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Das

Chapter 4

Shallow

Foundations:

Ultimate

Bearing

Capacity

Das

Introduction

Shallow foundations must have two main characteristics:

1. Be safe against overall shear failure in the soil.

foundation at which shear failure in soil occurs.

Das

Introduction

This chapter discusses the following:

Development of the theoretical relationship for ultimate

bearing capacity of shallow foundations subjected to

centric vertical loading.

Effect of the location of water table and soil

compressibility on ultimate bearing capacity.

Bearing capacity of shallow foundations subjected to

vertical eccentric loading and eccentrically inclined

loading.

3

Das

General Concept

Consider a strip foundation with a width of B resting on

the surface of a dense sand or stiff cohesive soil.

If a load is gradually applied foundation, settlement will

increase.

Das

General Concept

Failure in the soil supporting the foundation will take place

at a certain point when load per unit area reaches a

certain value.

The tipping point of this load per unit area is called the

ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation ( qu).

General shear failure is the term used for the sudden

failure in the soil.

Das

General Concept

For foundations resting on sand or clayey soil of medium

compaction, increasing the load will increase in

settlement.

Failure surface in the soil will gradually extend outward

from the foundation shown by the solid lines in the figure.

Das

General Concept

When the load per unit area on the foundation equals qu(1) ,

movement of the foundation will be accompanied by sudden

jerks

surface in soil to extend to the ground surface

This is shown in the previous figure by the dashed lines

The load per unit area at which this happens is the ultimate

bearing capacity ( q ).

u

Das

General Concept

If the foundation is supported by a fairly loose soil, the

loadsettlement plot will be like this figure.

Here the failure surface in soil will not extend to the ground

surface.

Beyond the ultimate failure load ( q ) the loadsettlement plot

u

will be steep and practically linear. This type of failure in soil is

called the punching shear failure.

8

Das

General Concept

Relationship for the mode of bearing capacity failure of foundations

resting on sands.

D = depth of foundation measured from the ground surface

f

= width of foundation

= length of foundation

B L diameter

9

B* B

2BL

B

B L

*

Das

General Concept

This figure shows the settlement ( Su ) of the circular and

rectangular plates a sand at ultimate load.

10

Das

General Concept

Foundations at a shallow depth ( small,Df / B*) show the

ultimate load occurring at a settlement of 4 to 10% of B.

occur at settlements of 15 to 25% of the width of the

foundation (B).

11

Das

According to Terzaghi, a foundation is shallow if its depth ( Df ) is less

than or equal to its width.

their width be defined as shallow foundations.

The effect of soil above the bottom of the foundation may be assumed

to be replaced by an equivalent surcharge

q Df .

( = unit weight of soil)

ultimate load may be assumed to be similar to that shown in the

figure.

12

Das

The failure zone under the foundation can be separated into three

parts:

1. The triangular zone ACD immediately under the foundation

2. The radial shear zones ADF and CDE, with the curves DE and DF

being arcs of a logarithmic spiral

3. Two triangular Rankine passive zones AFH and CEG

(The angles CAD and ACD are assumed to be equal to the soil friction

angle '.)

13

Das

The ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation can be obtained by

considering the equilibrium of the triangular wedge ACD from the

previous figure and shown on a larger scale here.

14

Das

If the load per unit area is applied to the foundation and general shear

failure occurs, the passive force will act on each of the faces of the soil

wedge.

Consider that AD and CD are two walls that are pushing the soil

wedges ADFH and CDEG, respectively, to cause passive failure.

Passive force should be inclined at an angle '(angle of wall friction) to

the perpendicular drawn to the wedge faces (AD and CD).

15

Das

For equilibrium we have the equation

b B/ 2

= cohesive force acting along each face, AD and CD, that is equal to

C

the unit cohesion times the length of each face =

Thus,

or

16

Pp

b

qu c tan tan '

b

2

'

'

Das

The passive pressure is the sum of the contribution of the weight of

soil ( ), cohesion ( c'), and surcharge ( q ).

The following figure shows the distribution of passive pressure from

each of these components on the wedge face CD.

