that shown in

figure.

* If the value of current is ve, this shows

that the actual direction of current flow is

reverse of that shown in figure.

Example

I1, I2 and I3

Solution

a

Loop 1

Loop 2

At Junction c :

Iin Iout

I 1 I 2 I 3 (1)

IR

30 10 I 1 10 I 2 20 I 1 10 I 1

30 40 I 1 10 I 2 (2)

Refer Loop 2 ( cefdc clockwise )

IR

20 10 10 I 3 20 I 3 10 I 3 10 I 2

10 40 I 3 10 I 2 (3)

30 40( I 2 I 3) 10 I 2

30 50 I 2 40 I 3 (4)

Solve (3) & (4) simultaneously :

(3) (4) :

10 40 I 3 10 I 2 (3)

30 50 I 2 40 I 3 (4)

-------------------------------------------------

20 60 I 2

I 0.3333A

2

Substitute I2 & I3 into (1), we get :

I 3 0.3333A

I 1 0.6666A

FOLLOW UP EXERCISE

6.7

3.9

(1)

1.2

12 V

I1

9.8

9.0 V

I2

a. the currents I1, I2 and I,

b. the potential difference across the 6.7 resistor,

c. the power dissipated from the 1.2 resistor.

ANS: (a) I1 = 0.72 A; I2=1.03 A; I = 1.75 A

(b) 6.90 V

(c) 3.68 W

(2)

kind.

with an emf and an internal resistance, and two resistors.

Find

(a) the current in the circuit,

(b) the potential difference Vab with respect to b and

(c) The power output of the emf of each battery

Ans : (a) 0.5 A ; (b) 9.5 V ; (c) 6 W; 2 W

(3) Battery P with e.m.f 1.3 V and internal resistance 2 , battery Q with e.m.f 1.5

V and internal resistance 0.8 and a 4 resistor are connected in parallel.

(i) Sketch the circuit diagram.

(ii) Calculate the current in battery P, battery Q, and the 4 resistor.

(iii) Calculate the potential difference across the 4 resistor.

Ans : (ii) 0.297A; 0.0186 A; 0.316 A; (iii) 1.26 V

(4) Refering to the circuit in Figure below, calculate

(a)The current, I that flows in R resistor.

(b)The resistance of R resistor.

(c)The value of emf

(d)The current that flows in R resistance if the circuit is cut off at point x.

(Internal resistance of the emf source is negligible).

(5)

are negligible. Calculate the current I1, I2 and I3 when

switch S is

i. open.

ii. closed.

Ans : (a) I1=I2 = 1.83 A, I3 = 0A ; (ii) 2.52 A, 1.15A, 1.37 A

-- used to obtain any desired smaller portion of voltage

from a single voltage source, Vo

Voltage source, Vo

R1

R2

V1

-- 2 resistors R1 & R2 are connected to a voltage source

( battery ) with voltage Vo

Vo IRE

where RE R1 R 2

Vo

I

K (1)

( R1 R 2 )

-- the current through R1 & R2 are same.

From : V 1 IR1

Substitute (1) into the equation:

R1

V1

Vo

( R1 R 2 )

Similarly:

R2

V2

Vo

( R1 R 2 )

voltage can be obtained from a voltage source, Vo

(battery).

Example

8000

12 V

4000

Vout

a. calculate the output voltage.

b. If a voltmeter of resistance 4000 is connected across

the output, determine the reading of the voltmeter.

a. The output voltage is given by

Vout

R2

V

R1 R2

Vout

Vout

12 V

4000

12

8000 4000

4 .0 V

parallel, thus the equivalent resistance is

1

1

1

Req 2000

Vout

Vout

2000

12

8000 2000

2 .4 V

3.9.1 Potentiometer

Consider a potentiometer circuit is shown in Figure below

I

A

I

I

G

+V -

Jockey

(Unknown voltage)

The potentiometer is balanced when the jockey (sliding contact)

is at such a position on wire AB that there is no current

through the galvanometer. Thus

Galvanometer reading = 0

When the potentiometer in balanced, the unknown

voltage (potential difference being measured) is

equal to the voltage across AC.

V

Vx VAC

I

I

Vx-

compare the emfs of two cells.

measure an unknown emf of a cell.

measure the internal resistance of a cell.

unknown emf

o In this case, a potentiometer is set up as illustrated in Figure

below, in which AB is a wire of uniform resistance and J is a

sliding contact (jockey) onto the wire.

o An accumulator X maintains a steady current I through the

wire AB.

