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CE 590 Hydrology

Hydrologic
principles
 Rainfall and runof
 Surface water &
ground water flow
 Watersheds and
terrestrial inputs
to
surface water
Web site:
bodies
http://cee.wpi.edu/hydro
 Examples developed
from Wachusett
Instructor: Paul Mathisen (with some assistance from oth
Reservoir

Last time ...
Brief review
 Some clarifications on definitions
 Quantitative analysis of rainfall
 Rainfall measurement

Today ...
Review
 Abstractions
 Catchments
 Runof
 Intro to infiltration

Water Budget I E P T R G .

Rainfall / runof rainfall depression storage overland flow streamflow .

. which ultimately produces runof – – – – – Interception surface or depression storage infiltration evaporation evapotranspiration .Abstractions  Processes acting to reduce total ppt into efective ppt.

– heavy & longer storms . season  amounts  – light storms .Interception Abstraction by vegitation or other surface cover  throughfall .small .7 to 36 % in growing seas. vegatative cover.25 percent – moderate storms .part of ppt that reaches the ground  fx of storm.

Rate (mm/hr) t= storm duration .foliage surf/its horiz projec E= evap. L=interception loss (mm) L= S + K E t S = interception storage depth (mm K= evap.retained by foliage – evaporation loss Where .Interception  Components – Interception storage ..

2.Surface/depression storage Abstracted ppt is retained in puddles.75 mm .5 mm clay . ditches .pervious urban .5 mm .5mm .1.25 mm loam .6. and other depressions in surface  milder the relief.paved areas . greater the depression storage  ex  – – – sand .3.

Sd is depression storage capacity (mm) [typically 10 to 50 mm]. and k is a const . Pe is precip excess.Depression storage  Quantification – lump in with other components such as infiltration – Peak flow correction factor (SCS TR55) – Vs = Sd (1 .e-kPe) where Vs is the equiv depth of depress storage (mm).

Infiltration Infiltration .seepage of rainfall into the groun (contribution to groundwater) R (in) t (hrs) .

98) .85-. or antecedent moisture  Antecedent ppt index (API)  typical depletion rate  – Ii = K I I-1 – where Ii is index for day.Antecedent moisture Infiltration has an important efect on abstracted ppt. and K= recession factor (. Ii-1 is index for preceding day.  Infiltration is dependent on initial level of soil moisture.

Antecedent Precipitation Index High API. II(avg). I(dry).soil moisture index (SMI) relates runof to SMI and ppt. or III(wet) – SSARR .. intensity  Runof percent (R/P)*100 . greater runof  Alternative definitions  – Antecedent moisture condition (AMC) – by SCS .

Surface runof runof depends on the antecedent ppt index  water flowing on earth’s surface  overland flow  flow in rills. gullies and streams  .

3 components contribute to runof    surface flow interflow groundwater flow .

Surface runof in catchments Overland flow .  rill flow .small rivulets (conc of overland)  gully flow .confluence of streams  .sheet flow over land surf.concentrated runof  river flow .runof with erosive cabability  streamflow .

Catchment characteristics area  Slope  Shape  Flow length  streams (location. density. nature)  .

Catchment area  Drainage area – leads to potential runof volume  catchment divide – may difer from groundwater divide  divide Estimate: Q peak=Can A .

.. and L is catchment length  Compactness  – Kc=0. cover.   .282P/A1/2 where Kc is a compactness ratio. then rapid runof Factors: relieve. veg. & timing of runof If Kf high.conc. or Kc~1. and P is the perimeter Catchment response .Catchment shape  Form – Kf=A/L2 where Kf is form ratio. drainage density.

Flow length approximate equations  Approximate estimate – Lo=1/(2D) – where D=drainage density since overland flow length is approx 1/2 of mean distance between channels  More precise estimate – Lo=1/[2D{1-(Sc/Ss)}1/2] – where Sc is the mean channel slope and Ss is the mean surface slope .

Linear measures    Catchment length -length along principle watercourse length to centroid (often est. as point to 2 or more bisecting straight lines Order G – 0 = overland flow – 1 = gets flow from 0 orders – 2 = gets flow when 2 1st order streams combine – etc. Lc L .

Estimating the overland flow length Lo collector Lo collector Lo collector .

Slope/catchment relief Relief .an elevation diference  max relief = max elev dif between highest & lowest points  Relief ratio=max relief/longest straight lgth  .

Land surface slopes   Often use grid methods to get slopes hypsometric analysis = curve showning elevation of catchment above this elevation Ei-Emin Emax-Emin Ai/Ac .

10 .Stream channels   S1 .const slope that makes shaded area above equal to shaded area below  Slope 0.000006 .some tidal riv S3 .mountains 0.from max and min elev’s S2 .equivalent slope – break channel into subreaches & obtain slope S3= 2 Li  (Li/Si E ) 1/2 up Down Distance .

Stream-types and baseflow  perennial – (always flowing) – flow maintained by “base flow” during dry weather  ephemeral – (only in response to ppt)  intermittent – (only in certain times of the year) .

Hydrographs • Characteristics of the hydrograph • Distribution of uniform rainfall .

or per both  surface flow . per unit runof depth.Runof Q (cfs) Volume or flow rate  varies with time T (hr)  may express in flow per unit drainage area.direct runof  also get indirect runof  .

05-0.Runof coefficients R=k P surface k  urban residential: single 0.9  forests 0.20  parks.00 .5  commerial and industrial 0.85-1.3  apts 0.30  asphalt and pavement 0. farms 0.05-0.

Review  Abstractions  Catchments  Runof  .First part of class ...

.  Infiltration – – – – – Definitions Physical aspects Simple models Physically based models measurement ..Next .

3 components contribute to runof    surface flow interflow groundwater flow .

Infiltration Infiltration . and water quality . vegitative cover.process by which ppt is abstracted by seeping into soil below ground surface  define it by  – an instantaneous infiltration rate (mm/hr) – an average infiltration rate (mm/hr)  Function of rainfall intensity. soil properties and soil type. surface conditions.

Physical problem unsaturated flow saturated flow Close-up view on next slide .

Moisture in the unsaturated zone unsaturated air water moisture content =Vwater/Vtot saturated water porosity n=Vw /Vt=Vvoid/Vtot .

we get a capillary fringe Vadose/unsaturated zone capillary fringe .Capillarity & capillary fringe capillary forces result in rise of fluid 2R (2 cos ) hc = rwgR  hc In subsurface.

Conditions in unsaturated zone  total potential or head h = z +  where z is the elevation head and  is the pressure head (or moisture potential)  is a function of   Darcy’s law applies: – q=K( dh/dz    .

Controls on the Range of moisture content  Field capacity – maximum amount of moisture the soil structure can hold agains the force of gravity – upper level of moisture before rapid drainage  Wilting point – soil mosture at which permanent wilting of plants starts to occur .

quantitative approaches Estimation from water balances  Horton Equation  Philip’s Equation  Index  Green-Ampt model  Measurement  .[NEXT TIME] Infiltration .