The Periodic Table

Chapter 6

Why is the Periodic Table important to me?
• The periodic table is the most useful tool to a chemist. • You get to use it on every test. • It organizes lots of information about all the known elements.

Pre-Periodic Table Chemistry …
• …was a mess!!! • No organization of elements. • Imagine going to a grocery store with no organization!! • Difficult to find information. • Chemistry didn’t make sense.

History of the Periodic Table
• By the late-1800’s, many elements in the earth’s crust, oceans, and air had been discovered • As the number of known elements increased, scientists began to devise ways to classify the elements in useful ways

Dmitri Mendeleev
“Father of the Periodic Table”
• Mendeleev is considered the father of the Periodic Table • 1868 - Arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass • Noticed that similar properties of elements appeared at regular intervals

How’d He Do That?
Mendeleev and Periodic Solitaire • Mendeleev began organizing the known elements by first writing everything that was known about an element on index cards • He began placing the elements in order of increasing atomic weight • groups began to form that had similar properties • Where gaps occurred, Mendeleev predicted the existence of new elements and their properties • Mendeleev was right – three of the elements

Mendeleev’s Original Table
How is it different from the one we use today?

Henry Mosley
Developed Modern Periodic Table • 1911 – Rearranged table according to increasing atomic number; cleared up Mendeleev’s mistakes • Developed concept of atomic numbers after Rutherford discovered the proton • Remember, atomic number = #

Periodic Law
• When placed in increasing atomic number, elements have a predictable chemical and physical behavior • It is the electron configuration that determines an element’s behavior • The periodic table is arranged so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column

Periodic Table Terminology
• Group – elements in a column of the periodic table
– There are 18 groups – Groups are sometimes called “families”

• Period – elements in the same row of the periodic table
– There are 7 periods

Families on the Periodic Table
• Columns are also grouped into families. • Families may be one column, or several columns put together. • Families have names rather than numbers. (Just like your family has a common last name.)

Periodic Table

Note: Two methods for numbering; we will use 1A, 2A, etc.

12

Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids
The heavy zigzag line separates metals and nonmetals. • Metals are located to the left. • Nonmetals are located to the right. • Metalloids are located along the heavy zigzag line between the metals and nonmetals.
13

Metals, Nonmetals, & Metalloids
Metals • shiny and ductile • good conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals • dull, brittle, and poor conductors • good insulators Metalloids • better conductors than nonmetals, but not as good as metals • used as semiconductors and insulators
14

Hydrogen
• Hydrogen belongs to a family of its own. • Hydrogen is a diatomic, reactive gas. • Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenberg. • Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel

Alkali Metals
• 1st column on the periodic table (Group 1) not including hydrogen. • Very reactive metals, always combined with something else in nature (like in salt).

Alkaline Earth Metals
• Second column on the periodic table. (Group 2) • Reactive metals that are always combined with nonmetals in nature. • Several of these elements are important mineral

Transition Metals
• Elements in groups 3-12 • Less reactive harder metals • Includes metals used in jewelry and construction. • Metals used “as metal.”

Boron Family
• Elements in group 13 • Aluminum metal was once rare and expensive, not a “disposable metal.”

Carbon Family Elements in group •
14 • Contains elements important to life and computers. • Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry. • Silicon and Germanium are

Nitrogen Family

• Elements in group 15 • Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere. • Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things. • Most of the world’s nitrogen is not available to living things.

Oxygen Family or Chalcogens
• Elements in group 16 • Oxygen is necessary for respiration. • Many things that stink, contain sulfur (rotten eggs, garlic, skunks,etc.)

Halogens
• Elements in group 17 • Very reactive, volatile, diatomic, nonmetals • Always found combined with other element in nature . • Used as

The Noble Gases

The Noble Gases
• Elements in group 18 • VERY unreactive, monatomic gases • Used in lighted “neon” signs • Used in blimps to fix the Hindenberg problem.