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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Chapter 4
Shallow
Foundations:
Ultimate
Bearing
Capacity

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Introduction
Shallow foundations must have two main characteristics:
1. Be safe against overall shear failure in the soil.

2. Cannot undergo excessive displacement or settlement.

Ultimate bearing capacity: The load per unit area of the


foundation at which shear failure in soil occurs.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Introduction
This chapter discusses the following:
Development of the theoretical relationship for ultimate
bearing capacity of shallow foundations subjected to
centric vertical loading.
Effect of the location of water table and soil
compressibility on ultimate bearing capacity.
Bearing capacity of shallow foundations subjected to
vertical eccentric loading and eccentrically inclined
loading.
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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
Consider a strip foundation with a width of B resting on
the surface of a dense sand or stiff cohesive soil.
If a load is gradually applied foundation, settlement will
increase.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
Failure in the soil supporting the foundation will take place
at a certain point when load per unit area reaches a
certain value.
The tipping point of this load per unit area is called the
ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation ( qu).
General shear failure is the term used for the sudden
failure in the soil.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
For foundations resting on sand or clayey soil of medium
compaction, increasing the load will increase in
settlement.
Failure surface in the soil will gradually extend outward
from the foundation shown by the solid lines in the figure.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
When the load per unit area on the foundation equals qu(1) ,
movement of the foundation will be accompanied by sudden
jerks

qu(1) is referred to as the first failure load

A considerable movement is then required for the failure


surface in soil to extend to the ground surface
This is shown in the previous figure by the dashed lines
The load per unit area at which this happens is the ultimate
bearing capacity ( q ).
u

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
If the foundation is supported by a fairly loose soil, the
loadsettlement plot will be like this figure.

Here the failure surface in soil will not extend to the ground
surface.
Beyond the ultimate failure load ( q ) the loadsettlement plot
u
will be steep and practically linear. This type of failure in soil is
called the punching shear failure.
8

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
Relationship for the mode of bearing capacity failure of foundations
resting on sands.

Dr = relative density of sand


D = depth of foundation measured from the ground surface
f
= width of foundation
= length of foundation

B L for square foundations

for circular foundations so

B L diameter
9

B* B

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2BL
B
B L
*

Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
This figure shows the settlement ( Su ) of the circular and
rectangular plates a sand at ultimate load.

10

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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General Concept
Foundations at a shallow depth ( small,Df / B*) show the
ultimate load occurring at a settlement of 4 to 10% of B.

This condition occurs with general shear failure in soil.

For local or punching shear failure, the ultimate load may


occur at settlements of 15 to 25% of the width of the
foundation (B).

11

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


According to Terzaghi, a foundation is shallow if its depth ( Df ) is less
than or equal to its width.

Later investigators suggested that foundations equal to 3 to 4 times


their width be defined as shallow foundations.

The effect of soil above the bottom of the foundation may be assumed
to be replaced by an equivalent surcharge
q Df .
( = unit weight of soil)

For a continuous or strip foundation the failure surface in soil at


ultimate load may be assumed to be similar to that shown in the
figure.
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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

The failure zone under the foundation can be separated into three
parts:
1. The triangular zone ACD immediately under the foundation
2. The radial shear zones ADF and CDE, with the curves DE and DF
being arcs of a logarithmic spiral
3. Two triangular Rankine passive zones AFH and CEG
(The angles CAD and ACD are assumed to be equal to the soil friction
angle '.)
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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


The ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation can be obtained by
considering the equilibrium of the triangular wedge ACD from the
previous figure and shown on a larger scale here.

14

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


If the load per unit area is applied to the foundation and general shear
failure occurs, the passive force will act on each of the faces of the soil
wedge.
Consider that AD and CD are two walls that are pushing the soil
wedges ADFH and CDEG, respectively, to cause passive failure.
Passive force should be inclined at an angle '(angle of wall friction) to
the perpendicular drawn to the wedge faces (AD and CD).

