# ALL-DAY EFFICIENCY

-> is defined as the ratio of the energy (kilowatt-hours)
delivered by the transformer in a 24-hour period to the
energy input in the same period of time.
-> to determine the all-day efficiency, it is necessary to
know how the load varies from hour to hour during
the day.
Example:
The transformer of example 18 operates with the
following loads during a 24-hr period: 1 ½ times rated
kva, power factor = 0.8, 1hr; 1 ¼ times rated kva,
power factor = 0.8, 2hr; rated kva, power factor = 0.9,
3hr; ½ rated kva, power factor = 1.0, 6hr; ¼ rated kva,
power factor = 0.8; no-load, 4hr. Calculate the all-day
efficiency.

Solution:
Energy output, kw-hr
Energy losses, kw-hr
W1 = 1.5 x 5 x 0.8 x
= 6.0 (1 ½)2 x 0.112 x 1
= 0.252
W2 = 1.25 x 0.8 x 2
= 10.0 (1 ½)2 x 0.112 x 2
= 0.350
W3 = 1 x 5 x 0.9 x 3
= 13.5 1 x 0.112 x 3 = 0.336
W6 = 0.5 x 5 x 1.0 x 6 = 15.0 (1/2)2 x 0.112 x 6 =
0.168
W8 = 0.25 x 5 x 1.0 x 8 = 10.0 (1/4)2 x 0.112 x 8 =
0.056
____
Total. . . . . . . . 54.5 Iron = 0.04 x 24 = 0.960
_____
Total. . . . . . . . .. . . . 2.122
All-day Efficiency = (1 – 2.122/54.5 + 2.122) x 100 =
96.25%

In autotransformer.] in other arrangement. the two windings. In conventional transformer. Two ways in constructing Autotransformer: 1. but it differ from the way in which the primary and the secondary are interrelated. there is a single continuous winding with taps brought out at a convenient points determined by the desired secondary voltages. . primary and secondary. are both electrically and magnetically interconnected: a part of the single continuous winding is common to both primary and secondary. the primary and secondary windings are completely insulated from each other but are magnetically linked by a common core.AUTOTRANSFORMERS In principle and in general construction.] in one arrangement. 2. the autotransformer does not differ from the conventional twowinding transformer. there are two or more distinct coils which are electrically connected to form a continuous winding.

] Current Transformer -> is used with an ammeter to measure the current in an ac circuit. They also have a better regulation. so that lower than line voltage is applied during the starting period. However.Autotransformers are cheaper than conventional two-winding transformers of similar rating. Two kinds of Instrument Transformers: 1. They are frequently used in connection with the starting of certain types of ca motors. it is connected to ordinary 5-amp ammeters . -> in practice. INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER Instrument transformers are used to measure comparatively high values of current or voltage. they are considered unsafe for use on ordinary distribution circuits because the highvoltage primary circuit is directly connected to the lowvoltage secondary circuit. and operate at a higher efficiencies.

while the accurately wound secondary is permanently . -> when the core is opened. The current-carrying conductor acts as a single-turn primary. whereupon the trigger is released and the core is closed tight by a spring.] Potential Transformers -> is used with a voltmeter to measure the potential difference. -> has a laminated core so arranged that it may be opened out at a hinged section by pressing a trigger. Clamp-on or Clip-on Ammeter -> a practical design of current transformer. 2. which is always connected in series in the circuit in which the current is to be measured. which must always be connected across the ammeter terminals. -> the secondary has many turns of comparatively fine wire. it permits the admission of the current-carrying conductor. -> are generally employed with standard 150-volt voltmeters. or voltage in an ac circuit.-> it has a primary coil of one or more turns of heavy wire.

