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Women and Children

Caught in Conflict

 women

and children face revolving
cycles of conflicts and disasters.
 the country typically experiences
annual displacement due to political
conflict or natural disaster.

such natural disasters, along with
protracted armed conflict and
exposure to violence, hinder
attempts to alleviate the effects of
poverty, unsafe water and
inadequate sanitation facilities,
limited health-service delivery and
poorly functioning governance.

000 families are typically displaced by disaster annually. . and 170. Of the total population of 93+ million. 48 million are vulnerable to conflict or natural disaster.

. and under nutrition is endemic among children. Displaced families suffer sporadic disease outbreaks.

. Prolonged displacement and continued insecurity mean families are without income. a push factor for children to enter hazardous labour situations.

causing many children to drop out. long distances between schools and evacuation centres. hidden costs and loss of important documents are factors limiting education for displaced students. Destruction of school buildings. .

schooling for an estimated 14. local elections and typhoons interrupted children’s education in a number of provinces.  In Maguindanao Province. particularly those in northern and central Luzon.Violent incidents due to family feuds.000 children was affected in 2010.  .

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 adopted by the United Nations in 1974 and went into force the same year  proposed by the United Nations Economic and Social Council  on the grounds that women and children are often the victims of wars. and other emergency situations that cause them to suffer "inhuman acts and consequently suffer serious harm . civil unrest.

 Declaration states that women and children suffer victimization during armed conflict due to "suppression. alien domination and foreign subjugation" . racism. aggression. colonialism.

 The Declaration specifically prohibits attacks and bombing of civilian populations (Article 1) and the use of chemical and biological weapons on civilian populations (Article 2). .

 Article 3 requires states to abide by the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the Geneva Convention of 1949. .

destruction of dwellings. The Declaration also requires countries to take measures to end "persecution. torture. degrading treatment and violence" especially when they are targeted against women and children. shooting. collective punishment. torture. punitive measures. mass arrests. . as well as recognizing "imprisonment. and forcible evictions" as criminal acts.

which are to be provided to women and children caught in emergency situations. and medical care. . Certain inalienable rights are also enshrined in the Declaration. shelter. such as access to food.

the Declaration cites the binding nature of other international law instruments. Finally. naming the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Declaration of the Rights of the Child. Social and Cultural Rights. International Covenant on Economic. .

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and their schools were destroyed in the fighting . Those who remained in their communities temporarily stopped going to school for a few days to as long as over a month  Those displaced stopped going to school during the period of displacement.

 The diets of those who remained in their communities was reduced. when their families were prevented from procuring food  Those displaced had poor diets due to meager rations in evacuation centers and collapsed family livelihoods .

sleeplessness. lack of appetite and others  Anxiousness triggered by sudden loud noises or seeing fatigue uniforms . Various manifestations of trauma: nervousness.

or spy for them . Children were accused and threatened  physically attacked and shot at  Detained  forced to do errands. guide soldiers.

 Children reveal the capacity for active involvement in production work.  Their most commonly expressed desire was to finish school and help their families . domestic tasks and cultural activities in their communities.

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 Added economic burdens due to less time working on their farms. slaughtered animals and destroyed farms  Heavier domestic tasks and family responsibilities  Fragmented families .

particularly in more stressful and unhygienic evacuation centers . Stress-related illnesses  Complications in pregnancies.

 Sexually suggestive comments made by soldiers or rebels  Alleged fondling of women  Rape .

coordinate with people’s organizations. Women are able to bear greatly added burdens and family responsibilities  Women have the capacity to take action and overcome the stereotype of weak and dependent women  Women can mobilize themselves and their children. and negotiate directly with armed groups .

.  The first UN Security Council resolution ever to specifically recognize the issue (Resolution 1325) was adopted in October 2000. Only recently has it been internationally recognized that war and conflict affect women and children differently.  It advocated increased participation by women in peace-keeping activities and recognized the special vulnerability of women in times of conflict.

women and girls are vulnerable to all forms of violence. sexual slavery. and the high rate of infection and death increases women’s workload in maintaining their households and community and providing care to orphaned children. and trafficking. They face numerous health threats grounded in biological differences. forced pregnancy.” . enforced prostitution. including torture. in particular sexual violence and exploitation.“Women and children are disproportionately targeted in contemporary armed conflict and constitute the majority of all victims.” and that “during conflict. rape. mass rape.

 “The economic. legal and cultural structures that perpetuate gender inequality are still in place throughout the world. political. social. and in no nation do women have complete equality within these structures to participate as fully as men.” .

. These hierarchical structures resulting in discrimination against women and their second-class status in society during peacetime limit women’s ability to cope with the consequences of war. especially in countries with a fundamentalist interpretation of religion which is repressive of women’s rights.

”  . “Patriarchy means that women are regarded as men’s property. and imperial authority is to colonialism.  Rape is to male-female relations what conquering troops are to occupied territories. an addition to the territory and other things that men possess.

and disease at every time of war—during conflict. Women experience war differently than do men. . and the aftermath of war.  These conditions render them especially vulnerable to stress.  The inequities that women around the world face during peacetime are compounded by the enacting of nationalist. and cultural notions of gender and state. displacement. trauma. social. flight.