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


For equilibrium we have the equation

(qu )(2b)(1) W 2Csin ' 2Pp

b B/ 2

W = weight of soil wedge ACD = b2 tan '

= cohesive force acting along each face, AD and CD, that is equal to
C
the unit cohesion times the length of each face =

c'b/ (cos ')

Thus,

or

16

2bqu 2Pp 2bc' tan ' b2 tan '


Pp

b
qu c tan tan '
b
2
'

'

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


The passive pressure is the sum of the contribution of the weight of
soil ( ), cohesion ( c'), and surcharge ( q ).
The following figure shows the distribution of passive pressure from
each of these components on the wedge face CD.
K ,K candKare
earth pressure coefficients that are functions of the soil
q
friction angle ( ').
Taking these figures into consideration we can now write the equation

1
Pp (btan ' )2 K c'(btan ' )Kc q(btan ' )K q
2

17

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

18

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


Combining Equations

Pp

b
1
'
' 2
'
'
'
q

c
tan

tan

u
and p 2 (btan ) K c (btan )Kc q(btan )Kq
b
2
'

'

1
We now can write the equation qu c Nc qNq BN
2
'
'

Nc tan (Kc 1)
Nq Kq tan '

1
N tan '(K tan ' 1)
2

N ,N andN = bearing capacity factors


c
q

19

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


Since Kc ,KqandK are very tedious to calculate, Terzaghi
created the following relations:
If

0 and c 0

qu qq qNq
Where

Nq

20

2(3 / 4 '/ 2)tan '

'

2cos2(45 )
2

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


'
q

c
Nc
If 0 and q 0 then u
c
where

Nc cot [
'

21

2(3 / 4 '/ 2)tan '

'

2cos2( )
4 2

1] cot '(Nq 1)

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


If c' 0 and q 0
1
Then qu qy BN
2

22

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


Variations on bearing capacity factors are given below.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory


To estimate the ultimate bearing capacity of square and
circular foundations, use the following equations.

qu 1.3c'Nc qNq 0.4 BN Square foundation


qu 1.3c'Nc qNq 0.3 BN

Circular foundation (

24

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B diameter
)

Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Factor of Safety
Calculating allowable load-bearing capacity of shallow foundations
requires the applying a factor of safety (FS) to the gross ultimate
bearing capacity.

qall

qu
FS

Some engineers prefer


Net stress increase on soil = Net Ultimate Bearing Capacity

FS

25

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Factor of Safety
Net ultimate bearing capacity: The ultimate pressure per unit area of
the foundation that can be supported by the soil in excess of the
pressure caused by the surrounding soil at the foundation level.
If the difference between the unit weight of concrete used in the
foundation and the unit weight of soil surrounding is assumed to be
negligible, then qnet(u) qu q.

qnet(u) = net ultimate bearing capacity


So

26

qu q
qall(net )
FS

q Df

(here the factor of safety should be at least 3)

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table


If the water table is close to the foundation, some modifications to the
previous bearing capacity equations must be made.

27

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table


Case I.
If the water table is located so that 0 D1 Df , the factor
q in the bearing capacity equations takes the form

q = effective surcharge = D1 D2( sat w )

sat= saturated unit weight of soil

28

w= unit weight of water

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table


Case II.
For a water table located so that

0 d B

q Df

In this case, the factor in the last term of the bearing


capacity equations must be replaced by the factor

d
' ( ' )
B

Based on the assumption that there is no seepage force in the soil.

29

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table


Case III.
When the water table is located so that d Bthe water
will have no effect on the ultimate bearing capacity.

30

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The General Bearing Capacity Equation


Previous equations do not address the case of rectangular foundations.
They also do not consider shearing resistance along the failure surface
in soil above the bottom of the foundation.
Also, the load on the foundation may be inclined.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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The General Bearing Capacity Equation


To account for all those shortcomings, Meyerhof suggested the following
equation:

1
qu c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i
2
'

C'=cohesion

q
=effective stress at the lever of the bottom of the foundation

=unit weight of soil


B=width of foundation (=diameter for a circular foundation)
F ,F ,F
cs qs s

=shape factors
Fcd ,Fqd ,F d

=depth factors
Fci ,Fqi ,F i

=load inclination factors

Nc ,Nq ,N

32

=bearing capacity factors

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing Capacity Factors


The angle shown in the figure below is closer to
'
'
45 / 2 than .