It is necessary that the polarity of the transformers be known before the connections are made. the voltage across the primary winding varies over a wide range as the load changes. in much the same way as are alternators and dc generators for the same purpose. extremely accurateratio step-down transformers. Important Aspects of Potential Transformer -> Potential Transformer are carefully designed. the deflection of which . . TRANSFORMER POLARITY Transformers are often connected in parallel to supply a common load. gives the true voltage on the high side. except that they handle a very small amount of power. They differ very little from the ordinary two-winding transformers. They are used with standard low-range voltmeters.Important Aspects of Current Transformer -> is that its secondary must never be permitted to be open-circuited because. when multiplied by the ratio of transformation. Two or three transformers are connected together so that they may be used in polyphase systems. unlike distribution and power transformers which are connected to constant-potential sources.

Polarity of a Transformers -> refers to the relative directions of the induced voltages in the primary and secondary windings with respect to the manner in which the terminal leads are brought out and marked. 2. 4.] the transformers must be properly connected with regard to polarity.] the voltage ratings of both primaries and secondaries must be identical. This implies that the transformation ratios are the same. PARALLEL OPERATION OF TRANSFORMERS Several important conditions must be fulfilled if two or more transformer are to operate successfully in parallel to deliver a common load. These important conditions are: 1. Standard notations are additive polarity and subtractive polarity. *The parallel operation of two or more transformers requires that the primaries be joined to the same source and that the secondaries be .] the equivalent impedances should be inversely proportional to the respective kilovolt-ampere ratings. 3.] the ratio of the equivalent resistance to the equivalent reactance (Re:Xe) of all transformers should be the same.

which has a ratio of transformation a2. the circulating current in the secondary Ic will be Ic = (a1-a2)Vs / a1Ze1+a2Ze2 Where: Ze1 = equivalent impedance of transformer 1 in secondary terms Ze2 = equivalent impedance of transformer 2 in secondary terms . this condition can exist only if the ratio of transformation of the two transformers are exactly equal.No-load Operation When the secondary load is removed. If the transformer 1 has a ratio of transformation a1 which is different that of transformer 2. no current can circulate in these windings if the induced voltages are exactly equal. Since the latter are in phase opposition with respect to each other. with switch S open. the primaries will still be energized and secondaries will still remain connected in parallel.

08.06.1 A .821 + 0.26 a2 = 2.08) + (10 x 0.360/230 volts 2.300/230 = 10 Ic = (10. Solution: a1 = 2.06)] = 59.Example 27: The following information is given in connection with two transformers that are connected in parallel: Transformer 1 Transformer 2 rating = 25 kva rating = 35 kva 2.300/230 volts Ze = 0.360/230 = 10.26 – 10) 230/ [(10.8 / (0.26 x 0. in secondary terms Calculate the secondary circulating current at no load.6) = 42. in secondary terms Ze = 0.

4.8. .900/230 volts Ze = 9. the total load current will divide between them in inversely as their equivalent impedances. in primary term Calculate the load current and kilovolt-amperes delivered by each transformer.900/230 volts 6.Load Operation—Equal Ratios of Transformation When two transformers having equal ratios of transformation are connected in parallel. Example: The following information is given for two transformers connected in parallel and delivering a total load of 300 kva: Transformer 1 Transformer 2 Rating = 150 kva Rating = 250 kva 6. in primary terms Ze = 5.

6 total = 300 kva .9 x 26.8 / 9.9 x 16.900 = 43.617 I2 I2 = 26.8 / 9.Solution: Total current IT = 300.9 = 185.8 / 9.4 kva2 = 6.4 I1 = (5.9 amp I1 = 43.6 = 114.5 amp I1 / I2 = 5. IT = I1 + I2 43.9 = 16.6 amp Therefore : kva1 = 6.5 = [(5.4) x I2 Also.4) x I2] + I2 = 1.5 – 26.00 / 6.

