You are on page 1of 99

# Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Chapter 4
Shallow
Foundations:
Ultimate
Bearing
Capacity

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Introduction
Shallow foundations must have two main characteristics:
1. Be safe against overall shear failure in the soil.

## Ultimate bearing capacity: The load per unit area of the

foundation at which shear failure in soil occurs.

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Introduction
This chapter discusses the following:
Development of the theoretical relationship for ultimate
bearing capacity of shallow foundations subjected to
Effect of the location of water table and soil
compressibility on ultimate bearing capacity.
Bearing capacity of shallow foundations subjected to
3

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
Consider a strip foundation with a width of B resting on
the surface of a dense sand or stiff cohesive soil.
If a load is gradually applied foundation, settlement will
increase.

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
Failure in the soil supporting the foundation will take place
at a certain point when load per unit area reaches a
certain value.
The tipping point of this load per unit area is called the
ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation ( qu).
General shear failure is the term used for the sudden
failure in the soil.

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
For foundations resting on sand or clayey soil of medium
compaction, increasing the load will increase in
settlement.
Failure surface in the soil will gradually extend outward
from the foundation shown by the solid lines in the figure.

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
When the load per unit area on the foundation equals qu(1) ,
movement of the foundation will be accompanied by sudden
jerks

## A considerable movement is then required for the failure

surface in soil to extend to the ground surface
This is shown in the previous figure by the dashed lines
The load per unit area at which this happens is the ultimate
bearing capacity ( q ).
u

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
If the foundation is supported by a fairly loose soil, the
loadsettlement plot will be like this figure.

Here the failure surface in soil will not extend to the ground
surface.
Beyond the ultimate failure load ( q ) the loadsettlement plot
u
will be steep and practically linear. This type of failure in soil is
called the punching shear failure.
8

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
Relationship for the mode of bearing capacity failure of foundations
resting on sands.

## Dr = relative density of sand

D = depth of foundation measured from the ground surface
f
= width of foundation
= length of foundation

B L diameter
9

B* B

2BL
B
B L
*

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
This figure shows the settlement ( Su ) of the circular and
rectangular plates a sand at ultimate load.

10

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

General Concept
Foundations at a shallow depth ( small,Df / B*) show the
ultimate load occurring at a settlement of 4 to 10% of B.

## For local or punching shear failure, the ultimate load may

occur at settlements of 15 to 25% of the width of the
foundation (B).

11

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

According to Terzaghi, a foundation is shallow if its depth ( Df ) is less
than or equal to its width.

## Later investigators suggested that foundations equal to 3 to 4 times

their width be defined as shallow foundations.

The effect of soil above the bottom of the foundation may be assumed
to be replaced by an equivalent surcharge
q Df .
( = unit weight of soil)

## For a continuous or strip foundation the failure surface in soil at

ultimate load may be assumed to be similar to that shown in the
figure.
12

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

The failure zone under the foundation can be separated into three
parts:
1. The triangular zone ACD immediately under the foundation
2. The radial shear zones ADF and CDE, with the curves DE and DF
being arcs of a logarithmic spiral
3. Two triangular Rankine passive zones AFH and CEG
(The angles CAD and ACD are assumed to be equal to the soil friction
angle '.)
13

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

The ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation can be obtained by
considering the equilibrium of the triangular wedge ACD from the
previous figure and shown on a larger scale here.

14

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

If the load per unit area is applied to the foundation and general shear
failure occurs, the passive force will act on each of the faces of the soil
wedge.
Consider that AD and CD are two walls that are pushing the soil
wedges ADFH and CDEG, respectively, to cause passive failure.
Passive force should be inclined at an angle '(angle of wall friction) to
the perpendicular drawn to the wedge faces (AD and CD).

15

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

For equilibrium we have the equation

b B/ 2

## W = weight of soil wedge ACD = b2 tan '

= cohesive force acting along each face, AD and CD, that is equal to
C
the unit cohesion times the length of each face =

Thus,

or

16

Pp

b
qu c tan tan '
b
2
'

'

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

The passive pressure is the sum of the contribution of the weight of
soil ( ), cohesion ( c'), and surcharge ( q ).
The following figure shows the distribution of passive pressure from
each of these components on the wedge face CD.
K ,K candKare
earth pressure coefficients that are functions of the soil
q
friction angle ( ').
Taking these figures into consideration we can now write the equation

1
Pp (btan ' )2 K c'(btan ' )Kc q(btan ' )K q
2

17

Das

18

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

Combining Equations

Pp

b
1
'
' 2
'
'
'
q

c
tan

tan

u
and p 2 (btan ) K c (btan )Kc q(btan )Kq
b
2
'

'

1
We now can write the equation qu c Nc qNq BN
2
'
'

Nc tan (Kc 1)
Nq Kq tan '

1
N tan '(K tan ' 1)
2

c
q

19

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

Since Kc ,KqandK are very tedious to calculate, Terzaghi
created the following relations:
If

0 and c 0

qu qq qNq
Where

Nq

20

'

2cos2(45 )
2

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

'
q

c
Nc
If 0 and q 0 then u
c
where

Nc cot [
'

21

'

2cos2( )
4 2

1] cot '(Nq 1)

Das

If c' 0 and q 0
1
Then qu qy BN
2

22

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

Variations on bearing capacity factors are given below.