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing Capacity Factors


If the previous changes are accepted, then the following
equations should be employed:
'
'

Nq tan2(45 )e tan
2

N 2(Nq 1)tan

'

Nc (Nq 1)cot '

Relations between 'andN can be found on the following table.

34

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Shape, Depth, and Inclination Factors


Commonly used shape, depth, and inclination factors are
given in the following tables.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Shape, Depth, and Inclination Factors

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Other Solutions for Bearing Capacity (N ), Shape, and


Depth Factors
Other equations for bearing capacity factors

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Other Solutions for Bearing Capacity (N ), Shape, and


Depth Factors
Variations of

38

N with soil friction angle ( )'

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Other Solutions for Bearing Capacity (N ), Shape, and


Depth Factors
Variations of

39

N with soil friction angle ( )'

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Shape and Depth Factors


Shape and depth factors proposed by Meyerhof

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Shape and Depth Factors


Zhu and Michalowski shape factors based on the
elastoplastic model of soil and finite element analysis.

B 0.5
Fcs 1(1.8tan 0.1)( )
L
2

41

'

B 0.5
Fqs 1(1.9tan )( )
L

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'

Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Case Studies on Ultimate Bearing Capacity


Corn Silo bearing capacity failure
Load per unit area foundation when failure occurred 160kN /

1
qu cNcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i
2
'

42

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PI 36
Cu 27.1
B 7.2
Df 1.52

m2

Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Case Studies on Ultimate Bearing Capacity

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Case Studies on Ultimate Bearing Capacity


Corn Silo bearing capacity failure

1
qu c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i
2
'

FS= q / applied load per unit area


u

FS=181.8= 1.14

160
This factor of safety is too low and approximately equals one, for which
failure occurred for the silo.

44

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Load Tests on Small Foundations in Soft Bangkok Clay


Load tests of five small square foundations on soft clay.
According to the figure
zero and 1.5 m.

Cu(VST ) is about 35 kN/m2 for depths between

Cu(VST )

is approximately equal to 24k N/m2 for depths varying from 1.5


to 8 m.

45

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Load Tests on Small Foundations in Soft Bangkok Clay


The figure shows the load-settlement plots obtained from the bearingcapacity tests on all five foundations.
The ultimate loads are shown and can be determined from the graph.
The ultimate load is defined as the point where the load-settlement
plot becomes practically linear.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Effect of Soil Compressibility


Vesic proposed the following equation to account for
change in failure due to soil compressibility:

1
qu cNcFcsFcdFcc qNqFqsFqdFqc BN F sF dF c
2
'

F ,F andF are soil compressibility factors.


cc qc
c

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Effect of Soil Compressibility


Calculating F ,F andF
cc qc
c
1. Determine rigidity index I at a soil depth
r

approximately B/ 2 below the bottom of the

foundation.

Ir

Gs
c' q' tan '

Gs= shear modulus of soil

q'= effective overburden pressure at depth of Df B/ 2


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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Effect of Soil Compressibility


2. Calculate critical rigidity index

1
B
'
I r(cr ) {exp[(3.30 0.45 )cot(45 )]}
2
L
2
Variations of I
with B/ L in the following table
r(cr )

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Effect of Soil Compressibility


3. If I r I r(cr ) then

If

Fcc Fqc F c 1

I r I r(cr ) then

'
(3.07sin

)(log2I r )
B
'
F c Fqc exp{(4.4 0.6 )tan [
]}
'
L
1 sin

50

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Effect of Soil Compressibility


3. Contd

B
Fcc 0.32 0.12 0.60logI r
L
For

0 use
'

Fcc Fqc

51

1 Fqc
Nq tan '

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Eccentrically Loaded Foundations


In several instances, as with the base of a retaining wall,
foundations are subjected to moments in addition to the
vertical load.

