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K.P.Gokul Kumar
K.Kamesh (212712114048)
M.Kowshik Dhev



Final Year

Project Title
Reducing the rejection and increasing the
utilisation of the steel raw material by
modifying the dimensions of steel drums

Project Location
Balmer Lawrie & Co. Ltd.
(A Govt. of India enterprise)
Industrial packaging division,

Objective of Project
 To

reduce the rejection of the steel
drums during automatic continuous
resistance welding process
 To increase the utilization of raw
 To reduce cost of raw material by
modifying the dimensions of steel drums
 To maintain quality and characterises of
the drums remains the same

scale formation in the sheet metal  Other defects observed were from the manufacturing process like shearing . . punching .corrosion .Problem observed  48% of the rejected steel drums are from air tight leakage test because of the air leakage from the welded joint  33% of the rejected drums were observed with defects such as rust .painting etc.

Observations from the rejected steel drums from the air leak test Steel drums were not welded properly Metal was not melted uniformly throughout the cross section Heat generated by electrode was not uniformly distributed Material properties Machine specification .

Factors affecting the resistance welding Material properites  Resistivity  Thermal Conductivity  Melting Temperature  Thickness of the welded sheet  Electrode material .

Machine specification  The amount of current that passes through the work  The pressure that the electrodes transfer to the work  Speed of the work flows through the electrode.  Electrode geometry .

Parameter chosen for reducing the weld defect Material properties:  Thickness of the sheet metal is reduced hence the thickness of the welded joint is also reduced Machine specifications:  The pressure transferred to the work by electrode is increased by reducing the overlapping width of the welded edge .

Why these techniques  The defects in the welding can be eliminated  The raw material requirement for the steel drum is reduced  The cost of the raw material is reduced  No change in material properties  Other machine parameters work under optimized condition .

How it works  If the thickness of the welded joint is reduced volume under heat penetration is also reduced. pressure applied to the joint is increased even though force applied remains the same .  Pressure ∝ 1/area When the overlapped area is reduced. So heat transfers is more effective and required time is reduced.

22mm 910mm .Model of the raw steel sheet for body of the drum 1800 mm 1.

44 mm Resistance welding cannot be effiecient if the welding depth is more than 3mm .Existing lap joint thickness calculation In lap joint one sheet is placed over another Thickness of the sheet (t) = 1.22 mm  So the thickness of the weld (s) = 2 * t S = 2 * 1.22 = 2.

849mm = 1794 mm Width of the lap joint = Raw sheet length -circumference of the drum = 1800 – 1794 = 6 mm .Lap joint width calculation Existing diameter of the steel drum d = 571mm  Circumference of the steel drum =  π * d =  π * 571 = 1793.

22mm 6mm .Dimensions of existing lap joint 1.

Pressure applied at the welding joint  Applied force (f) = 1.4 kN (observed)  Length of the overlap (l) = 10 mm  width of the overlap (w) = 6 mm Holding pressure at the joint = ( f / w *l) = 1400 / 6 * 10 = 23.33 N/mm² .

length of the raw sheet metal was reduced by 2mm.25mm thick weld is 30 N/mm².  To increase the pressure between the electrode and the work.Increasing the pressure at the welded joint  The required pressure for the 1.201. the exposed surface area is reduced  In light of this . there by reducing the overlapped width by 2mm .

8 N  Length of the overlap (l) = 10 mm  Width of the overlap (w) =( 6 – 2 ) mm = 4 mm Holding pressure at the joint = ( f / w *l) = 1400 / 4 * 10 = 35 N/mm² .Pressure applied at the welding joint for new overlap width  Applied force (f) = 4.

20 mm So the thickness of the weld (s) = 2 * t S = 2 * 1.40 mm The thickness of the weld is less than 3mm so the welded joint is more efficient .20 = 2.Reducing the thickness  To increase the heat penetration throughout the thickness of the sheet metal was reduced to 1.20mm New Thickness of the sheet (t) = 1.

20mm 4mm .Dimensions of the proposed lap joint 1.

Properties of the low carbon steel S.NO PROPERTY UNIT VALUE 1 Resistivity μΩ 72 2 Melting point 3 Thermal conductivity W/m.K 46 4 Hardness HRB 65 1363 .

Heat generated in the welding process  Welding current ( I ) = 14 kA  Resistance ( R ) = 72 μΩ  Time of current flow at each point ( t ) =5 s Heat generated = I² * R * t = 14000² * 72μ * 5 = 7.05 kW .