K ,K candKare

earth pressure coefficients that are functions of the soil

q

friction angle ( ').

Taking these figures into consideration we can now write the equation

1

Pp (btan ' )2 K c'(btan ' )Kc q(btan ' )K q

2

17

Das

18

Das

Combining Equations

Pp

b

1

'

' 2

'

'

'

q

c

tan

tan

u

and p 2 (btan ) K c (btan )Kc q(btan )Kq

b

2

'

'

1

We now can write the equation qu c Nc qNq BN

2

'

'

Nc tan (Kc 1)

Nq Kq tan '

1

N tan '(K tan ' 1)

2

c

q

19

Das

Since Kc ,KqandK are very tedious to calculate, Terzaghi

created the following relations:

If

0 and c 0

qu qq qNq

Where

Nq

20

'

2cos2(45 )

2

Das

'

q

c

Nc

If 0 and q 0 then u

c

where

Nc cot [

'

21

'

2cos2( )

4 2

1] cot '(Nq 1)

Das

If c' 0 and q 0

1

Then qu qy BN

2

22

Das

Variations on bearing capacity factors are given below.

23

Das

To estimate the ultimate bearing capacity of square and

circular foundations, use the following equations.

qu 1.3c'Nc qNq 0.3 BN

Circular foundation (

24

B diameter

)

Das

Factor of Safety

Calculating allowable load-bearing capacity of shallow foundations

requires the applying a factor of safety (FS) to the gross ultimate

bearing capacity.

qall

qu

FS

Net stress increase on soil = Net Ultimate Bearing Capacity

FS

25

Das

Factor of Safety

Net ultimate bearing capacity: The ultimate pressure per unit area of

the foundation that can be supported by the soil in excess of the

pressure caused by the surrounding soil at the foundation level.

If the difference between the unit weight of concrete used in the

foundation and the unit weight of soil surrounding is assumed to be

negligible, then qnet(u) qu q.

So

26

qu q

qall(net )

FS

q Df

Das

If the water table is close to the foundation, some modifications to the

previous bearing capacity equations must be made.

27

Das

Case I.

If the water table is located so that 0 D1 Df , the factor

q in the bearing capacity equations takes the form

28

Das

Case II.

For a water table located so that

0 d B

q Df

capacity equations must be replaced by the factor

d

' ( ' )

B

29

Das

Case III.

When the water table is located so that d Bthe water

will have no effect on the ultimate bearing capacity.

30

Das

Previous equations do not address the case of rectangular foundations.

They also do not consider shearing resistance along the failure surface

in soil above the bottom of the foundation.

Also, the load on the foundation may be inclined.

31

Das

To account for all those shortcomings, Meyerhof suggested the following

equation:

1

qu c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i

2

'

C'=cohesion

q

=effective stress at the lever of the bottom of the foundation

B=width of foundation (=diameter for a circular foundation)

F ,F ,F

cs qs s

=shape factors

Fcd ,Fqd ,F d

=depth factors

Fci ,Fqi ,F i

Nc ,Nq ,N

32

Das

The angle shown in the figure below is closer to

'

'

45 / 2 than .

33

Das

If the previous changes are accepted, then the following

equations should be employed:

'

'

Nq tan2(45 )e tan

2

N 2(Nq 1)tan

'

34

Das

Commonly used shape, depth, and inclination factors are

given in the following tables.

35

Das

36

Das

Depth Factors

Other equations for bearing capacity factors

37

Das

Depth Factors

Variations of

38

Das

Depth Factors

Variations of

39

Das

Shape and depth factors proposed by Meyerhof

40

Das

Zhu and Michalowski shape factors based on the

elastoplastic model of soil and finite element analysis.

B 0.5

Fcs 1(1.8tan 0.1)( )

L

2

41

'

B 0.5

Fqs 1(1.9tan )( )

L

'

Das

Corn Silo bearing capacity failure

Load per unit area foundation when failure occurred 160kN /

1

qu cNcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i

2

'

42

PI 36

Cu 27.1

B 7.2

Df 1.52

m2

Das

43

Das

Corn Silo bearing capacity failure

1

qu c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i

2

'

u

FS=181.8= 1.14

160

This factor of safety is too low and approximately equals one, for which

failure occurred for the silo.

