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Photovoltaic Systems

Application of Solar Electricity in

A photovoltaic system, also solar PV power system, or PV
system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar 
power by means of photovoltaics. It consists of an arrangement of 
several components, including solar panels to absorb and convert 
sunlight into electricity, a solar inverter to change the electric 
current from DC to AC, as well as mounting, cabling and other 
electrical accessories to set up a working system.

. When you connect loads such as a light bulb.+ + - Photo Voltaic cell + - Electrode Reflect-Proof Film N-Type Semiconductor P-Type Semiconductor Load - Electrode Electric Current The solar cell is composed of a P-type semiconductor and an N-type semiconductor. Negatively charged (-) electrons gather around the N-type semiconductor while positively charged (+) electrons gather around the P-type semiconductor. Solar light hitting the cell produces two types of electrons.• Mechanism of generation Solar Energy + . electric current flows between the two electrodes. negatively and positively charged electrons in the semiconductors.

13% Non-crystalline Solar Cell Compound Semiconductor Organic Semiconductor Amorphous Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) 7 .17% Poly crystalline 10 .30% Dye-sensitized Type 7 .3% Electric Energy Output x 100% Conversion Efficiency = Energy of Insolation on cell 4 .8% Organic Thin Layer Type 2 .10% 18 .Various type of PV cell • Types and Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cell Conversion Efficiency of Module Crystalline Silicon Semiconductor Single crystal 10 .

5 . cell is sliced from roughly crystallized ingot.Various type of PV cell • Crystal cell (Single crystal and Poly crystalline Silicon) Single crystal Formed by melting high purity silicon like as Integrated Circuit Poly crystalline For mass production.

Poly crystalline Silicon) Single crystal Poly crystalline 128W 120W (26.8A) (25.7A) 1200mm 1200mm ( 3.62ft ) Efficiency is higher Same size 800mm (2.93ft) 800mm ( 2.93ft ) (3.  4.  4.5V .62ft) Efficiency is lower  6 .7V .Various type of PV cell • PV Module (Single crystal.

Panel 100 .50 kW Module.Various type of PV cell • Hierarchy of PV Array 10 .200 W Cell 2–3W 6x9=54 (cells) 100-300 (modules) 7 .

178 feet2) We can install about 20 kW PV in this room 10m(33feet) 8 . How much PV can we install in this conference room? 1 kw PV need 10 m22 1 kw PV need 10 m Please remember 20m(66feet) (108 feet2) Conference Room (We are now) This  room has about 200 m2 (2.• Roughly size of PV Power Station.

. etc. awning.g. or other facade material. sizes and can be integrated into any type of architecture.) • • • • • • • • • vertical facades. roof. usually replacing conventional building materials: Solar modules come in a variety of shapes. replacing traditional roofing materials. into shading "eyebrows" over windows.Building Integrated Photovoltaics or BIPV The design and integration of PV technology into the building envelope. or other building envelope systems. colors. into semitransparent skylight systems. spandrel glass. • Advantages – – Aesthetics Reduce the cost of the system (e. replacing view glass. into roofing systems.

 Below retrofits to schools .Roof Retrofits  This house on right is modular construction and includes 6 kW of PV modules.

Grid-Tied System (With Batteries)  Complexity –  High: Due to the  addition of  batteries Grid Interaction – – Grid still  supplements  power When grid goes  down batteries  supply power to  loads (aka battery  backup) .

these shingles overlap providing for water shedding capability. They were laid out and nailed to the roof using the same methods as are used to lay conventional shingles. Like their non-PV counterparts.Roofing Tiles and Shingles      The PV shingle shown here won Popular Science Magazine's grand award for What's new in Environmental Technology. . PV shingles look much like ordinary roofing shingles. PV shingles can replace common roofing shingles. but they generate electricity.

Peal and Stick Solar Cells  Thin film amorphous silicon solar cells which can be deposited on plastic or steel (right) are extremely versatile  The panels on the right can be stuck directly to standard standing seam metal roofs .

