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1.Objectives : The objectives of thermal

controls are

When the cold discomfort condition

prevaila) to prevent heat loss
b) to utilize heat gain from sun and
internal sources
c) to compensate for any net heat loss ,
by heating which uses some form of

ii) When hot discomfort condition prevaila) to prevent heat gain

b) to maximize heat loss
c) to remove any excess heat by cooling,

iii) When conditions vary diurnally between

hot and cold discomforta) to even out variation
b) 1. in the cold phase and 2. the hot
c) to compensate for both excess by a
heating cooling system

2.Degree of control :
The mechanical controls are positively
necessary at extreme conditions, when human
life is at risk.
Mechanical control is an optional case when
it is question of personal comfort.
Creation of comfort indoor conditions

i)The society we live and

ii)Financial means at our disposal
3.Heating :
Heating in building can be provided locally
i.e. by conversion of some form of energy in to
The form of energy may be natural like
wood, coal, coke or oil etc.
It may also be processed form of energy like
gas, electricity or atomic energy etc.
The processed energy is converted in to a
readily useable form and distributed through a
network of pipes or cables to the points of use

Central Heating :
In case of central heating the source is kept at
the central point and subsequently distributed by
some conveying medium.
The conveying medium may be water , oil or
may be steam
Central heating system consists of three distinct
elementsa) the heat raising plant (boiler or furnace)
b) the distribution network (ducting or piping)
c) the heat emitter units (diffusers, radiators or

of heat
loss from the
of installation
: building
size and capacity of heating installation

So increased in insulation reduces the heat

loss rate.

6.Problems associated with heating :

a) Distribution of heat:
temperature gradient between areas of
concentrated heat loss(e.g. window) and zones
of heat output units may be so steep that
strong convection currents (draughts) are
generated, which effects comfort conditions.
b) Dryness :
it is resultant of heating
when cool air of medium humidity is heated ,
its relative humidity is decreased

Ex- air at 0 c DBT and 6O% RH, heated to 20 c

will cause the drop of RH to drop up to 15%

c) Condensation : can be caused indirectly

the warm indoor air will readily take on
moistures from any available source, likehuman exhalation , bath etc.
So its RH increases , consequently its dew
point temperature is also increased

ventilation is very much necessary to
maintain a comfortable indoor environment
In some cases the adequate amount of air
supply can be ensured by keeping the doors

8.Mechanical ventilation system:

In mechanical control ventilation the air is
moved by motor driven fans.
They may be
a) propeller or axial flow fans
b) impeller or tangential flow fans
1.An exhaust system removes the used air and
lets the fresh air to come in
2.A plenum system - supply air into the space and
force out the used air through grills
3.A balanced system both supplies and removes