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BUS 308 HELPS Learn by Doing

BUS 308 Entire Course (Ash Course)
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BUS 308 Week 1 Assignment Problems 1.2, 1.17, 3.3 & 3.22
BUS 308 Week 1 DQ 1 Performance Report
BUS 308 Week 1 DQ 2 The Empirical Rule vs. Chebyshev Theorem
BUS 308 Week 1 Quiz (10 MCQ)
BUS 308 Week 2 Assignments Problems 4.4, 4.20, 5.12, 6.22(a)
BUS 308 Week 2 DQ 1 Relative Frequency
BUS 308 Week 2 DQ 2 Applications for Probability
BUS 308 Week 2 Quiz (10 MCQ)
BUS 308 Week 3 Assignments Problems 7.11, 7.30, 8.8, 8.38

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BUS 308 Week 1 DQ 1 Language
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Discussion 1-1/Language Numbers and measurements are the language of business.
Organizations look at results in many ways: expenses, quality levels, efficiencies,
time, costs, etc. What measures does your department keep track of? Are they
descriptive or inferential data, and what is the difference between these? (Note: If
you do not have a job where measures are available to you, ask someone you know
for some examples, or conduct outside research on an interest of yours, or use
personal measures.)

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BUS 308 Week 1 DQ 2 Probability
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Things vary in life – virtually nothing (except physical standards such as the speed of
light) we interact with is constant over time. Much of this variation follows
somewhat predictable patterns that can be examined using probability. An example
of a subjective probability is: “Cops usually do not patrol this road, so I can get
away with speeding.” An empirical probability example is: “Each production run
has a 5% reject rate.” A classical (or theoretical) probability example is: “This die
has six sides, so I should see the number 2 come up 1/6th of the time.” What are
some examples of probability outcomes in your work or life? How would looking
at them in terms of probabilities help us understand what is going on? How does
the normal curve relate to activities/things you are associated with?

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BUS 308 Week 1 Problem Set
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1. For assistance with these calculations, see the Recommended Resources for Week
One. Measurement issues. Data, even numerically code variables, can be one of 4
levels – nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio. It is important to identify which level a
variable is, as this impacts the kind of analysis we can do with the data. For
example, descriptive statistics such as means can only be done on interval or ratio
level data. Please list, under each label, the variables in our data set that belong in
each group..

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BUS 308 Week 1 Quiz (New)
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1. Question : In statistical notation, M is to μ as s is to σ. Question 2. Question : A
parameter refers to a sample characteristic. Question 3. Question : Data on the city
from which members of a board of directors come represent interval data. Question
4. Question : In a frequency
distribution such as a bell-shaped curve, what does the vertical height of the curve
indicate?

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BUS 308 Week 1 Quiz
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1.

Question :
Data on the city from which members of a board of directors
come represent interval data.
2.
Question :
Inferential statistics infer the characteristics of samples.
3.
Question :
The mode is which of the following?
4.
Question :
The standard error of the mean can be calculated by dividing μ
by the square root of the number of values in the distribution.

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BUS 308 Week 2 DQ 1 Hypotheses
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Discussion 2-1/Hypotheses What is a hypothesis test? Why do we need to use them to
make decisions about relating sample results to the population; why can’t we just
make our decisions by the sample value?

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BUS 308 Week 2 DQ 2 Variation
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Variation exists in virtually all parts of our lives. We often see variation in results in
what we spend (utility costs each month, food costs, business supplies, etc.).
Consider the measures and data you use (in either your personal or job activities).
When are differences (between one time period and another, between different
production lines, etc.) between average or actual results important? How can you or
your department decide whether or not the observed differences over time are
important? How could using a mean difference test help?

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BUS 308 Week 2 Problem Set
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Problem Set Week Two Complete the problems below and submit your work in an
Excel document. Be sure to show all of your work and clearly label all calculations.
All statistical calculations will use the Included in the Week Two tab of
theEmployee Salary Data Set are 2 one-sample t-tests comparing male and female
average salaries to the overall sample mean. 1. Below are 2 one-sample t-test
comparing male and female average salaries to the overall sample mean. Based on
our sample, how do you interpret the results and what do these results suggest
about the population means for male and female salaries?

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BUS 308 Week 2 Quiz (New)
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Question : What is the relationship between the power of a statistical test and decision
errors? Question 2. Question : The desired sample depends on all of these factors
except? Question 3. Question : What question does the z test answer? Question 4.
Question : The desired sample size depends only the size of the population to be
tested. Question 5. Question : Each different t-distribution is defined by which of
the following? Question 6. Question : What is the alternate hypothesis in a problem
where sales group two is predicted to be “. . . significantly less productive than
sales group one?”

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BUS 308 Week 2 Quiz
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1.

Question :
How is the sum of squares unlike either the standard deviation
or the variance?
2.
Question :
If sums of squares statistics are calculated for shoppers at three
different retail outlets, what statistic will indicate the variability among those at
each outlet?
3.
Question :
Which is the symbol used for the test statistic in ANOVA?
4.
Question :
If ANOVA reveals that four different departments have
significantly different levels of productivity, what will a post-hoc test indicate?
5.
Question :
The independent t-test is based on which distribution?