8 + 164) / 1.8 / 1.00 / 230 = 200 amp I1 = [(10-10.06)] = (59.6 .421 = 223.26)230 + (10 x 0.26 x 0.08) + (10 x 0. Solution: a1 = 10.26 – 10)230 + (10.Load Operation—Unequal Ratios of Transformation When two transformers having unequal ratios of transformation are connected in parallel.2 / 1.26 x 0.421 = 42.08 Ze2 = 0.26 x 0. Calculate the secondary currents and the kilovolt-ampere load of each one.4 I2 = [(10.08 x 200)] / [(10.26 a2 = 10 Ze1 = 0. the total load current will drive in accordance with the following equations: I1 = [(a2 – a1)Vs + (a2Ze2It)] / [(a1Ze1) + (a2Ze2)] I2 = [(a1 – a2)Vs + (a1Ze1It)] / [(a1Ze1) + (a2Ze2)] Example: The transformer of example 27 deliver a total load of 46 kva.8 + 120) / 1.08) + (10 x 0.06 It = 46.06)] = (-59.421 = 60.421 = 157.06 x 200)] / [(10.

] wye-delta 1.] WYE-WYE CONNECTIONS If the ratio of transformation is a. the electrical neutral will shift from its exact centre to a point that will make the three lone-to-neutral voltages unequal. In threephase systems. Four standard ways of connecting 3-phase transformer banks: 1. The advantage of this system of connections is that the insulation is stressed only to the extent of the line-to-neutral voltage. When the load is unbalanced. two or three identical transformers may be used in a bank for this purpose.] delta-delta 3. This connection will give satisfactory service only if the three-phase load is balanced. which is 58% of the line-to-line voltage.phase Transformer Connections Transformers that must handle a considerable amount of power are generally grouped together in banks for polyphase service.Three.] wye-wye 2. the same ratio will exist between the line voltages on the primary and secondary sides. .] delta-wye 4.

operation continues on what is known as open delta.] WYE-DELTA CONNECTION This scheme of connection. The ratio of transformation existing between primary and secondary line voltage will be exactly the same as that of each transformer.2. for example. insulation is stressed only to the extent of 58% of the line-line voltage.]DELTA-DELTA CONNECTION This arrangement is generally used in systems in which the voltages are high and especially when continuity of service must be maintained even though one of the transformers should fail. When one of the transformers is removed from a delta-delta bank. . On the high sides of transformer. at the beginning of a high-tension transmission system. is generally employed where it is necessary to step-up the voltage. 3.

It is also employed in moderately lowvoltage distribution circuits for stepping down from transmission voltages of 4. This method of .000 – 8. It is used principally where the voltage is to be stepped down. The points made concerning delta-wye connections supply equally well here.000 volts to 230 and 115 volts. three equal 3-phase voltages will be measured at the secondary terminals at no load.4. THE V-V CONNECTION If one of the transformers of a delta-delta bank is removed and a three-phase source is connected to the primaries.] WYE -DELTA CONNECTION This connection is the reverse of the delta-wye connection.

THE T-T CONNECTION Another 2-transformer method that can be used to transform 3phase power from one voltage to another is the T-T connection. Scott and is frequently called the Scott connection. . It was first proposed by Charles F.

.MAIN TRANSFORMER -must have at least two primary and two secondary coils so that a center tap may be brought out from each other.

TEASER TRANSFORMER -must have primary and secondary windings the numbers of turns of w/c are 86. .6% of the respective turns of the main transformer.

6% of that across the former.FIG. their sum equals the kVA load on the teasier transforrmer. The reason for this is that kVA loads carried by the TWO HALVES of the MAIN TRANSFORMER are out of phase by 6O electrical degrees. even thought the voltage across the latter is only 886. the result is that when these are vectorially added. . 212 The kilovolt-ampere ratings of the MAIN and TEASER TRANSFORMER will be exactly the same.

as previously discussed.THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER -more economical to use a three phase transformer than. . a bank of three single phase transformer. Proper flux densities are maintained because the three phase currents are displaced 120 electrical degrees w/ respect to each other.

214a SHELL TYPE.TWO GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE WINDINGS AND THE CORE CORE TYPE. the three primary & secondary windings surround a considerably part of the magnetic core. the magnetic circuits surround a considerable portion of the 3 phase primary & secondary windings. . FIG. Advantage: The former transformer can be operated in open DELTA should one of the windings be damaged.