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QUALITY CIRCLE
SUBMITTED BY: SAKSHI VIRMANI SAMEER BANSAL SAMRITI SANDEEP RAJPUT SANDHYA SEEMA YADAV SEETESH SHALLY VASAL

SECTION-C

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WHAT IS QUALITYCIRCLE ???
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Groups of employees who work on similar tasks or share an area of responsibility They agree to meet on a regular basis to discuss & solve problems related to work. They operate on the principle that employee participation in decision-making and problemsolving improves the quality of work.

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HISTORY
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Quality Circles were first seen in the United States in the 1950¶s Circles were developed by Dr, Kaoru Ishikawa in Japan in the 1960¶s Circles were re-exported to the US in the early 1970¶s 1980¶s brought Total Quality Management and a reduction in the use of Quality Circles Quality Circles can be a useful tool if used properly

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INTRODUCTION
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It is a small group of 6 to 12 volunteers (employees, students, workers etc.) When matured, true quality circles become selfmanaging, having gained the confidence of management. Quality Circle concept has three major attributes: It is a form of participation management. † It is a human resource development technique. † It is a problem solving technique The term quality circles derives from the concept of PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) circles.
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From problem-faced to problemsolved
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PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT
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Plan to improve your operations first identify the problems faced, and come up with ideas for solving these problems. Do changes designed to solve the problems on a small or experimental scale first. Check whether the small scale or experimental changes are achieving the desired result or not. Act to implement changes on a larger scale if the experiment is successful. Also Act to involve other persons (other departments, suppliers, or customers) affected by the changes and whose cooperation you need to implement them on a larger scale, or those who GROUP NUMBER may simply benefit from what you have learned 5/1/2010
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OBJECTIVE
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The objectives of Quality Circles are multi-faced. a) Change in Attitude From "I don¶t care" to "I do care" Continuous improvement in quality of work life through humanization of work. b) Self Development Bring out µHidden Potential¶ of people People get to learn additional skills
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c) Development of Team Spirit Individual Vs Team ± "I could not do but we did it" Eliminate inter departmental conflicts d) Improved Organizational Culture Positive working environment Total involvement of people at all levels Higher motivational level Participate Management process

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CHARACTERISTICS
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- Volunteers - Set Rules and Priorities - Decisions made by Consensus - Use of organized approaches to Problem-Solving - All members of a Circle need to receive training - Members need to be empowered - Members need to have the support of Senior Management
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PRINCIPLES OF QUALITY CIRLCLE
At first glance Quality Circles look very simple, but the approach depends upon a number of principles which one must consider in detail to understand the concept fully. The Voluntary Principle First, Quality Circles are voluntary right through the organization. Second important aspect of the voluntary principle is that operates from week to week. In other words, nobody ties himself to the group, at the start.
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If anyone wants to stop coming whether after the first, fifth or fifteenth meeting, he is quite entitled to do so. Treating Members as Responsible Persons People are trusted that they will behave as responsible adults. Living in the real world one should not sit back and accept that it takes months to change even simple things. It is too easy to assume that everything can be changed and improved over night.
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Win/win The principle of trying to work towards a situation where everyone wins is probably the most important of all. Also the principle of trying to create situations where everyone wins is the heart of Quality circles and groups are well placed to help make this a reality for much of the time. Enjoy It Most members will be keen to achieve results and to enjoy the time they spent working together in their groups. Enjoying the activity is the most important part of the whole movement. GROUP NUMBER 6
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ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE
Top management A steering committee Facilitator Circle leader Circle members Coordination agency Non-member employees

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TRAINING FOR QUALTITY CIRCLE
Training is an important aspect of quality circle activity. In their enthusiasm to launch quality circles without delay, many organizations often skip the training. The major objectives of imparting training for quality circles are To necessary to clarify many misconceptions that exist with regard to the concept of quality circle. To translate philosophy of QC into practice ± It is essential that all those who are going to be involved in the implementation of quality circles must take care of all the important aspects of translating the theory of quality circles into practice.
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To solve problems systematically through simple techniques To improve communication capabilities. It is very essential to impart training to all the prospective participants of QC. The effective manner of making a presentation has also to be explained in the training session. To develop leadership qualities and build up individuals, for the first time workers must play the role of leading their colleagues in the activities of quality circle.

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PROCESS OF OPERATION
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The operation of quality circles involves a set of sequential steps as under: Problem identification: Identify a number of problems. Problem selection : Decide the priority and select the problem to be taken up first. Problem Analysis : Problem is clarified and analyzed by basic problem solving methods.
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Generate alternative solutions : Identify and evaluate causes and generate number of possible alternative solutions. Select the most appropriate solution : Discuss and evaluate the alternative solutions by comparison in terms of investment and return from the investment. This enables to select the most appropriate solution. Prepare plan of action : Prepare plan of action for converting the solution into reality which includes the considerations "who, what, when, where, why and how" of solving problems.
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Present solution to management circle members AND present solution to management fore approval. Implementation of solution : The management evaluates the recommended solution. Then it is tested and if successful, implemented on a full scale.

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BASIC PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES
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The following techniques are most commonly used to analyze and solve work related problems.

1 - Brain storming
2 - Pareto Diagrams 3 - Cause & Effect Analysis 4 - Data Collection 5 - Data Analysis

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The tools used for data analysis are :
1 -Tables 2 -Bar Charts 3 - Histograms 4 - Circle graphs 5 - Line graphs 6 - Scatter grams 7 - Control Charts

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HOW QC IS USED IN ORGANISATION ?
To Increase Productivity To Improve Quality Boost Employee Morale Greater upward flow of information Broader improved worker attitudes Job enrichment Greater teamwork
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ROLES OF QC IN GOVERNMENT
Delegation of powers or authority to different levels. Continuous improvement. Team approach and participative approach. Helps in setting realistic goals. Cooperation Initiative to clear misunderstandings.

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REAL EXAMPLES
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At Penn State University in 1983, a Quality Circle was formed by Professor Hirschfield, a Professor of East Asia History.
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Selected 8 Students from a large lecture class Resulted in increased involvement from the class

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PROBLEM WITH QUALITY CICRCLE ? 
   

- Inadequate Training - Unsure of Purpose - Not truly Voluntary - Lack of Management Interest - Quality Circles are not really empowered to make decisions.

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TEAM EXERCISE
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Break down into teams of 6-8 people Establish a leader and rules for your Circle Have a brainstorming and problem-solving session to resolve the issue on the next slide

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A Collegiate class on Statistical Analysis has a total enrollment of 65 people. Average attendance is 25 students The class consists mainly of lectures How can the professor of this class improve the quality of this course and increase student involvement?

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CONCLUSION
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Quality Circles are not limited to manufacturing firms only. They are applicable for variety of organizations where there is scope for group based solution of work related problems. Quality Circles are relevant for factories, firms, schools, hospitals, universities, research institutes, banks, government offices etc. The P.W.D. of Maharashtra has set an example for the Government organizations marching on the path of Quality Improvement.
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THANK YOU
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Be confident in whatever you do

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