23

Das

## Terzaghis Bearing Capacity Theory

To estimate the ultimate bearing capacity of square and
circular foundations, use the following equations.

## qu 1.3c'Nc qNq 0.4 BN Square foundation

qu 1.3c'Nc qNq 0.3 BN

Circular foundation (

24

B diameter
)

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Factor of Safety
Calculating allowable load-bearing capacity of shallow foundations
requires the applying a factor of safety (FS) to the gross ultimate
bearing capacity.

qall

qu
FS

## Some engineers prefer

Net stress increase on soil = Net Ultimate Bearing Capacity

FS

25

## Principles of Foundation Engineering, SI, 8th edition

Das

Factor of Safety
Net ultimate bearing capacity: The ultimate pressure per unit area of
the foundation that can be supported by the soil in excess of the
pressure caused by the surrounding soil at the foundation level.
If the difference between the unit weight of concrete used in the
foundation and the unit weight of soil surrounding is assumed to be
negligible, then qnet(u) qu q.

So

26

qu q
qall(net )
FS

q Df

Das

## Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table

If the water table is close to the foundation, some modifications to the
previous bearing capacity equations must be made.

27

Das

## Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table

Case I.
If the water table is located so that 0 D1 Df , the factor
q in the bearing capacity equations takes the form

28

Das

## Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table

Case II.
For a water table located so that

0 d B

q Df

## In this case, the factor in the last term of the bearing

capacity equations must be replaced by the factor

d
' ( ' )
B

29

Das

## Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table

Case III.
When the water table is located so that d Bthe water
will have no effect on the ultimate bearing capacity.

30

Das

## The General Bearing Capacity Equation

Previous equations do not address the case of rectangular foundations.
They also do not consider shearing resistance along the failure surface
in soil above the bottom of the foundation.
Also, the load on the foundation may be inclined.

31

Das

## The General Bearing Capacity Equation

To account for all those shortcomings, Meyerhof suggested the following
equation:

1
qu c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i
2
'

C'=cohesion

q
=effective stress at the lever of the bottom of the foundation

## =unit weight of soil

B=width of foundation (=diameter for a circular foundation)
F ,F ,F
cs qs s

=shape factors
Fcd ,Fqd ,F d

=depth factors
Fci ,Fqi ,F i

Nc ,Nq ,N

32

Das

## Bearing Capacity Factors

The angle shown in the figure below is closer to
'
'
45 / 2 than .

33

Das

## Bearing Capacity Factors

If the previous changes are accepted, then the following
equations should be employed:
'
'

Nq tan2(45 )e tan
2

N 2(Nq 1)tan

'

34

Das

## Shape, Depth, and Inclination Factors

Commonly used shape, depth, and inclination factors are
given in the following tables.

35

Das

36

Das

## Other Solutions for Bearing Capacity (N ), Shape, and

Depth Factors
Other equations for bearing capacity factors

37

Das

Depth Factors
Variations of

38

Das

Depth Factors
Variations of

39

Das

## Shape and Depth Factors

Shape and depth factors proposed by Meyerhof

40

Das

## Shape and Depth Factors

Zhu and Michalowski shape factors based on the
elastoplastic model of soil and finite element analysis.

B 0.5
Fcs 1(1.8tan 0.1)( )
L
2

41

'

B 0.5
Fqs 1(1.9tan )( )
L

'

Das

## Case Studies on Ultimate Bearing Capacity

Corn Silo bearing capacity failure
Load per unit area foundation when failure occurred 160kN /

1
qu cNcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i
2
'

42

PI 36
Cu 27.1
B 7.2
Df 1.52

m2

Das

43

Das

## Case Studies on Ultimate Bearing Capacity

Corn Silo bearing capacity failure

1
qu c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i
2
'

## FS= q / applied load per unit area

u

FS=181.8= 1.14

160
This factor of safety is too low and approximately equals one, for which
failure occurred for the silo.

44

Das

## Load Tests on Small Foundations in Soft Bangkok Clay

Load tests of five small square foundations on soft clay.
According to the figure
zero and 1.5 m.

Cu(VST )

to 8 m.

