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Ô Knowledge takes Everyman to visit Confession, where
he learns that repentance of his sins is the means to
Ô Acknowledging his sins, the burden is lifted from
Everymanǯs soul


)*  * 
Ô Everyman prepares to meet Death
Ô Beauty abandons
Ô Strength departs
Ô Discretion leaves
Ô Five Senses abandons Everyman
Ô Knowledge departs
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Ô      &  
Ô Devastated, pestilence, fatal, hideous, horror of blood,
sharp pains, profuse bleeding, scarlet stains, victim,
Ô The signature marks of The Red Death:
Ô Redness of the blood
Ô Scarlet stains
Ô Death occurs within thirty minutes of infection
Ô rince rospero, has summoned a thousand of his
Dzlighthearted friendsdz to join him in a "castellated
abbey" which has strong and lofty walls and "gates of
Ô Outside the Ǯsecure fortressǯ Red Death rampages and
decimates its victims
Ô Folly and futility
Ô eople think they can escape death by
erecting physical barriers, high walls and
iron gates
Ô oe uses the unity of effect, in this case a closed room
and high exterior walls, to give the impression that
there is no escape from impending doom
Ô The revelers are locked inside high walls and the gates
of iron; they are further enclosed by the seven halls
Ô The Red DeathDz passes in close proximity to all of the
Ô ossible interpretations
Ô Seven Deadly Sins
Ô Shakespeareǯs Seven Ages of Man
Ô   excessive belief in one's own abilities, that interferes
with the individual's recognition of the grace of God
Ô ›
 the desire for others' traits, status, abilities, goods, or
 desire to consume more than that which one
Ô m a craving for the pleasures of the body
Ô  manifested in the individual who spurns love and
opts instead for fury
Ô   the desire for material wealth or gain, ignoring the
realm of the spiritual
Ô <  the avoidance of physical or spiritual work
Ô nfant
Ô Scholar
Ô Lover
Ô Soldier
Ô Justice
Ô Middle age
Ô Old Age, Declension, Death
That ends this strange eventful historyǥ
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.
Ô Room 1: decorated in blue
Ô Room 2: decorated in purple
Ô Room 3: decorated in green
Ô Room 4: decorated in orange
Ô Room 5: decorated in white
Ô Room 6: decorated in violet
Ô Room 7: decorated in black
Ô The apartment is "shrouded in black velvet,Dz the
windows are "scarletȄa deep blood-color.Dz
Ô DzThe effect of the firelight upon the blood tinted panes
is ghastly in the extreme, and produces so wild a look
upon the countenance of those who enter it that there
are fewǥbold enough to set foot within it."
Ô oe's purpose in these descriptions,
particularly the black room, has no
relation to reality. No such place as the
black room would be used as a part of a
ballroom. But oe wants to achieve an
effectȄa total, unified M Min order
to show the close proximity of M
 M to the M     

M .
Ô Black usually symbolizes death, and it is usually used
in connection with death. Moreover, in describing the
black decor of the room, the narrator says that it is
Min velvet, „
Mbeing a word always
referring to death. Likewise, the window panes are
"scarlet Ȅ a deep blood color." This is an obvious
reference to the "Red Death."
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Ô The Eastern room Ô The Western room
(symbolic of the (symbolic of the end of
beginning of life) life).
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Ô The appearance of the "Red Death" at midnight is
propitious and symbolic
Ô This is the end of the day and, by analogy, the end of
Ô His appearance strikes a note of "terror, of horror, and
of disgust.Dz
Ô The figure is "shrouded from head to foot in the
habiliments of the grave." His mask is that of a corpse
Ô His entire outfit is sprinkled with blood and "all the
features of the face were besprinkled with the scarlet


Ô Ebenezer Scrooge is an unfeeling,
unsympathetic, miserly man who cares only
for making money regardless of who is
Ô Ebenezer Scrooge: employers versus employees
Ô Ebenezer Scrooge versus employees: symbolized by Bob Cratchit
Ô Ebenezer Scrooge versus the poor: symbolized by the two Good
Ô Ebenezer Scrooge versus the imprisoned: symbolized by the two Good
Ô Law (symbolized by Ebenezer Scrooge) versus Grace (symbolized by
Fezziwig, Fred Scrooge, and especially, Tiny Tim)
Ô Ebenezer Scrooge versus the sick: typified by Tiny Tim
Ô Ebenezer Scrooge versus the supernatural: typified by the Spirits
Ô Scroogeǯs encounter with the Ghost of the Future (AKA
Death) transforms him from a cold, ruthless, miser
into a giving and caring gentleman
Ô Scrooge temporarily avoids his inevitable date with
Ô He is given more time to accrue Good Deeds and to get
his account in order before the Day of Reckoning
Ô  owe everything to George Bailey. Help him, dear
Ô Joseph, Jesus and Mary. Help my friend Mr. Bailey.
Ô Help my son George tonight.
Ô He never thinks about himself, God; that's why he's in
Ô George is a good guy. Give him a break, God.
Ô  love him, dear Lord. Watch over him tonight.
Ô lease, God. Something's the matter with Daddy.
Ô lease bring Daddy back.
Ô otter: Have you put any real pressure on those people
of yours to pay those mortgages?
Ô Bailey: Times are bad, Mr. otter. A lot of these people
are out of work.
Ô otter: Then foreclose!
Ô Bailey:  can't do that. These families have children.
Ô otter: They're not my children.
Ô Bailey: But they're somebody's children.
Ô otter: Are you running a business or a charity ward?
Ô George Bailey (s the unsung, beloved hero of Bedford Falls.
Ô Throughout his life, George lives by a creed that always
placed human need above riches
Ô Although the predominant tone is upbeat, Capra effectively
captures the darkness of George's mood as his mounting
personal and financial troubles plunge him into an abyss of
Ô Later scenes in the movie depict George standing on a
bridge, contemplating suicide.
Ô George's lovable, bumbling guardian angel, has to prove to
George that his life is worth living.
Ô To defend his position, he grants George one wish: to see
what the world would be like if he had never been born.
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Ô ass by! O pass me by!