In this situation the distribution of pressure by the


foundation on the soil is not uniform.
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Eccentrically Loaded Foundations


The nominal distribution of pressure is

Q = 6M
vertical
load
Q
qmax
total
BL B2L
Q 6M
qmin
=2 moment
on the foundation
M
BL B L

53

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Eccentrically Loaded Foundations


Using the equation

M
e
Q
We get

Q
6e
qmax (1 )
BL
B

and

Q
6e
qmin (1 )
BL
B

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Eccentrically Loaded Foundations


When the eccentricity ebecomes B/ 6, then qmin is zero.
When e B/ 6, qmin will be negative and tension will
develop.
Soil cannot take any tension, so there will be a separation
between the foundation and the underlying soil.
The value of

55

4Q
qmax
3L(B 2e)

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Eccentrically Loaded Foundations


The figure shows the nature of failure surface in soil for a
surface strip foundation subjected to an eccentric load.

The factor of safety for such type of loading against


bearing capacity failure is

FS

Qu
56

Qu
Q

= Ultimate load carrying capacity

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity

Effective Area Method


Used for determining the ultimate load that the soil can
support and the factor of safety against bearing capacity
failure.

57

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity


Step 1. Determine the effective dimensions of the
foundation.

B'= effective width = B 2e

L'= effective length = L

If the eccentricity were in the direction of the length of the foundation,


the value of L' would be equal to L 2e. The value of B' would equal B.
The smaller of the two dimensions is the effective width of the
foundation.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity


1

qu c'NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i
2

Step 2.
Use the equation above to determine ultimate bearing
capacity.
Use relationships in Table 4.3 to determine

Fcs ,Fqs ,F s ,Fcd ,Fqd ,F d


(use the effective width and length dimensions)

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity


Step 3. The total ultimate load that the foundation can
sustain is
'
'
'
'
u

Q A {(qu(B )(L )}

'

A = effective area

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity


Step 4. The factor of safety against bearing capacity failure is

FS

Qu
Q

q'u is the ultimate bearing capacity of a foundation of width B' B 2e

with a centric load.

The actual distribution of soil reaction at ultimate load will be of the


type shown in Figure to follow.

qu(e) is the average load per unit area of the foundation. Thus
'
u

q (B 2e)
qu(e)
B
64

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Prakash and Saran Theory


Analysis of the problem of ultimate bearing capacity of
eccentrically and vertically loaded continuous (strip)
foundations.
Uses the one-sided failure surface in soil.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Prakash and Saran Theory


The ultimate load per unit length of a continuous
foundation is determined by the equation

1
Qu qu(e)B [c Nc(e) qNq(e) BN y(e) ]
2
'

Nc(e) ,Nq(e) ,N y(e) = bearing capacity factors under

eccentric loading.

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Prakash and Saran Theory


The variations of Nc(e) ,Nq(e) ,N y(e) with soil angle are given
in the following figures.

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Prakash and Saran Theory

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Prakash and Saran Theory

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Prakash and Saran Theory

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Prakash and Saran Theory


For rectangular foundations the ultimate load can be given
as
1
'
Qu BL[cN
c( e)Fcs( e) qNq( e)Fqs( e) BN ( e)F s( e) ]
2

Fcs(e) ,Fqs(e) ,F s(e) = Shape Factors


L
Fcs(e) 1.2 0.025
B
Fqs(e) 1
2e
B
3e B 2
F s(e) 1.0( 0.68) [0.43( )]( )
B
L
2B L
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Reduction Factor Method (For Granular Soil)


Stability analysis of eccentrically loaded continuous foundations
supported by a layer of sand using the method of slices.

Rk 1

qu(e)

qu(centric)

ek
Rk = Reduction Factor = Rk a( )
B

qu(e)= average ultimate bearing capacity of eccentrically loaded

continuous foundations

qu = ultimate bearing capacity of centrally loaded continuous

foundations.

a and k = functions of the embedment ratio found on the


next slide.

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Reduction Factor Method (For Granular Soil)

Combining the equations on the previous slide we get

ek
qu(e) qu(1 Rk ) qu[1 a( ) ]
B

1
qu qNqFqd BN F d
2
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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Reduction Factor Method (For Granular Soil)


Based on lab tests

2e
qu(e) qu(1 )
B
The ultimate load per unit length of the foundation can
then be given as

Qu Bqu(e)

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Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


Consider a foundation is subjected to a vertical ultimate
load and a moment as shown in Figures. For this case,
the components of the moment about the x- and y-axes
can be determined as Mxand M y, respectively.