45

Das

## Load Tests on Small Foundations in Soft Bangkok Clay

The figure shows the load-settlement plots obtained from the bearingcapacity tests on all five foundations.
The ultimate loads are shown and can be determined from the graph.
The ultimate load is defined as the point where the load-settlement
plot becomes practically linear.

46

Das

## Effect of Soil Compressibility

Vesic proposed the following equation to account for
change in failure due to soil compressibility:

1
qu cNcFcsFcdFcc qNqFqsFqdFqc BN F sF dF c
2
'

cc qc
c

47

Das

## Effect of Soil Compressibility

Calculating F ,F andF
cc qc
c
1. Determine rigidity index I at a soil depth
r

foundation.

Ir

Gs
c' q' tan '

48

Das

## Effect of Soil Compressibility

2. Calculate critical rigidity index

1
B
'
I r(cr ) {exp[(3.30 0.45 )cot(45 )]}
2
L
2
Variations of I
with B/ L in the following table
r(cr )

49

Das

## Effect of Soil Compressibility

3. If I r I r(cr ) then

If

Fcc Fqc F c 1

I r I r(cr ) then

'
(3.07sin

)(log2I r )
B
'
F c Fqc exp{(4.4 0.6 )tan [
]}
'
L
1 sin

50

## Effect of Soil Compressibility

3. Contd

B
Fcc 0.32 0.12 0.60logI r
L
For

0 use
'

Fcc Fqc

51

1 Fqc
Nq tan '

Das

Das

## Eccentrically Loaded Foundations

In several instances, as with the base of a retaining wall,
foundations are subjected to moments in addition to the

## In this situation the distribution of pressure by the

foundation on the soil is not uniform.
52

Das

## Eccentrically Loaded Foundations

The nominal distribution of pressure is

Q = 6M
vertical
Q
qmax
total
BL B2L
Q 6M
qmin
=2 moment
on the foundation
M
BL B L

53

Das

## Eccentrically Loaded Foundations

Using the equation

M
e
Q
We get

Q
6e
qmax (1 )
BL
B

and

Q
6e
qmin (1 )
BL
B

54

Das

## Eccentrically Loaded Foundations

When the eccentricity ebecomes B/ 6, then qmin is zero.
When e B/ 6, qmin will be negative and tension will
develop.
Soil cannot take any tension, so there will be a separation
between the foundation and the underlying soil.
The value of

55

4Q
qmax
3L(B 2e)

Das

## Eccentrically Loaded Foundations

The figure shows the nature of failure surface in soil for a
surface strip foundation subjected to an eccentric load.

## The factor of safety for such type of loading against

bearing capacity failure is

FS

Qu
56

Qu
Q

Das

## Effective Area Method

Used for determining the ultimate load that the soil can
support and the factor of safety against bearing capacity
failure.

57

Das

## Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity

Step 1. Determine the effective dimensions of the
foundation.

## If the eccentricity were in the direction of the length of the foundation,

the value of L' would be equal to L 2e. The value of B' would equal B.
The smaller of the two dimensions is the effective width of the
foundation.

58

Das

59

Das

## Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity

1

qu c'NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi BN F sF dF i
2

Step 2.
Use the equation above to determine ultimate bearing
capacity.
Use relationships in Table 4.3 to determine

## Fcs ,Fqs ,F s ,Fcd ,Fqd ,F d

(use the effective width and length dimensions)

60

Das

61

Das

62

Das

## Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity

Step 3. The total ultimate load that the foundation can
sustain is
'
'
'
'
u

Q A {(qu(B )(L )}

'

A = effective area

63

Das

## Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric LoadingOneWay Eccentricity

Step 4. The factor of safety against bearing capacity failure is

FS

Qu
Q

## The actual distribution of soil reaction at ultimate load will be of the

type shown in Figure to follow.

qu(e) is the average load per unit area of the foundation. Thus
'
u

q (B 2e)
qu(e)
B
64

Das

65

Das

## Prakash and Saran Theory

Analysis of the problem of ultimate bearing capacity of
eccentrically and vertically loaded continuous (strip)
foundations.
Uses the one-sided failure surface in soil.

66

Das

## Prakash and Saran Theory

The ultimate load per unit length of a continuous
foundation is determined by the equation

1
Qu qu(e)B [c Nc(e) qNq(e) BN y(e) ]
2
'

67

Das

## Prakash and Saran Theory

The variations of Nc(e) ,Nq(e) ,N y(e) with soil angle are given
in the following figures.

