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CHAPTER 2: Hardware

& Software
(1) Hardware 1: Internal


are the
physical/tangible components of
a computer system.
ie Any part of the computer
system that can be touched or
seen – including those which are
inside the System Unit.
Hardware can be classified based
on location relative to the System
Unit; or based on function.
©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014)



System Unit (or CPU Chassis)
is the main body of the computer
system, usually a metallic or
plastic box containing the CPU,
motherboard and other devices.
Devices found inside the System
Unit are referred to as Internal
Devices, and those outside it are
called Peripherals.
©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014)


Internal Devices Examples ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ include: Central Processing Unit (CPU) Motherboard Memory chips Internal Hard Disk Fan & Heat Sink Power Unit Network Interface Card ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 4 .a.

and internal and external buses. ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 5 .i. The mother board includes many components such as: central processing unit (CPU). It is the central circuit board making up a complex electronic system. Motherboard The motherboard is the body or mainframe of the computer. firmware. A motherboard provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system communicate. random access memory (RAM). through which all other components interface.

Motherboard ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 6 .

the instruction is broken up into parts that have significance to other portions of the CPU. writeback.  There are four steps that nearly all CPUs use in their operation: fetch.  The first step. It is sometimes referred to as the brain of the computer. such as the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) are connected so they can perform the desired operation. ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 7 . execute. decode.  During the execute step various portions of the CPU. involves retrieving an instruction from program memory. In the decode step. fetch. The final step. simply writes back the results of the execute step to some form of memory.ii. and writeback. CPU  The Central Processing Unit (CPU. sometimes just called processor) is a machine that can execute computer programs.

CPU (Processor) ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 8 .

especially RAM and graphics controllers The southbridge connects to lower-speed peripheral buses (such as PCI or ISA). such as Ethernet. Based on Intel Pentium-class microprocessors. the term chipset often refers to a specific pair of chips on the motherboard: the northbridge and the southbridge. the southbridge contains some on-chip integrated peripherals. Chipset The term chipset is commonly used to refer to a set of specialized chips on a computer's motherboard or an expansion card. In many modern chipsets. USB. and audio devices. The northbridge links the CPU to very high-speed devices. ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 9 .iii.

Chipset ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 10 .

a computer can support both new PCI cards while continuing to support Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) expansion cards. Using PCI. an older standard. The PCI specifications define two different card lengths: The full-size PCI form factor is 312 millimeters long. PCI is designed to be synchronized with the clock speed of the microprocessor.iv. ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 11 . short PCIs range from 119 to 167 millimeters in length to fit into smaller slots where space is an issue. PCI Slot Peripheral Component Interconnect An interconnection system between a microprocessor and attached devices in which expansion slots are spaced closely for high speed operation.

PCI Slots on Motherboard ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 12 .

v. ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 13 . ROM Read-Only Memory Data stored in ROM can only be modified slowly or with difficulty. so it is mainly used to distribute firmware (software that is very closely tied to specific hardware. and unlikely to need frequent updates).

ROM ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 14 .

Volatile Used during processing AKA Primary Memory ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 15 . RAM Random-Access Memory Allows stored data to be accessed directly in any random order and therefore is

RAM ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 16 .

vii. Hard Disk Secondary Storage Device Long Term Storage Uses rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material Serial AT Attachment (SATA) disks came into use in 2003 and have replaced Parallel AT Attachment (PATA) disks ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 17 .

Hard Disk ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 18 .

viii & ix: CPU Fan and Heat Sink Used together to actively cool down the rapidly-heating CPU Fan blows cool air. Heat sink is a passive heat exchanger that cools a device by dissipating heat into the surrounding medium ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 19 .

CPU Fan ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 20 .

Heat Sink ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 21 .

education and entertainment (games) and video projection. ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 22 . The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces that use software to generate sound. Typical uses of sound cards include providing the audio component for multimedia applications such as music composition.x. presentation. as opposed to using hardware inside the PC. Sound Card A sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal expansion card that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs. editing video or audio.

Sound Card ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 23 .

graphics card. display adapter or graphics adapter and sometimes preceded by the word discrete or dedicated to emphasize the distinction between this implementation and integrated graphics It is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor. Video Card Also called a video adapter. projector. display card.xi. graphics board. ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 24 . etc).

Video Card ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 25 .

The network adapter provides one or more ports for the network cable to connect to. Network Interface Card (NIC) Network Interface Card. An Ethernet NIC houses the Ethernet Port NIC have unique Media Access Control (MAC) Addresses ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 26 . or NIC is a hardware card installed in a computer so it can communicate on a network. and it transmits and receives data onto the network cable.xii.

Ethernet NIC ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 27 .

A wireless NIC ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 28 .

Power Supply Unit A power supply unit (PSU) converts mains AC to low-voltage regulated DC power for the internal components of a computer. Modern personal computers universally use a switched-mode power supply. ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 29 .xiii. while others automatically adapt to the supply voltage. Some power supplies have a manual selector for input voltage.

Power Supply Unit (PSU) ©Kgosi@ABMUC (2014) 30 .