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Agrim Statistics

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RELATIVELY FEW SHORT ADULTS

RELATIVELY FEW TALL ADULTS

THEREFORE,

HISTOGRAM

Example. Height..

A. < 4

B. 4 - < 46

C. 46 - < 5

D. 5 - <56

E. 56 - < 6

F. 6 - <66

G. > 66

Frequency Polygon

Exercise

Show why a class composed mostly of bright students

has a distribution that is skewed to the left? And

why one made up mostly of poor students has a

distribution that is skewed to the right? Draw your

diagrams, label them, and explain.

Skewed Distributions

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

The mean is equal to the median, which is equal to the mode.

The tails or ends are asymptotic relative to the horizontal

line.

The total area under the normal curve is equal to 1 or 100%.

The normal curve area maybe subdivided into at least 3

standard scores, each to the left and to the right of the

vertical axis.

Along the horizontal line, the distance from one integral

standard score to the next integral standard score is

measured by the standard deviation.

Convert the normal curve into standardized normal

curve

Formula:

Exercise

Solve for z when: x = 60, mean = 50, s = 5

2. Illustrate the normal curve where mean = 80 and

standard deviation = 4

1.

Exercise

Exercise

X

Mean + 1 s

Mean + 2 s

Mean + 3 s

Mean

Mean 1 s

Mean 2 s

Mean - 3s

Exercise

1. Find the area under the normal curve from z = 0 to z

= 1.2 OR

Find the probability that z is from 0 to 1.2 OR

Find P { 0 < 1.2 }

Solution: At z Area is

1.20.8849

Area from z=0 to z=1.2 is 0.8849 or 88.49% of the total area under the normal

curve or 88.49% of the total number of observations of the variable in question.

Exercise

2. Find the area under the normal curve from z = -.68

to z = 0.

Solution: At z

-.68

Area is

0.2483

z

Area from z=0 to z=-.68 is 0.2483 or 24.83% of the total area under the normal

curve or 24.83% of the total number of observations of the variable in question.

Exercise

3. Find the area under the normal curve from z = 0.81

to z = 1.94.

Solution: At z Area is

.81.7910

1.94 .9738

Area = .9738-.7910

Required area = .1828 or 18.28%

Exercise

4. Find the area from z = -0.46 to z = 2.21.

Solution: At z Area is

-.46 .3228

2.21 .9864

z

Area = .9864-.3228

Required area = .6636 or 66.36%

Exercise

5. Find the z score when the area from z = 0 to +z is

0.8770. (Note: in the first type of problem, we

shaded the required area; in the second type, we

shade the given area.)

Solution:

When Area is .8770, z=1.16

Exercise

6. Find the z score when the area to the left of +z is

0.8621.

Solution:

.8621 z=1.09

.5000

.3621

Exercise

7. Find the z score when the area to the right of +z is .

1230.

Solution:

.5000

.1230

.3770

z=1.16

z

Exercise

8. The average weekly income of 2,000 workers is P151

with a standard deviation of P15. Assuming that the

weekly incomes are normally distributed, find the

number of workers who earn:

a. from P119.50 to P155.50 per week

b. less than or equal to P127.50 per week

c. greater than or equal to P185.50 per week

Remaining Topics

ANOVA AND ENUMERATION DATA

REGRESSION AND CORRELATION

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS AND INDEX

NUMBERS

SIMPLE TESTS OF

HYPOTHESIS

HYPOTHESIS

2 KINDS:

1. NULL (H0)

- WORKING HYPOTHESIS

- MUST ALWAYS EXPRESS THE IDEA OF

NONSIGNIFICANCE

2. ALTERNATIVE (HA)

Decision

H0

= TRUE

Actual Condition

HA= TRUE

Reject Ho

Type I error

Correct decision

Accept Ho

Correct decision

Type II error

Type II error-consumers risk

LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE

1%

5%

95% sure

99% sure

One-tailed test

Two-tailed test

> or <

z-test

t-test

Formulate the null hypothesis

2. Set the level of significance

3. Determine the test to be used

4. Determine the tabular value for the test

1.

5. Compute for z:

a) Sample mean compared with population mean

5. Compute for z:

c) Comparing two sample proportions

5. Compute for t:

a) Sample mean compared with population mean

6. Compare the computed value with its corresponding

tabular value, then state your conclusion.

A. Reject Ho if the absolute computed value is equal

B. Accept Ho if the absolute computed value is less

than the absolute tabular value.

Exercise

Data from a school census show that the mean

weight of college students was 45 kilos, with a

standard deviation of 3 kilos. A sample of 100

college students were found to have a mean weight

of 47 kilos. Are the 100 college students really

heavier than the rest, using .05 significance level?

1 Null hypothesis

2 Level of significance

3 Test to be used

4 Tabular value

1.

Exercise

4 Tabular value

Test type

Significance Level

.10

.05

.025

.01

One-tailed

test

+ 1.28

+ 1.645

+ 1.96

+ 2.33

Twotailed test

+ 1.645

+ 1.96

+ 2.33

+ 2.58

Exercise

5 Computation

Given: sample mean = 47 kilos

population mean = 45 kilos

sample standard deviation = 3 kilos

n = 100

Seatwork

1.

significant difference between the monthly allowances of

morning and afternoon students in his school. By random

sampling, he took a sample of 239 students in the morning

session. These students were found to have a mean monthly

allowance of PHP142.00. The researcher also took a sample of

209 students in the afternoon session. They were found to have

a mean monthly allowance of PHP148.00. The total population

of students in that school has a standard deviation of PHP40. Is

there a significant difference between the two samples at .01

level of significance?

Seatwork

2. A sample survey of a television program shows that

80 of 200 men dislike the same program. We want

to decide whether the difference between two

sample proportions: 80/200=0.40 and

75/250=0.30, is significant or not, at .05 level of

significance.

Tab value = +1.96

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