Semi-Transparent Solar PV These panels have amorphous silicon deposited on glass and are semi-transparent – they can be used both as tinted glass but also as a project screen backdrop. .

150 Wp per tile. shown on customer's roof .Commercial Rooftops Large rooftops are ideal locations for PV PowerGuard sloped tiles.

 .000 ft2 and generates 75kWs. making it the perfect host for a photovoltaic system.Solar Powered Hotels Hawaii’s Mauna Lani Bay Hotel  This sprawling hotel had acres of roof space.  They installed a PowerGuard (R) system of insulating PV roofing tiles that covers 10.  The hotel will be spared hundreds and thousands of dollars in utility bills.

Times Square .  . a system that uses thin-film PV panels to replace traditional glass cladding material.  The PV curtain wall extends from the 35th to the 48th floor on the south and east walls of the building.BIPV The building’s most advanced feature is the photovoltaic skin. making it a highly visible part of the midtown New York skyline.

Solar Skylights and Cladding .

PV Facades It is also built into the sides of the buildings  Scheidegger Building with photovoltaic facade near Bern in Switzerland. Courtesy of Atlantis Solar Systeme AG  Austria  Swtizerland .

 This 3500 m2 solar office building at the Doxford International Business Park near Sunderland in the UK incorporates 646 m2 of photovoltaic modules. .Building Facades  73 kW system and generates ~ 55 000 kW-hrs of electricity per year in Sunderland. UK.

dark blue solar cells allows a beautiful play of light and shadow.  The standard product lets a tenth of the light pass through and has a 10 % efficiency rate.Facades Solar cells can be made in different colors  Glass façades on office buildings.  .  The use of the transparent. winter gardens or sunroofs on automobiles will become energy suppliers with the transparent solar cell.

Solar PV as Shading Solar PV can also be used for shading. It can actively be used to heat the building in the winter and the overhang can be used to prevent the sun from overheating the rooms in the summer. you are using the sun to provide a significant fraction of space heating as long as the building is oriented in the correct direction (facing south). This is an innovating way of using the sun in two ways. . Not only are you receiving electricity from the solar cells.

200 kWp .450 kWp SGS Solar Location: AZ Operator: Tucson Electric Power Co Configuration: 3.Centralized PV Prescott Airport Location: AZ Operator: Arizona Public Service Configuration: 1.

Pros and Cons of Centralized PV Advantages  Economy of scale  Single location for maintenance  You can put a fence around it  Disadvantages  All eggs in one basket – natural/terrorist disaster  Transmission losses  Land cost .

for example. in Australia panels should point towards north. However.DESIGN  In order to get the most from solar panels. the angle of  the latitude is preferred. they must point in the direction that captures most sunshine. This is one fixed orientation  where the panel almost always intercepts the greatest  amount of solar radiation during the year.  . as anywhere in the northern hemisphere. solar panels should face southwards.  Panel Orientation For fixed tilt angle throughout the year. Here North means the true north – not the magnetic north as pointed by the compass needle. In India. in the southern hemisphere.

for Mumbai and Delhi you can set the panel angles as follows:  For Mumbai (latitude: 18˚ 55’N) summer angle 3˚ and the winter angle 33˚. (Latitude – 15˚) in summer. If power shortages are high in summer and the requirement goes high due to the need of running fans. Alternatively. The best time to adjust for summer angle is mid March and mid September for the winter angle.DESIGN  However. one can choose the angle depending upon when the power requirement is greatest. and (Latitude + 15˚) in winter. For Delhi (Latitude: 28˚ 38’N) the summer angle will be 13˚ and the winter angle 43˚. in general the horizontal tilt of the panels may be adjusted 4 times a year: at the latitude angle in spring and autumn.  . Following the 15˚ plus/minus rule. then latitude – 15˚ should be the right choice. Another good way is to adjust angles twice a year for summer and winter seasons.