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Topics To be Studied

• Lift and Drag forces

• Lift, Drag and Pressure Coefficients

Uses of Airfoils • • • • • Wings Propellers and Turbofans Helicopter Rotors Compressors and Turbines Hydrofoils (wing-like devices which can lift up a boat above waterline) • Wind Turbines .

and generated considerable drag. In practice. .Evolution of Airfoils Early Designs .Designers mistakenly believed that these airfoils with sharp leading edges will have low drag. they stalled quickly.

Camber Line Chord Line .Airfoil Equal amounts of thickness is added to camber in a direction normal to the camber line.

• Symmetric airfoils have no camber. • Thickness Distribution which is added to the camber line.An Airfoil is Defined as a superposition of • Chord Line • Camber line drawn with respect to the chord line. . normal to the camber line.

in general. the angle of attack will change from root to tip. The tip will.Angle of Attack V Angle of attack is defined as the angle between the freestream and the chord line. have a low (or even a negative) . have a high angle of attack. It is given the symbol . . The root will. in general. Because modern wings have a built-in twist distribution.

per unit length of span (e. per foot of wing span). The component of aerodynamic forces along the freestream.g. per unit length of span (e. L ´ Sectional Drag. and is given the symbol D ´. D´ V The component of aerodynamic forces normal to the freestream.Lift and Drag Forces acting on a Wing Section Sectional Lift. is called the sectional lift force. and is given the symbol L ´. is called the sectional drag force. per foot of wing span).g. .

Sectional Lift and Drag Coefficients • The sectional lift coefficient Cl is defined as: Cl L 1 V2 c is 2the airfoil • Here c chord. measured along the chordline. • The sectional drag force coefficient Cd is likewise defined as: Cd D 1 V2 c 2 .e. distance between the leading edge and trailing edge. i.

Note that. we call the forces acting on that section (per unit span) L´ and D ´. D. CL and CD to denote the forces and coefficients. and the coefficients Cl and Cd ... • When we are taking about an entire wing we use L. • When we are dealing with just a section of the wing.

Pressure Forces acting on the Airfoil High Pressure Low velocity Low Pressure High velocity Low Pressure High velocity High Pressure Low velocity Bernoulli’s equation says where pressure is high. velocity will be low and vice versa. .

velocity will be low and vice versa.Pressure Forces acting on the Airfoil High Pressure Low velocity Low Pressure High velocity Low Pressure High velocity High Pressure Low velocity Bernoulli’s equation says where pressure is high. .

Resulting Pressure Forces acting on the Airfoil Low p-p High velocity High p-p Low velocity Low p-p High velocity High p-p Low velocity The quantity p-p is called the gauge pressure.Subtract off atmospheric Pressure p everywhere. It will be negative over portions of the airfoil. . This is because velocity there is high and the pressures can fall below atmospheric pressure. especially the upper surface.

Force on upper side Trailing Edge p Trailing Edge lower side Leading Edge dx Trailing Edge p Leading Edge lower side p upper side Leading Edge p upper side dx dx .Relationship between L´ and p V L Force normal to the wind direction Forces acting on the lower side .

Relationship between L´ and p (Continued) Trailing Edge L p lower side p upper side dx Leading Edge Trailing Edge p lower side p p upper side p dx Leading Edge 1 V2 c Divide left and right sides by 2 plower p pupper p x L d 1 1 1 2 2 c V2 c Leading V V Edge 2 2 2 Trailing Edge We get: .

plower p pupper p x L d 1 1 1 2 2 c V2 c Leading V V Edge 2 2 2 Trailing Edge The left side was previously defined as the sectional lift coefficient Cl. Trailing edge Cl C Leading edge p . The pressure coefficient is defined as: Cp Thus.upper d x c .Pressure Coefficient Cp From the previous slide.lower p p 1 V2 2 C p .

lift per unit span .Why use Cl.? • Why do we use “abstract” quantities such as Cl and Cp? • Why not directly use physically meaningful quantities such as Lift force. Cp etc. pressure etc.? .

Mach number and Reynolds number .The Importance of Non-Dimensional Forms Consider two geometrically similar airfoils. This is because high altitude conditions are not easily reproduced in wind tunnels. Cd and Cp . velocity.if they are geometrically alike . These will operate in different environments .operate at identical angle of attack. used on an actual wing. The other is large. They will have identical Cl . One is small. They will therefore have different Lift forces and pressure fields.density. used in a wind tunnel.

a small airfoil . Mach number and Reynolds number. but also quantitative information. from a small scale model to a full size configuration. used on an actual wing will have identical non-dimensional coefficients Cl . .operate at identical angle of attack. This allows designers (and engineers) to build and test small scale models. And a large airfoil.The Importance of Non-Dimensional Forms In other words. Cd and Cp .if they are geometrically alike . tested in a wind tunnel. and extrapolate qualitative features.

they can be plotted for use in all applications .model aircraft or full size aircraft . Cd etc. are found.Once Cl.

Characteristics of Cl vs. Angle of zero lift = 0 Angle of Attack. in degrees or radians . Stall Cl Slope= 2 if is in radians.

in degrees or radians .The angle of zero lift depends on the camber of the airfoil Cambered airfoil Cl Angle of zero lift = 0 Symmetric Airfoil Angle of Attack.

incompressible 1 M 2 If we know how an airfoil behaves in low speed. we can easily estimate how the lift will be altered in high speed flight. and shocks form on the airfoil. This relation works until the Mach number over the airfoil exceeds unity.Mathematical Model for Cl vs. at low angles of attack Incompressible Flow: Compressible Flow: Cl Cl 2 0 2 1 M 2 0 Cl . . incompressible flow.

Drag is caused by • Skin Friction . This causes low pressures near the trailing edge compared to the leading edge. .the air molecules try to drag the airfoil with them. converting momentum of the flow into heat. The resulting rate of change of momentum causes drag. • Form Drag .The flow separates near the trailing edge. due to the shape of the body. • Wave Drag: Shock waves form over the airfoil. The pressure forces push the airfoil back. This effect is due to viscosity.

airfoil is dragged back with the flow. and try to slow down the nearby particles. A tug of war results .Skin Friction Particles away from the airfoil move unhindered. Particles near the airfoil stick to the surface. . This region of low speed flow is called the boundary layer.

Laminar Flow Airfoil Surface This slope determines drag. Laminar mixing takes place very slowly. Drag per unit area is proportional to the slope of the velocity profile at the wall.layer by layer. The mixing between layers is due to molecular motion. Streamlines move in an orderly fashion . In laminar flow. . drag is small.

and chaotic. three-dimensional. we can measure velocities once every millisecond to collect 1000 samples and and average it.Turbulent Flow Airfoil Surface Turbulent flow is highly unsteady. It can still be viewed in a time-averaged manner. . at each point in the flow. For example.

The slope is higher. Drag is higher. .“Time-Averaged” Turbulent Flow Velocity varies rapidly near the wall due to increased mixing.

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