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SOLID WASTE

MANAGEMENT AND
DISPOSAL OF SOLID
WASTES

BY
S.NAGAMALAI
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Solid Waste Management


Discipline associated with the control of
generation, storage, collection, transfer and
transport, processing and disposal of solids
waste in a manner that is in accord with the
best principles of public health, economics,
engineering, and other environmental
considerations.

Functional Elements of SWM


WASTE GENERATION

STORAGE

COLLECTION

TRANSPORT

PROCESSING

DISPOSAL
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Storage
Factors to be considered in the storage of
solid waste include:

The type of container to be used


The container location
Public health and aesthetics
Collection methods to be used
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Collection
The waste that accumulates in the
premises must be removed at a specific
frequency depending on the size of the
containers and the composition of the
waste.
The municipal agencies are usually
responsible for collection of waste from
residential and commercial areas
Owners are responsible in case of
industrial areas

House-to-House Collection
Curb Service: the workmen collect and
empty the containers in the collection vehicle
and place them back at the curb.
Alley Service: the containers are placed at
the alley line from where they are picked up
by workmen.
Setout, Setback Service: Setout men go to
individual houses, collect the containers and
empty them in the solid waste collection
vehicle.
Backyard Service: solid waste workers carry
a bin, handcart or sack and empty the solid

Community Bin System


Community bins are located at street
corners, and at specific frequencies along
the straight roads.
The spacing of the containers should be
fixed on the basis of the per capita
quantity and the population contributing
the waste
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Types of Collection Systems

Hauled-Container System: storage containers


are hauled to the processing, transfer, or
disposal site, emptied and returned either to
their original location or some other location.
Stationary-Container System: storage
containers remain at the point of waste
generation.
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Transfer and Transport


Refers to the means, facilities and appurtenances
used to effect the transfer of wastes from relatively
small collection to larger vehicles and to transport
them over to either processing centers or final disposal
sites.
Become necessity when direct hauling to a disposal
sites is no longer economically feasible.
Transfer stations may be classified into three types,
direct discharge, storage discharge and combined
direct and storage discharge.
Transport means are by motor vehicle, railroad
transport, water transport
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Processing Techniques
Objectives:
Improve the efficiency of solid-waste
disposal systems
To recover resources (usable
materials)
Recovery of conversion products and
energy
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Processing Methods
Mechanical Volume Reduction
(Compaction)
Thermal Volume Reduction
(Incineration)
Mechanical Size Reduction (Shredding)
Component Separation (Manual and
Mechanical)
Drying and dewatering (Moisture
content

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Three Rs
Integrated Waste Management
Reduce
Reuse
Recycle

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Implementation of Resource Recovery


Resource recovery means the obtaining of some
economic benefit from material that someone has
regarded as waste.
It includes:
Reuse - being used for the same purpose
again (such as refilling a soft drinks
bottle);
Recovery - processing material so that it
can be used again as the same material ,
such as the processing of waste paper to
make pulp and then new paper

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Implementation of Resource Recovery


Conversion - processing the material to make
something different (such as producing padding for
clothing and sleeping bags from plastic bottles, or
producing compost from food waste)
Energy Recovery - usually referring to the burning of
waste so that the heat can be used (for example, for
heating swimming pools). Another method of energy
recovery is to collect the gas that is produced in very
large sanitary landfills and use it as a fuel or to
generate electricity.
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Benefits of Recycling
Conservation of resources!!!!
A Sunday edition of the New York Times takes 62,000
trees to produce.
91% of all aluminum cans end up in MSW -- Value of
$400,000,000
Use of recycled glass saves 50% of the energy required
to make new glass.
Energy saving Recycling currently saves over
500,000,000 barrels of oil / yr

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Recycling Concerns
Plastics are recyclable, but technology differs
from plastic to plastic.
Industry is researching new technologies.

Economics are of concern.


Unless demand for products keeps pace with
growing supply, recycling programs will face an
uncertain future.

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DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES

Dumping

Sanitary landfill

Composting

Vermicomposting

Incineration

Pelletisation

Gasification

Anaerobic treatment

Bioreactor landfill

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Possible Environmental Impact of Open


Dumping
Degradation of land resources
Health Impacts
Aesthetic effects
Contamination of surface and groundwater supplies
Open burning: Urban air pollution
Decomposition of organic wastes: release of
methane which contributes to greenhouse effect.
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Sanitary Land Filling


Involves the controlled disposal of solid wastes on or in
the upper layer of the earths mantle.
The operation in which the wastes to be disposed of are
compacted and covered with a layer of soil at the end of
each days operation.

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Important aspects in the implementation of sanitary


landfills include:
oSite selection
oLand filling methods and operations
oOccurrence of gases and leachate in landfills
oMovement and control of landfill gases and
leachate.