44

Das

Load tests of five small square foundations on soft clay.

According to the figure

zero and 1.5 m.

Cu(VST )

to 8 m.

45

Das

The figure shows the load-settlement plots obtained from the bearingcapacity tests on all five foundations.

The ultimate loads are shown and can be determined from the graph.

The ultimate load is defined as the point where the load-settlement

plot becomes practically linear.

46

Das

Vesic proposed the following equation to account for

change in failure due to soil compressibility:

1

qu cNcFcsFcdFcc qNqFqsFqdFqc BN F sF dF c

2

'

cc qc

c

47

Das

Calculating F ,F andF

cc qc

c

1. Determine rigidity index I at a soil depth

r

foundation.

Ir

Gs

c' q' tan '

48

Das

2. Calculate critical rigidity index

1

B

'

I r(cr ) {exp[(3.30 0.45 )cot(45 )]}

2

L

2

Variations of I

with B/ L in the following table

r(cr )

49

Das

3. If I r I r(cr ) then

If

Fcc Fqc F c 1

I r I r(cr ) then

'

(3.07sin

)(log2I r )

B

'

F c Fqc exp{(4.4 0.6 )tan [

]}

'

L

1 sin

50

3. Contd

B

Fcc 0.32 0.12 0.60logI r

L

For

0 use

'

Fcc Fqc

51

1 Fqc

Nq tan '

Das

Das

In several instances, as with the base of a retaining wall,

foundations are subjected to moments in addition to the

vertical load.

foundation on the soil is not uniform.

52

Das

The nominal distribution of pressure is

Q = 6M

vertical

load

Q

qmax

total

BL B2L

Q 6M

qmin

=2 moment

on the foundation

M

BL B L

53

Das

Using the equation

M

e

Q

We get

Q

6e

qmax (1 )

BL

B

and

Q

6e

qmin (1 )

BL

B

54

Das

When the eccentricity ebecomes B/ 6, then qmin is zero.

When e B/ 6, qmin will be negative and tension will

develop.

Soil cannot take any tension, so there will be a separation

between the foundation and the underlying soil.

The value of

55

4Q

qmax

3L(B 2e)

Das

The figure shows the nature of failure surface in soil for a

surface strip foundation subjected to an eccentric load.

bearing capacity failure is

FS

Qu

56

Qu

Q

Das

Used for determining the ultimate load that the soil can

support and the factor of safety against bearing capacity

failure.

57

Das

Step 1. Determine the effective dimensions of the

foundation.

the value of L' would be equal to L 2e. The value of B' would equal B.

The smaller of the two dimensions is the effective width of the

foundation.

58

Das

59

Das

1

qu c'NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i

2

Step 2.

Use the equation above to determine ultimate bearing

capacity.

Use relationships in Table 4.3 to determine

(use the effective width and length dimensions)

60

Das

61

Das

62

Das

Step 3. The total ultimate load that the foundation can

sustain is

'

'

'

'

u

Q A {(qu(B )(L )}

'

A = effective area

63

Das

Step 4. The factor of safety against bearing capacity failure is

FS

Qu

Q

type shown in Figure to follow.

qu(e) is the average load per unit area of the foundation. Thus

'

u

q (B 2e)

qu(e)

B

64

Das

65

Das

Analysis of the problem of ultimate bearing capacity of

eccentrically and vertically loaded continuous (strip)

foundations.

Uses the one-sided failure surface in soil.

66

Das

The ultimate load per unit length of a continuous

foundation is determined by the equation

1

Qu qu(e)B [c Nc(e) qNq(e) BN y(e) ]

2

'

eccentric loading.

67

Das

The variations of Nc(e) ,Nq(e) ,N y(e) with soil angle are given

in the following figures.