X

I

A

l1

l2

C

1

(1)

(2)

I

B

moved until the emf 1 exactly balances the potential difference (p.d.)

from the accumulator (galvanometer reading is zero) at point C.

X

Hence

1 VAC

where

VAC IRAC

then

and

l1

RAC

A

l1

1 I

A

C D

(1)

J

(1)

SG

(2)

o After that, the switch S is connected to the terminal (2) and the

jockey moved until the emf 2 balances the p.d. from the

accumulator at point D. Hence

2 VAD

where

VAD IRAD

then

and

l2

RAD

A

l2

2 I

(2)

I

B

l1

I

1

A

2

l2

I

A

Since

1

l1

2 l2

l1

R

Rl

A

1

R1

2

R2

Example

Consider a potentiometer. If a standard battery with an

e.m.f. of 1.0186 V is used in the circuit. When the

resistance is 36 , the galvanometer reads zero. If the

standard battery is replaced by an unknown e.m.f. the

galvanometer reads zero when the resistance is

adjusted to 48 . What is the value of the unknown

e.m.f. ?

Solution

1

R1

2

R2

1.0186 36

2

48

Using :

2 1.358 V

FOLLOW UP EXERCISE

1.

resistance 10.0 .

R1

Q

2

P

G

R2

S1

S2

R1 is a 15 resistor and R2 is a 5.0

resistor when S1 and S2 open,

galvanometer G is balanced when

QT is 62.5 cm. When both S1 and

S2 are closed, the balance length is

10.0 cm. Calculate

a. the emf of cell 2.

b. the internal resistance of cell 2.

Figure 1

ANS. : (a) 0.50 V; (b) 7.5 ;

2.

a uniform wire OS using jockeys X and Y as shown in Figure 2.

1.00 m and its resistance is 12 .

When OY is 75.0 cm, the

galvanometer does not show any

deflection when OX= 50.0 cm. If Y

touches the end S of the wire, OX =

62.5 cm when the galvanometer is

balanced. The emf of the cell B is 1.0

V. Calculate

Figure 2

a. the potential difference across OY when OY = 75.0 cm,

b. the potential difference across OY when Y touches S and the

galvanometer is balanced,

c. the internal resistance of the cell A,

d. the emf of cell A.

-- used to obtain an accurate measurement of an

unknown resistance Rx

I

I1

A

I2

R1

C I1

R2

G 0

R3

D I2

I

B

Rx

and points C,D are joined by a center link or bridge

which contains a galvanometer.

-- one of the known resistor ( for example R1 ) is

varied until the galvanometer reading is zero.

no voltage difference between points C & D, VCD = 0

-- under this condition, the bridge is said to be

balanced.

-- Therefore

-- Resistors R1R2 carry the same current I1

-- Resistors R3RX carry the same current I2

I 1 R1 I 2 R 3 (1)

I 1 R 2 I 2 RX (2)

(2)

:

(1)

Rx

R2

R3

R1

Example

A wheatstone bridge is used to make a precise

measurement of the resistance of a wire connector. If

R = 1 k & the bridge is balanced by adjusting P such

that P = 2.5 Q, what is the value of X ?

R1

R2

R3

RX

Solution

Using : RX

R2

R3 R1

X 1103

Q 2.5Q

X 400

FOLLOW UP EXERCISE

1.

through the 85.0 resistor is zero.

(Physics,3th edition, James S. Walker, Q93, p.731)

ANS. :

7.50

The application of the Wheatstone bridge is Metre Bridge.

Thick copper

strip

(Unknown

Rx resistance)

(resistance box)

I1

I1

Jockey

FOLLOW0UP

GEXERCISE

l1

I

Wire of uniform

resistance

I2

l2

Accumulator

jockey J is at such a position on wire AB

that there is no current through the

galvanometer. Thus the current I1 flows

through the resistance Rx and R but

current I2 flows in the wire AB.

At balance condition,

Vx VAJ and V VJB

By applying Ohms law, thus

I1 Rx I 2 RAJ and I1 R

Dividing

I R

I R gives

1

I1 R

AJ

I 2 RJB

where

l1

Rx A

R l2

l1

Rx

l2

RAJ

I 2 RJB

l1

l2

and RJB

A

A

Next Chapter

CHAPTER 4 :

Magnetic field

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