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Site Selection:
Factor

Remarks

Available land area

Site should have a useful life greater


than one year

Haul distance

Will have significant


operating costs

Soil condition and topography

Cover material must be available at or


near the site

Surface water hydrology

Impacts drainage requirements

Geologic and
conditions

hydro

geologic

impact

Most
important
factors
establishment of landfill site,
respect to site preparation

on

in
with

Climatologic conditions

Provisions must be made for wet


weather operations

Local environmental conditions

Noise, odor, dust, vector and aesthetic


factors control requirements

Ultimate use of site

Affects long-term management for site

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Land filling methods and operations:


The principal methods used for land filling dry
areas are:
Area method
Trench method
Depression method

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Gases in Landfills:
Gases found include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon
monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nitrogen and oxygen.
Carbon dioxide and methane are the principal gases from
the anaerobic decomposition of wastes.

Leachate in Landfills:
Leachate may be defined as liquid that has percolated
through solid waste and has extracted dissolved or suspended
materials from it.
Composed of liquid produced from decomposition of waste
and liquid that entered from surface drainage, rainfall,
groundwater, and water from under ground springs.
The leachate should be either contained within the landfill or
removed for treatment.

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Advantages of Sanitary Landfill:


Where land is available, it is most

Disadvantages of Sanitary Landfill:

may not be available within economical

economical method.
The initial investment is
comparatively low.

hauling distance.

open dump.

It can receive all types of solid


wastes.
Flexible method.
Land may be reclaimed for use as
parking lots, playgrounds, golf
courses, airports, etc.,

Proper sanitary landfill standards must be


adhered or the operation results in an

It is a complete or final disposal


method.

In highly populated areas, suitable land

Can

provoke

public

opposition

from

nearby residential areas.

Requires periodic maintenance.

Methane and other gases produced may


become hazard.

Leachate

movement

and

pollution

problems

if

groundwater
not

properly

maintained.

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Incineration
Incineration is a waste disposal method that involves the
combustion of waste at high temperatures.
Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment
systems are described as "thermal treatment".
High temperature breakdown most compounds go to CO2 and
H2O
Used both for volume reduction and for power production.
Can be used to reduce the original volume of combustible solid
wastes by 80 90 %.
Air pollution problem is the major problem in use of this method.
Onsite incineration is also used at individual residences,
apartments, stores, industries, hospitals, and other institutions.

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Incineration
A waste-to-energy plant (WtE) is a modern term for an
incinerator that burns wastes in high-efficiency furnace/boilers
to produce steam and/or electricity and incorporates modern air
pollution control systems and continuous emissions monitors.
This type of incinerator is sometimes called an energy-fromwaste (EfW) facility.
This method, commonly used in developed countries is most
suitable for high calorific value waste with a large component of
paper, plastic, packaging material, pathological wastes, etc.
It can reduce waste volumes by over 90 per cent and convert
waste to innocuous material, with energy recovery.
The method is relatively hygienic, noiseless, and odourless,
and land requirements are minimal. The plant can be located
within city limits, reducing the cost of waste transportation.
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Incineration As Power Source

67% of waste in Japan


60% of waste in Sweden
80% of waste in Switzerland
6% of waste in U.S.

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Incineration
This method, however, is least suitable for disposal of
chlorinated waste and aqueous/high moisture content/low
calorific value waste as supplementary fuel may be needed
to sustain combustion, adversely affecting net energy
recovery.
The plant requires large capital and entails substantial
operation and maintenance costs. Skilled personnel are
required for plant operation and maintenance. Emission of
particulates, SOx, NOx, chlorinated compounds in air and
toxic metals in particulates concentrated in the ash have
raised concerns.
Still produces ash
Ash contains contaminants such as trace metals cd, cr, hg,
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etc and some organic compounds such as dioxin .

Composting
Composting is the decomposition of organic matter by
microorganism in warm, moist, aerobic and anaerobic
environment.
The compost made out of urban heterogeneous waste is
found to be of higher nutrient value as compared to the
compost made out of cow dung and agro-waste.
Composting of MSW is, therefore, the most simple and
cost
effective technology for treating the organic fraction of
MSW.
Main advantages of composting include improvement in
soil
texture and augmenting of micronutrient deficiencies.