68

69

Das

70

Das

71

Das

Das

## Prakash and Saran Theory

For rectangular foundations the ultimate load can be given
as
1
'
Qu BL[cN
c( e)Fcs( e) qNq( e)Fqs( e) BN ( e)F s( e) ]
2

## Fcs(e) ,Fqs(e) ,F s(e) = Shape Factors

L
Fcs(e) 1.2 0.025
B
Fqs(e) 1
2e
B
3e B 2
F s(e) 1.0( 0.68) [0.43( )]( )
B
L
2B L
72

Das

## Reduction Factor Method (For Granular Soil)

Stability analysis of eccentrically loaded continuous foundations
supported by a layer of sand using the method of slices.

Rk 1

qu(e)

qu(centric)

ek
Rk = Reduction Factor = Rk a( )
B

## qu(e)= average ultimate bearing capacity of eccentrically loaded

continuous foundations

foundations.

next slide.

73

Das

## Combining the equations on the previous slide we get

ek
qu(e) qu(1 Rk ) qu[1 a( ) ]
B

1
qu qNqFqd BN F d
2
74

Das

## Reduction Factor Method (For Granular Soil)

Based on lab tests

2e
qu(e) qu(1 )
B
The ultimate load per unit length of the foundation can
then be given as

Qu Bqu(e)

75

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

Consider a foundation is subjected to a vertical ultimate
load and a moment as shown in Figures. For this case,
the components of the moment about the x- and y-axes
can be determined as Mxand M y, respectively.

76

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

This condition is equivalent to a load Qu placed
eccentrically on the foundation with x eB and y eL.
eB

My
Qu

Mx
eL
Qu

Qu qu' A'

1 '
q c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi B N F sF dF i
2
'
u

'

77

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

The terms F ,F andFcan be found using the table below.
cs qs
s
Use effective

78

Band L

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

The terms F ,F andFcan be found using the table below.
cs qs
s
Use effective

79

Band L

Das

To determine

## Fcd ,Fqd ,F ddo not replace

In determining

'

A B

1
Case I: e / L
L
6

',

and

Bwith B.

'
, there are five possibilities.

1
and e / B
B
6

80

'

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

Case I:

1
1
eL / L and eB / B
6
6

81

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

For Case I, the following equations apply

3eB
B1 B(1.5
)
B

1
A B1L1
2
'

L1 L(1.5

82

3eL
L

'

A
B '
L
'

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

Case II:

eL / L 0.5 and 0 eB / B

1
6

83

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

For Case II, the following equations apply

1
A (L1 L2 )B
2
'

'
A
B'
L1 or L 2(use whichever L value is larger)

L value is larger)
L' L1(use
orwhichever
L2

84

Das

Case III:

1and
eL / L
0 eB / B 0.5
6

85

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

For Case III, the following equations apply

1
A (B1 B2 )L
2
'

86

LL
'

'

A
B
L
'

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

The magnitudes for
below.

87

2

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

Case IV:

1
1
eL / L and e / B
B
6
6
Effective area can be determined by the figure below

88

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

The ratio B / B can be determined using the upward
2
sloping lines in the figure below.
The ratio L / L can be determined from the downward
2
sloping lines in the figure below.

89

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

For Case IV, the following equations apply.

1
A L2B (B B2)(L L2 )
2
'

'

A
B
L
'

LL
'

90

Das

## Bearing CapacityTwo-Way Eccentricity

Case V:
In the case of circular foundations under eccentric loading, the
eccentricity is always one way.
The effective area and effective width are determined from the table
below.

91

'
A
L' ' .
B

Das

## Bearing Capacity of a Continuous Foundation Subjected to

Shallow continuous foundations are at times subjected to
The figure shows two possible modes of load application.

92

Das

## Bearing Capacity of a Continuous Foundation Subjected to

In the figure the line of load application of the foundation
is inclined toward the center line of the foundation.
This is referred to as partially compensated by Perloff and
Baron.

93

Das

## Bearing Capacity of a Continuous Foundation Subjected to

The line load application on the foundation can be inclined
away from the center line of the foundation.
This is called the reinforced case by Perloff and Baron and
is shown in the figure below.

94

Das

## Partially Compensated Case

1 '
q c NcFcsFcdFci qNqFqsFqdFqi B N F sF dF i
2
'
u

'

## For a continuous foundation F F F 1and

cs
qs
s
'
B B 2e can be determined from the tables on the
following slide.

95

Das

## Partially Compensated Case

Depth and inclination
factors

96

Bearing capacity
factors

Das

## Partially Compensated Case

After determining the value for
equation

'
we can apply the
u

## (q'u )(B' )(1) q'u(B 2e)

Qu(ei)

cos
cos
It has been proposed to use a reduction factor to estimate
Q for granular soil
u(ei )

QReduction
q B(RF)
=
factor
u(ei )

RF

97

Das

## Partially Compensated Case

The reduction factor is determined by the equation

98