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# INTRODUCTION

What is a Fan ?
and
What purpose does it serve ?

FAN
A fan is a rotary machine, maintaining a continuous flow of air or gas.

PURPOSE
Essentially, the purpose of a fan is to establish and maintain a
continuous flow of air/gas, against a resistance, known as system
resistance. Therefore, the fan has to set up a difference in pressure
sufficient to overcome the losses/resistance in the entire system,
including its own internal losses.

TYPE OF FANS
FANS
AXIAL FLOW

FORWARD CURVE

BACKWARD CURVE

MIXED FLOW

IMPELLER TYPE

FORWARD CURVED

BACKWARD CURVED

## ID, FD, PA, SA Fans for boilers/ power plants

ID, FD Fans for process industries viz.,
Cement, Chemical, Fertilizer, Steel, Glass, Refineries etc.

## BASIC FAN LAWS

Fan total pressure (FTP) =
Total pressure at outlet (TPO) - Total pressure at inlet (TPI)
Total pressure at outlet (TPO) =
Static pressure at outlet (SPO) + Velocity pressure at outlet (VPO)
Total pressure at inlet (TPI) =
Static pressure at inlet (SPO) + Velocity pressure at inlet (VPI)
Therefore:

(FTP)

= (TPO - TPI)
= (SPO - VPO) + (SPI + VPI)
= (Spo - SPI) + (VPO - VPI)

## (SPO - SPI) is known as system resistance = SR

In case of forced draft fan (FD Fan), VPI = 0, Hence for FD Fan
FTP = SR + VPO)
Whereas for ID applications, both VPO and VPI exist, hence, for ID fan
FTP = SR + (VPO - VPI)
If the velocity of air/gas at fan inlet equals to outlet velocity, then FTP = SR
only. However, losses in fan accessories (which are not the part of
system), should be added to system resistance to arrive to the value of
FTP. It is applicable for both ID and FD applications.

## EFFICIENCY OF FANS DEFINITIONS

P2 1/

----- -----1
P1
-1
-------------------------------------

P1xQ1x

## P1 = Absolute pressure at Fan Outlet

P2 = Absolute pressure at Fan Inlet

## ABSORBED MOTOR POWER

Usually written as

P s x Q 1 x Kp
-------------------------------ABSORBED MOTOR POWER

## Where Pt = Fan total pressure rise

Kp = Compressibility Factor

Ps =

## Fan static Pressure rise

Compressibility Factor :

r-1

Kp = P

r - 1
-------------------

(p-1) (y-1)

p=

## Cp Specific heat at constant pressure

=
= 1.4 for standard air
Cv Specific heat at constant volume

## Absolute Pressure ratio across the fan =

Where:
B = Site bar, mmWG
P1= Suction pressure in mmWG

B
B-0.0737P1

Outlet Pressure
Inlet pressure

Values of y i.e. Cp
Carbon Monoxide
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Atmospheric air

:
:
:

1.4
1.4
1.4
: 1.4
: 1.4

Coal gas
1.37
Carbon dioxide 1.29
Hydrogen Sulphide 1.34
Methane
1.30
Ethane
1.19

## Fan apparent Efficiency

AP

PS * Q1
--------------------------------------ABSORBED MOTOR

POWER

## Fan total efficiency

P T * Q1
-------------------------------------ABSORBED MOTOR

Where PT

POWER

## CHANGE IN FLOW, PRESSURE AND POWER WITH RESPECT TO CHANGE IN SPEED,

DENSITY AND DIAMETER OF THE IMPELLER
Q1
----------Q2

3
=

N1
*

--------------

N2

PT1
----------PT2

2
=

N1
*

--------------

D1
--------D2

3
=

N2

P1
* -----P2
5

N1
--------------

Where:
Q = Flow Rate
PT = Pressure
PW = Power
2

N2
PW1
----------PW2

D1
--------D2

D1
--------D2

P1
* ------P2

DESIGN FEATURES OF
HIGH EFFICIENCY FANS
Casing
Inlet cone
Inlet box

FAN CASING

INLET CONE

INLET BOX

EVASE

VARIABLE SPEED
CONTROL

CONTROL

I V CONTROL

Client:

Capacity:

Application:

Shaft Power:

3725 kW

Capacity:

Shaft Power

: 2175 kW