76

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Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


This condition is equivalent to a load Qu placed
eccentrically on the foundation with x eB and y eL.
eB

My
Qu

Mx
eL
Qu

Qu qu' A'

1 '
q c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi B N F sF dF i
2
'
u

'

A' = effective area = B'L'

77

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Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


The terms F ,F andFcan be found using the table below.
cs qs
s
Use effective

78

B'and L' width and length instead of

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Band L

Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


The terms F ,F andFcan be found using the table below.
cs qs
s
Use effective

79

B'and L' width and length instead of

2016 Cengage Learning Engineering. All Rights Reserved.

Band L

Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


To determine

Fcd ,Fqd ,F ddo not replace

In determining

'

A B

1
Case I: e / L
L
6

',

and

Bwith B.

'
, there are five possibilities.

1
and e / B
B
6

80

'

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


Case I:

1
1
eL / L and eB / B
6
6

The effective area in this condition is shown in the figure

81

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


For Case I, the following equations apply

3eB
B1 B(1.5
)
B

1
A B1L1
2
'

L1 L(1.5

82

3eL
L

'

A
B '
L
'

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


Case II:

eL / L 0.5 and 0 eB / B

1
6

The effective area is show in the figure below

83

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


For Case II, the following equations apply

1
A (L1 L2 )B
2
'

'
A
B'
L1 or L 2(use whichever L value is larger)

L value is larger)
L' L1(use
orwhichever
L2

84

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


Case III:

1and
eL / L
0 eB / B 0.5
6

The effective area is shown in the figure below.

85

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


For Case III, the following equations apply

1
A (B1 B2 )L
2
'

86

LL
'

'

A
B
L
'

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


The magnitudes for
below.

87

B1and B can be found from the figure


2

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


Case IV:

1
1
eL / L and e / B
B
6
6
Effective area can be determined by the figure below

88

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


The ratio B / B can be determined using the upward
2
sloping lines in the figure below.
The ratio L / L can be determined from the downward
2
sloping lines in the figure below.

89

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


For Case IV, the following equations apply.

1
A L2B (B B2)(L L2 )
2
'

'

A
B
L
'

LL
'

90

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity


Case V:
In the case of circular foundations under eccentric loading, the
eccentricity is always one way.
The effective area and effective width are determined from the table
below.

The values from the table allow us to apply the equation


91

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'
A
L' ' .
B

Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing Capacity of a Continuous Foundation Subjected to


Eccentrically Inclined Loading
Shallow continuous foundations are at times subjected to
eccentrically inclined loads.
The figure shows two possible modes of load application.

92

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Bearing Capacity of a Continuous Foundation Subjected to


Eccentrically Inclined Loading
In the figure the line of load application of the foundation
is inclined toward the center line of the foundation.
This is referred to as partially compensated by Perloff and
Baron.

93

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

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Bearing Capacity of a Continuous Foundation Subjected to


Eccentrically Inclined Loading
The line load application on the foundation can be inclined
away from the center line of the foundation.
This is called the reinforced case by Perloff and Baron and
is shown in the figure below.

94

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Partially Compensated Case


Start with the equation

1 '
q c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi B N F sF dF i
2
'
u

'

For a continuous foundation F F F 1and


cs
qs
s
'
B B 2e can be determined from the tables on the
following slide.

95

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Partially Compensated Case


Depth and inclination
factors

96

Bearing capacity
factors

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Partially Compensated Case


After determining the value for
equation

'
we can apply the
u

(q'u )(B' )(1) q'u(B 2e)


Qu(ei)

cos
cos
It has been proposed to use a reduction factor to estimate
Q for granular soil
u(ei )

QReduction
q B(RF)
=
factor
u(ei )

RF

qu= ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation with centric vertical


loading
97

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Partially Compensated Case


The reduction factor is determined by the equation

Combining the previous equations we get

98

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Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Reinforced Case (Granular Soil)


Use equation

99

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Das