68

69

Das

70

Das

71

Das

Das

For rectangular foundations the ultimate load can be given

as

1

'

Qu BL[cN

c( e)Fcs( e) qNq( e)Fqs( e) BN ( e)F s( e) ]

2

L

Fcs(e) 1.2 0.025

B

Fqs(e) 1

2e

B

3e B 2

F s(e) 1.0( 0.68) [0.43( )]( )

B

L

2B L

72

Das

Stability analysis of eccentrically loaded continuous foundations

supported by a layer of sand using the method of slices.

Rk 1

qu(e)

qu(centric)

ek

Rk = Reduction Factor = Rk a( )

B

continuous foundations

foundations.

next slide.

73

Das

ek

qu(e) qu(1 Rk ) qu[1 a( ) ]

B

1

qu qNqFqd BN F d

2

74

Das

Based on lab tests

2e

qu(e) qu(1 )

B

The ultimate load per unit length of the foundation can

then be given as

Qu Bqu(e)

75

Das

Consider a foundation is subjected to a vertical ultimate

load and a moment as shown in Figures. For this case,

the components of the moment about the x- and y-axes

can be determined as Mxand M y, respectively.

76

Das

This condition is equivalent to a load Qu placed

eccentrically on the foundation with x eB and y eL.

eB

My

Qu

Mx

eL

Qu

Qu qu' A'

1 '

q c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi B N F sF dF i

2

'

u

'

77

Das

The terms F ,F andFcan be found using the table below.

cs qs

s

Use effective

78

Band L

Das

The terms F ,F andFcan be found using the table below.

cs qs

s

Use effective

79

Band L

Das

To determine

In determining

'

A B

1

Case I: e / L

L

6

',

and

Bwith B.

'

, there are five possibilities.

1

and e / B

B

6

80

'

Das

Case I:

1

1

eL / L and eB / B

6

6

81

Das

For Case I, the following equations apply

3eB

B1 B(1.5

)

B

1

A B1L1

2

'

L1 L(1.5

82

3eL

L

'

A

B '

L

'

Das

Case II:

eL / L 0.5 and 0 eB / B

1

6

83

Das

For Case II, the following equations apply

1

A (L1 L2 )B

2

'

'

A

B'

L1 or L 2(use whichever L value is larger)

L value is larger)

L' L1(use

orwhichever

L2

84

Das

Case III:

1and

eL / L

0 eB / B 0.5

6

85

Das

For Case III, the following equations apply

1

A (B1 B2 )L

2

'

86

LL

'

'

A

B

L

'

Das

The magnitudes for

below.

87

2

Das

Case IV:

1

1

eL / L and e / B

B

6

6

Effective area can be determined by the figure below

88

Das

The ratio B / B can be determined using the upward

2

sloping lines in the figure below.

The ratio L / L can be determined from the downward

2

sloping lines in the figure below.

89

Das

For Case IV, the following equations apply.

1

A L2B (B B2)(L L2 )

2

'

'

A

B

L

'

LL

'

90

Das

Case V:

In the case of circular foundations under eccentric loading, the

eccentricity is always one way.

The effective area and effective width are determined from the table

below.

91

'

A

L' ' .

B

Das

Eccentrically Inclined Loading

Shallow continuous foundations are at times subjected to

eccentrically inclined loads.

The figure shows two possible modes of load application.

92

Das

Eccentrically Inclined Loading

In the figure the line of load application of the foundation

is inclined toward the center line of the foundation.

This is referred to as partially compensated by Perloff and

Baron.

93

Das

Eccentrically Inclined Loading

The line load application on the foundation can be inclined

away from the center line of the foundation.

This is called the reinforced case by Perloff and Baron and

is shown in the figure below.

94

Das

Start with the equation

1 '

q c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi B N F sF dF i

2

'

u

'

cs

qs

s

'

B B 2e can be determined from the tables on the

following slide.

95

Das

Depth and inclination

factors

96

Bearing capacity

factors

Das

After determining the value for

equation

'

we can apply the

u

Qu(ei)

cos

cos

It has been proposed to use a reduction factor to estimate

Q for granular soil

u(ei )

QReduction

q B(RF)

=

factor

u(ei )

RF

loading

97

Das

The reduction factor is determined by the equation

98

Use equation

99

Das

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