# Select three non-routine problems and solve each of this problem using two or more type of problem

solving strategies. Two elaborate on the difference strategies. Select one strategies that is deemed to be the most efficient and justify selection. To create a similar problem and solve it using the suggested strategies.

Problem involving a situation whereby an individual or a group is required to carry out the working solution. In doing so, they have to determined the strategy and method of problem-solving first, before implementing the working solution. The strategy of problem-solving needs a set of activities which will lead to the problem-solving process.

Basically there are two types of problem-solving

routine problem

non-routine problem.

Routine Problem

Routine problem is actually a type of mechanical mathematics problem. It is aimed at training the pupils so that they are able to master basic skills, especially the arithmetic skills involving the four mathematics operations or direct application of using mathematics formulae, laws, theorems or equations.

Non-Routine Problem
Non-routine problem is a kind of unique problemsolving which requires the application of skills, concepts or principle which have been learned and mastered. Thus, the method for solving non-routine problem in mathematics cannot be memorized, and is not the same as answering certain mechanical question. The process of problem-solving needs a set of systematic activities with logical planning, including proper strategy and selection of suitable method for implementation.

To identify the problem To look for clues / information To set up hypothesis To test the hypothesis To evaluate and record final conclusion

To ascertain the pattern of the solution To construct a problem-solving table To study all possible solutions To implement the strategies To plan a solution model To guess for the answer and checking To work backwards from the ending stage to the beginning stage To draw pictures, diagrams or graph To select relevant mathematics notations To explain the problem by using individual s own words To identify important information given To check assumptions which are not clearly stated

Analysis method

Mathematics Problem

Analogy method Solution Steps Diagram method Answer

Deduction method

Puan Salmah asked her son, Ali to buy 400 g of flour at the grocery. The price for 1 kg of flour is RM 12.00. How much it cost for 400 g of flour? 1) To identify the important information given. Prices for 1 kg of flour = RM 12.00 Prices for 400 g of flour = ? 1 kg = 1000 g 1000 g = RM 12.00 100 g = RM 12.00 / 1000 = RM 1.20 100 g x 4 = 400 g Hence, RM 1.20 x 4 = RM 4.80

2) To construct a problem-solving table

En. Ahmad asked Hakim to take 9 balls from store. He asked Hakim to divide all the balls equally to 3 classes. How many balls would each of class get? 1) To draw pictures, diagrams or graph? 9 balls

9 balls divided equally to 3 classes

3 balls for each classes

2) To select relevant mathematical notations 9 balls divided into 3 classes 9/3=3 9 __ = 3 3 Hence, 3 balls for each classes.

A millionaire had bought a pieces of land with width of 115 metre per square near his rubber estate. After he sum up all his lands, he discovered that the sum all his land is 180 metre per square. How much the size of his rubber estate ? 1) To guess for the answer and checking 180 115 = 65 115 + 65 = 180 Hence, the size of the rubber estate is 65 metre per square

2) To check assumptions which are not clearly stated Assume the size of rubber estate is 55 metre per square 180 55 = 125 Assume the size of rubber estate is 60 metre per square 180 60 = 120 Assume the size of rubber estate is 65 metre per square 180 65 = 115 Hence, the size of rubber estate is 65 metre per square.

Unfolding and folding a box. An unfolded box is shown below. 2 1 3 4 Which figure shows the box folded up? 1 3 5 4 B 3 4 6 C 6 5 6

3 2 A

5 1 D

Ans er: A

Difference Triangle Balls numbered 1 through 6 are arranged in a difference triangle on the next page. Note that in any row, the difference between the larger and the smaller of two successive balls is the number of the ball that appears below them.

6 4

2 3 1

5

Arrange balls numbered 1 through 10 in a difference triangle.

Here is one solution

8 2

10 9 7 3

1 5 4

6

Missing Digits Puzzle. Fill in the blanks so that the multiplication problem below uses all digits 0, 1, 2, 3, .. , 9 exactly once, and is correctly worked.

_ 0 2 x 3 _ _________ _5,_ _ _

The correct problem is

402 x 39 ______ 15 678

Mok Soon Sang ( 1996) Pengajian Matematik Untuk Diploma Perguruan. Kuala Lumpur : Kumpulan Budiman Sdn Bhd

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