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BUS 308 Week 3 DQ 1 ANOVA
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In many ways, comparing multiple sample means is simply an extension of what we
covered last week. Just as we had 3 versions of the t-test (1 sample, 2 sample (with
and without equal variance), and paired; we have several versions of ANOVA –
single factor, factorial (called 2-factor with replication in Excel), and withinsubjects (2-factor without replication in Excel). What examples (professional,
personal, social) can you provide on when we might use each type? What would be
the appropriate hypotheses statements for each example?

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BUS 308 Week 3 DQ 2 Effect Size
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Several statistical tests have a way to measure effect size. What is this, and when
might you want to use it in looking at results from these tests on job related data?

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BUS 308 Week 3 Problem Set
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ASSIGNMENT WEEK 3 Complete the problems below and submit your work in an
Excel document. Be sure to show all of your work and clearly label all calculations.
All statistical calculations will use the (Note: Questions 1- 4 have additional
elements to respond to below the analysis results.) 1. Last week, we found that the
average performance ratings do not differ between males and females in the
population. Now we need to see if they differ among the grades. Is the average
performance rating the same for all grades? (Assume variances are equal across the

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BUS 308 Week 4 DQ 1 Confidence Intervals
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Discussion 4-1/Confidence Intervals Many people do not “like” or “trust” single point
estimates for things they need measured. Looking back at the data examples you
have provided in the previous discussion questions on this issue, how might adding
confidence intervals help managers accept the results better? Why? Ask a manger
in your organization if they would prefer a single point estimate or a range for
important measures, and why? Please share what they say.

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BUS 308 Week 4 DQ 2 Chi-Square Tests
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Discussion 4-2/Chi-Square Tests Chi-square tests are great to show if distributions
differ or if two variables interact in producing outcomes. What are some examples
of variables that you might want to check using the chi-square tests? What would
these results tell you?

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BUS 308 Week 4 Problem Set
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ASSIGNMENT WEEK 4 Let’s look at some other factors that might influence pay.
Complete the problems below and submit your work in an Excel document. Be sure
to show all of your work and clearly label all calculations. All statistical
calculations will use the 1. Using our sample data, construct a 95% confidence
interval for the population's mean salary for each gender. Interpret the results. How
do they compare with the findings in the week 2 one sample t-test outcomes
(Question 1)?

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BUS 308 Week 4 Quiz (New)
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1. Question : The goodness of fit test null hypothesis states that the sample data does
not match an expected distribution. Question 2. Question : Statistical significance
in the Chi-square test means the population distribution (expected) is not the source
of the sample (observed) data. Question 3. Question : While rejecting the null
hypothesis for the goodness of fit test means distributions differ, rejecting the null
for the test of independence means the variables
interact.

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BUS 308 Week 4 Quiz
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1.

Question :
With reference to problem 1, what statistic determines the
correlation of experience with productivity, controlling for age in experience?
2.
Question :
In a problem where interest rates and growth of the economy are
used to predict consumer spending, which of the following will increase prediction
error?
3.
Question :
With reference to problem 3, how is the regression constant or
the a value interpreted?

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BUS 308 Week 5 DQ 1 Correlation
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Discussion 5-1/Correlation What results in your departments seem to be correlated or
related to other activities? How could you verify this? Create a null and alternate
hypothesis for one of these issues. What are the managerial implications of a
correlation between these variables?

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BUS 308 Week 5 DQ 2 Regression
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Discussion 5-2/Regression At times we can generate a regression equation to explain
outcomes. For example, an employee’s salary can often be explained by their pay
grade, appraisal rating, education level, etc. What variables might explain or predict
an outcome in your department or life? If you generated a regression equation, how
would you interpret it and the residuals from it?

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BUS 308 Week 5 Final Paper (2 Papers)
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This tutorial contains 2 Different Papers The final paper provides you with an
opportunity to integrate and reflect on what you have learned during the class. The
question to address is: “What have you learned about statistics?” In developing
your responses, consider – at a minimum – and discuss the application of each of
the course elements in analyzing and making decisions about data (counts and/or
measurements). The course elements include: · Descriptive statistics · Inferential
statistics · Hypothesis development and testing · Selection of appropriate statistical
tests ·

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BUS 308 Week 5 Problem Set
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ASSIGNMENT WEEK 5 1. Create a correlation table for the variables in our (Use
analysis ToolPak or StatPlus:mac LE function Correlation). a. Reviewing the data
levels from week 1, what variables can be used in a Pearson’s Correlation Table
(which is what Excel produces)? b. Place the table here. c. Using r=
approximately .28 as the significant r value (at p = .05) for a correlation between 50
values, what variables are significantly related to salary? To compa? d. Looking at
the above correlations – both significant or not – are there any surprises – by that I
mean any relationships you expected to be meaningful and are not, and vice-versa?
e. Does this information help us answer our equal pay for equal work question?

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