66 sec  Actual operation takes 5 sec .Time required for heat transfer  Time = ( Heat conduction * Thickness ) / (Thermal conductivity x Area x(Thot -Tcold) = ( 705600 * 0.0012 ) 46 * 0. so there is a sufficient time for the heat transfer into the work from the electrode  The new dimensions does not affect the welding speed .00364 *( 1115-30 ) = 4.

NO PARAMETE R EXISTING (mm) PROPOSED (mm) 1 Length 1800 1798 2 Width 910 910 3 Thickness 1.22 1.Dimensions of the steel sheet for the drum S.20 .

Model of the proposed steel drum .

Dimensions of the steel drum S.N O VARIABLE DESCRIPTION DIMENSION (mm) 1 D1 Internal diameter 571mm 2 D2 External diameter 596 (max) 3 D3 Diameter over chime 585 (max) 4 H1 Total drum height 878 ± 5 5 P1 Centre to centre distance closures 451 ± 1 6 H3 Clearance from floor 4 (min) 7 H4 Distance between beads 280 ± 3 .

.Material used for steel drums  The body and ends of the drums is made from cold rolled low carbon steel sheets  The sheets and the blanks are phosphatized to protect the outer layer  The cold rolled steel sheets and strips conform to IS 8910 : 1978 standard.

02 2 Manganese 0.04 0.NO CONSTITUE NT PERCENTA GE (%) TOLERANC E ( +/.) 1 Carbon 0.50 0.12 0.04 0.005 4 Phosphorus 0.03 3 Sulphur 0.005 .Chemical composition of the raw material S.

Process flow in shell manufacturing Shearing Degreasing Preheating Roll forming Lids fixing & twin tester Painting Seam welding Shell testing Paint baking Flange making Bead expander Air cooling .

which is a deformation of a material substance in which parallel internal surfaces slide past one another. It is induced by a shear stress in the material.  Shearing process is required to trim the excess width of the sheet metal  The shearing machine exerts a force of 200 ton. .Shearing  Shearing refers to the occurrence of a shear strain.

   The trimmed sheet metal is rolled as a shell by passing through a pre set arrangement of rolling cylinders.  The excess length of the sheet is over lapped for welding process .Roll forming  Roll forming is a continuous bending operation performed on metal strip at room temperature.

Continuous seam welding .

4 kN 5 Water supply 120 l/min .3 m/min 4 Force 1.N O PARAMETER VALUE UNIT 1 Current 1.Specification of the welding machine S.4 kA 2 Voltage 450 Volt 3 Welding speed 11.

The force applied and current flow welds the heated parts together so that coalescence will occur.  Pressure is required throughout the entire welding cycle to assure a continuous electrical supply throughout the work.Resistance welding  Heat is generated by the passage of electric current through a resistance circuit. .

Flanger  Flanger is a machine which creates a flange at both the end of the steel shell  Flanger applies 150 Ton force at either side of the shell simultaneously  The height of the shell after the flange creation should be 890 ± 2 mm  The end lids are fixed at the flanges of the shell .

Bead expander  Bead expander is used produce the rolling hoop at circumference of shell  The rolling is generated so that the steel drum can be rolled over the ground freely  The diameter of the bead is 595 ± 2 mm  A mechanical force of 1200 kN is applied by the rollers to produce the rolling hoops .

Air leakage test  The drum is tested for the leakage at air pressure of 50 kPa . covered with soap solution at the welded end.  The drum must not shown any sign of leakage of air  There is no drop in the test pressure when observed for 1 min. .

Hydraulic test  The drum was subjected to a gradually applied hydraulic pressure of 200 kPa  The pressure is generated by the centrifugal pump and regulated by control valve  This pressure is maintained for 5 min  There is no leakage of water and drop in the hydraulic pressure .

Drop test  The drum is filled with 98 percent of its gross capacity with water and closed.  The gross capacity is 210 liter  The drum is suspended with the diagonal in the vertical position and raised to the height so that the lowest point on the drum is 1.80 m clear off the horizontal striking surface  The drum is dropped so it strikes the concrete surface of 40mm thick and  There was no considerable damage found .

1500 / unit Additional Revenue = 10 * 1500 = Rs. 15000/day .Cost efficient calculation  Length of the raw material saved per unit = 2 mm For very 900 unit one additional drum can be manufactured (ie. 5 drums per shift and 10 drums per day ) Cost of the drum = Rs.

.  Rejection rates in the automatic seam welding machine reduced by over 70% with the newly implemented design. which in turn resulted in an additional revenue of Rs 15000.Results  The number of drums produced per day increased by 10 units .  The newly proposed dimensions has no effect on quality characterises of the drum.

Thank You .