Away, wild mask of death!
 am still young! Oh why
destroy me with your breath?
Give me your hand, you lovely, tender child
 am your friend and bring no harm.
Have courage. See,  am not wild.
Now go to sleep upon my arm.
<M„„ MM 
Ô Because  could not stop for DeathȂHe kindly stopped for meȂThe
Carriage held but just OurselvesȂAnd mmortality. We slowly droveȂ
He knew no haste And  had put away My labor and my leisure too, For
His CivilityȂWe passed the School, where Children strove At RecessȂin
the RingȂWe passed the Fields of Gazing GrainȂWe passed the Setting
SunȂ Or ratherȂHe passed usȂThe Dews drew quivering and chillȂFor
only Gossamer, my GownȂMy TippetȂonly TulleȂWe paused before a
House that seemed
Ô A Swelling of the GroundȂThe Roof was scarcely visibleȂThe CorniceȂ
in the GroundȂ Since thenȂ'tis CenturiesȂand yet Feels shorter than
the Day  first surmised the Horses' Heads Were toward EternityȂ
OUT of the night that covers me,
Black as the it from pole to pole,
 thank whatever gods may be
For my unconquerable soul.
n the fell clutch of circumstance
 have not winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of chance
My head is bloody, but unbowed.
Beyond this place of wrath and tears
Looms but the Horror of the shade,
And yet the menace of the years
Finds, and shall find, me unafraid.
t matters not how strait the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
 am the master of my fate;
 am the captain of my soul.

Sunset and evening star
And one clear call for me
And may there be no mourning of the bar
When  put out to sea.

Twilight and evening bend

And after that the dark
And may there be no sadness or farewell
When  embark.

But such a side is moving seems asleep

Too full for sound and foam
When that which drew out from the boundless deep
Turns again home.

For tho' from out our stream of time and place

The flood may bear me far
 hope to see my ilot face to face,
When  have crossed the bar.
Now, let me ask you something profound yet troubling. f you
became believers because you trusted the proclamation
that Christ is alive, risen from the dead, how can you let
people say that there is no such thing as a resurrection? f
there's no resurrection, there's no living Christ. And face
itȄif there's no resurrection for Christ, everything we've
told you is smoke and mirrors, and everything you've
staked your life on is smoke and mirrors. Not only that, but
we would be guilty of telling a string of barefaced lies about
God, all these affidavits we passed on to you verifying that
God raised up ChristȄsheer fabrications, if there's no
f corpses can't be raised, then Christ wasn't,
because he was indeed dead. And if Christ weren't
raised, then all you're doing is wandering about in
the dark, as lost as ever. t's even worse for those
who died hoping in Christ and resurrection,
because they're already in their graves. f all we
get out of Christ is a little inspiration for a few
short years, we're a pretty sorry lot. But the truth
is that Christ has been raised up, the first in a
long legacy of those who are going to leave the
There is a nice symmetry in this: Death initially came
by a man, and resurrection from death came by a man.
Everybody dies in Adam; everybody comes alive in
Christ. But we have to wait our turn: Christ is first, then
those with him at his Coming, the grand
consummation when, after crushing the opposition, he
hands over his kingdom to God the Father. He won't let
up until the last enemy is downȄand the very last
enemy is death! As the psalmist said, "He laid them low,
one and all; he walked all over them." When Scripture
says that "he walked all over them," it's obvious that he
couldn't at the same time be walked on. When
everything and everyone is finally under God's rule, the
Son will step down, taking his place with everyone else,
showing that God's rule is absolutely comprehensiveȄa
perfect ending!
Our natural, earthy lives don't in themselves lead usǥthe kingdom of
Let me tell you something wonderfulǥWe're not all going to dieȄbut
we are all going to be changed. When you hear the last trumpetǥlook
up and our mortal life will be over. As the last trumpet sounds the dead
will be raised from their graves, never to die again.
Everything perishable will be replaced by the imperishable, this mortal
will be replaced by immortality. Then the saying will come true:

"Death has lost the battle!

Where is its victory?
Where is its sting?Dz

Sin is what gives death its sting, and the Law is the power behind sin.
But in a single victorious stroke of Life, all threeȄsin, guilt, and
deathȄwill be vanquished and demolished. n Deathǯs place we will be
given the gift of eternal life. Thanks be to God and the Lord Jesus