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INTRODUCTION

What is a Fan ?
and
What purpose does it serve ?

FAN
A fan is a rotary machine, maintaining a continuous flow of air or gas.

PURPOSE
Essentially, the purpose of a fan is to establish and maintain a
continuous flow of air/gas, against a resistance, known as system
resistance. Therefore, the fan has to set up a difference in pressure
sufficient to overcome the losses/resistance in the entire system,
including its own internal losses.

TYPE OF FANS
FANS
AXIAL FLOW

RADIAL FLOW/CENTRIFUGAL

FORWARD CURVE
BLADE

BACKWARD CURVE
BLADE

MIXED FLOW

RADIAL TIP
BLADE

IMPELLER TYPE

FORWARD CURVED
BLADE FAN

BACKWARD CURVED
BLADE FAN

RADIAL TIPPED
BLADE FAN

Applications of fans in Industries

ID, FD, PA, SA Fans for boilers/ power plants


ID, FD Fans for process industries viz.,
Cement, Chemical, Fertilizer, Steel, Glass, Refineries etc.

BASIC FAN LAWS


Fan total pressure (FTP) =
Total pressure at outlet (TPO) - Total pressure at inlet (TPI)
Total pressure at outlet (TPO) =
Static pressure at outlet (SPO) + Velocity pressure at outlet (VPO)
Total pressure at inlet (TPI) =
Static pressure at inlet (SPO) + Velocity pressure at inlet (VPI)
Therefore:

(FTP)

= (TPO - TPI)
= (SPO - VPO) + (SPI + VPI)
= (Spo - SPI) + (VPO - VPI)

(SPO - SPI) is known as system resistance = SR


In case of forced draft fan (FD Fan), VPI = 0, Hence for FD Fan
FTP = SR + VPO)
Whereas for ID applications, both VPO and VPI exist, hence, for ID fan
FTP = SR + (VPO - VPI)
If the velocity of air/gas at fan inlet equals to outlet velocity, then FTP = SR
only. However, losses in fan accessories (which are not the part of
system), should be added to system resistance to arrive to the value of
FTP. It is applicable for both ID and FD applications.

EFFICIENCY OF FANS DEFINITIONS


Fan adiabatic efficiency
P2 1/

----- -----1
P1
-1
-------------------------------------

P1xQ1x

AD

P1 = Absolute pressure at Fan Outlet


P2 = Absolute pressure at Fan Inlet

ABSORBED MOTOR POWER

Usually written as

AD

P s x Q 1 x Kp
-------------------------------ABSORBED MOTOR POWER

Where Pt = Fan total pressure rise


Kp = Compressibility Factor

Ps =

Fan static Pressure rise

Compressibility Factor :

r-1

Kp = P

r - 1
-------------------

(p-1) (y-1)

Y = Adiabatic coefficient =

p=

Cp Specific heat at constant pressure


=
= 1.4 for standard air
Cv Specific heat at constant volume

Absolute Pressure ratio across the fan =

Where:
B = Site bar, mmWG
P1= Suction pressure in mmWG

B
B-0.0737P1

Outlet Pressure
Inlet pressure

Values of y i.e. Cp
Carbon Monoxide
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Atmospheric air

:
:
:

1.4
1.4
1.4
: 1.4
: 1.4

Coal gas
1.37
Carbon dioxide 1.29
Hydrogen Sulphide 1.34
Methane
1.30
Ethane
1.19

Fan apparent Efficiency

AP

PS * Q1
--------------------------------------ABSORBED MOTOR

POWER

Fan total efficiency

P T * Q1
-------------------------------------ABSORBED MOTOR

Where PT

POWER

= Fan Total Pressure Rise

CHANGE IN FLOW, PRESSURE AND POWER WITH RESPECT TO CHANGE IN SPEED,


DENSITY AND DIAMETER OF THE IMPELLER
Q1
----------Q2

3
=

N1
*

--------------

N2

PT1
----------PT2

2
=

N1
*

--------------

D1
--------D2

3
=

N2

P1
* -----P2
5

N1
--------------

Where:
Q = Flow Rate
PT = Pressure
PW = Power
2

N2
PW1
----------PW2

D1
--------D2

D1
--------D2

P1
* ------P2

DESIGN FEATURES OF
HIGH EFFICIENCY FANS
Blade Profile
Casing
Inlet cone
Inlet box

BLADE PROFILE

FAN CASING

INLET CONE

IMPELLER & INLET CONE ARRANGEMENT

INLET BOX

EVASE

VARIABLE SPEED
CONTROL

INLET GUIDE VANE


CONTROL

I V CONTROL

TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTIC OF MOTOR

Client:

Capacity:

Maratha Cements, (7500 TPD),

Application:

10,80,000 m3/Hr., Static Pressure: 99 mbar,

Raw Mill Fan

Shaft Power:

3725 kW

Client: Maratha Cements

Capacity:

(7500 TPD), Application: PreHeater Fan

9,60,840 m3/Hr., Static Pressure: 65 mbar,

Shaft Power

: 2175 kW

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