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Organizing the Body of the

The best oral presentation
focuses on a few principal
ideas; i.e. a limited number of
main points (two to four).

Develop each main point with

adequate, but not excessive,
explanation and details.
keep your presentation simple and
Too many details can obscure the
main message.

How can you keep your presentation

simple and logical?
1. Sort out a few principal ideas.
2. Capsulize them in a few simple
words so that your audience can
remember them easily.
3. Support your main ideas by
examples and explanations.

How can you organize and sequence

the main ideas of the presentation?

By using appropriate and logical patterns of

organization that relate to time, geography,
function, importance, or any other methods
that are logical to the receiver.

Suggested patterns of organization that can be used for sequencing ideas

in presentations as well as othe communicative channels.

Chronology (time, history)

Geography/space (regions)
Journalism pattern (organized by
who, what, when, where, why and

Value/size (houses)
Importance (from the most important to the
least important reasons, or you can place
the most important point last where it has
maximum effect)
Simple/complex (starting from simple to
complex points)
Best case/worst case (best and worst

Why should you prepare a little more

material than you actually need?

To have something useful in reserve

in case you finish early and must fill
the remaining time.

Summarizing in the conclusion

Why should you make your conclusion most

Because listeners will remember the

conclusion more than any part of a speech.

What goals should you strive to

achieve in the conclusion?

Summarize the main themes of the presentation.

Provide a final action-oriented focus that tells

your listeners what you want them to do.

Include a statement that allows you to exit

gracefully and leave a lasting impression.

What should skilled presenters avoid

in the conclusion?

Dont introduce any new material or details in

the conclusion.

What should skilled presenters avoid

in the conclusion?

Dont end blandly with comments that make

you look unprofessional and unprepared:
I guess thats about all I have to say or Thats it.
Alert the audience that you are finishing by
using phrases such as:
As I end this presentation or Its time for me to
stop. Then, proceed immediately to the

What should skilled presenters avoid

in the conclusion?

Avoid using the clich phrase In

conclusion; for some audience

members, it is a signal to stop listening.

What should skilled presenters avoid

in the conclusion?

Avoid using phrases such as I think, I

believe, or I feel, which will weaken

your presentation.

What should a straightforward

summary do?
Focus on what you want the listeners to
do, think or remember. You might say:
In bringing my presentation to a
close, I will restate my major
purpose ..
In summary, my major purpose has
been to .
In support of my purpose, I have
presented three major points. They
are (a) ., (b) ., and (c) .

What should a straightforward

summary do?
If you are promoting a
recommendation, you might end as

In order to , I recommend
that we

What should a straightforward

summary do?

You can use:

An anecdote
An inspiring quotation
A statement that ties in the
opener and offers a new

What should a straightforward

summary do?
include a closing thought that indicates you
are finished. For example:
This concludes my presentation.
After investigating many , we are
convinced that is the best for our
Your authorization of my recommendations
will mark the beginning of a very
successful campaign for our new product.

Building audience rapport

What do we mean by audience rapport?
It involves three points:
Forming a bond with the audience.
Entertaining as well as informing them.
Keeping the audience involved throughout
the presentation.

How can speakers build audience

Successful speakers, use a number of
verbal and nonverbal techniques to
connect with the audience. These include:
Effective imagery
Verbal signposts
Body language (Nonverbal messages)

Effective imagery
Personal anecdotes
Personalized statistics
Worst and best case scenarios

Using Verbal Signposts

What do we mean by verbal

They are signs to help the audience

to recognize the organization and
main points in an oral message.

Verbal signposts
What do verbal signposts include ?
1. Previewing
The next segment of my talk presents three reasons for ....
Lets now consider two causes of ....
2. Summarizing
Let me review with you the major problems Ive just discussed.
You see, then, that the most significant factors are ....
3. Switching directions
Thus far weve talked solely about ...; now lets move to ....
Ive argued that ...and..., but an alternate view holds that

transitional expressions
Improve any oral presentation by
including appropriate transitional
expressions such as first, second, next,
then, therefore, moreover, on the other
hand, on the contrary, and in summary.
These expressions lend emphasis and
tell listeners where you are headed.

Nonverbal messages (body

The way you look, how you move and,
and how you speak affect the success of
your presentation.
Look professional
Animate your body
Punctuate your words
Use appropriate eye contact
Get out from behind the podium
Vary your facial expressions

Planning visual aids

What are the purposes of using visual aids?
They clarify points, improve
comprehension, and aid retention.
They increase audience interest.
They make the presenter appear more
professional, better prepared, and
more persuasive.
They shorten presentations.
They jog the memory of the speaker
and increase self confidence.