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It also increases moisture-holding capacity of the soil and

Photograph of tri-cycle with the


collected municipal solid waste

Some of the segregated materials

Segregation of non-biodegradable
waste

Composting pits

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A Pit filled with


Garbage

Composted Garbage

Heap of Compost ready for sale

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Composting
This method, however, is not very suitable for wastes that
may be too wet and during heavy rains open compost plants
have to be stopped. Land required for open compost plants is
relatively large.
Also, issues of methane emission, odour, and flies from badly
managed open compost plants remain.
At the operational level, if waste segregation at source is not
properly carried out there is possibility of toxic material
entering the stream of MSW.
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Composting
It is essential that compost produced be safe for application.
Standardization of compost quality is, therefore, necessary.
The MSW (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 (MSW Rules
2000) have specified certain limits to acceptable percentage of
heavy metals in compost produced from MSW and a
mechanism is put in place to ensure that the same are strictly
implemented.
Marketing of compost is a major concern for private operators.
Lack of awareness among the farmers regarding the benefits of
using compost is an impediment to its sale.
Also, there is a need to market the product near the compost
site to minimize transportation cost.

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Vermi Composting
Vermi-compost is the natural organic manure produced from
the excreta of earthworms fed on scientifically semidecomposed organic waste.
Vermitech is useful in recycling the market waste and agro
waste.
Application of Vermi compost leads to easy transfer of
nutrients
(NPK) to the plants providing synchrony in interfered
ecosystem.
Earthworms act as vectors of beneficial microorganisms,
promoting
their growth in the guts.
They effectively harness the beneficial soil micro flora and
through gut
associated process (GAP) increase the soluble breakdown of
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organic

Eisenia foetida

Eudrilus euginiae

Lampito mauritii

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Vermi Composting
A few vermi composting plants generally of small
size have been set up in some cities and towns in
India, the largest plant being in Bangalore of about
100 MT/day capacities.
Normally,

vermi-composting

is

preferred

to

microbial composting in small towns as it requires


less mechanization and it is easy to operate.
It is, however, to be ensured that toxic material
does not enter the chain which if present could kill
the earthworms.

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Anaerobic Digestion and Biomethanation


Biomethanation

is

comparatively

well-established

technology for disinfections, deodorization and stabilization


of sewage sludge, farmyard manures, animal slurries, and
industrial sludge.
Its application to the organic fraction of MSW is more
recent and less extensive.
It leads

to

bio-gas/power

generation

in

addition

to

production of compost (residual sludge).

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Anaerobic Digestion and Biomethanation


This method is suitable for kitchen wastes and, other
putrescible wastes, which may be too wet and lacking in
structure for aerobic composting.
It is a net energy-producing process (100150 kWh per tonne
of waste input). A totally enclosed system enables all the gas
produced to be collected for use.
A modular construction of plant and closed treatment needs
less land area.
This plant is free from bad odour, rodent and fly menace,
visible pollution, and social resistance.
It has potential for co-disposal with other organic waste
streams from agro-based industry. The plant can be scaled up
depending on the availability of the waste.
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Anaerobic Digestion and Biomethanation


However, this method is suitable for only the organic
biodegradable
fraction of MSW; it does not degrade any complex organics or
oils,
grease, or ligno-cellulosic materials such as yard waste.
Similar to the aerobic composting process input waste needs
to be
segregated for improving digestion efficiency (biogas yield)
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and the

BIOREACTOR LANDFILL
A landfill designed and operated in a controlled
manner with the express purpose of accelerating the
degradation of MSW inside a landfill containment
system
In simplest form, leachate reintroduced to the waste
mass
In more complex forms, sequenced addition of
liquids, air or other combinations performed with
aim of optimum degradation
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BIOREACTOR LANDFILL

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BIOREACTOR LANDFILL

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Potential Benefits of Bioreactor Landfill


Rapid organic waste conversion / stabilization.
Maximizing of landfill gas capture for energy
recovery projects.
Increased landfill space capacity during operational
time period.
Improved leachate treatment and storage reduction in
post closure care, maintenance and risk.

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Examples of Bioreactor Landfill


Southwest Landfill Alachua, Florida.
Central Facility Landfill Worcester Country,
Maryland.
Pecan Landfill Lowndes Country, Georgia.
Lemons Landfill Stoddard County, Missouri.
Mill seat Landfill Moroe County, New York.
Yolo County Landfill, Califorina.
Costal Regional Solid Waste Management Authority
Landfill,
Carven County, North Caolina.
Winfield Landfill Columbia Country, Florida.
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Source Reduction
Most fundamental method of reducing waste is to
prevent it from being produced (Waste
Prevention).
Source reduction involves using less material
when making a product packaging.
Reduce packaging,
Source reduction requires citizens to take action
Since 2-liter soft drink bottle introduced in 1977,
weight has been reduced by 25%.
Saves natural resources.
Reduces waste toxicity.
Reduces costs.
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The problems associated with the


management of solid waste in todays society
are complex due to the following factors:
The quantity and diverse nature of the wastes
Development of sprawling urban areas
Funding limitations for public services
The impacts of technology
Emerging limitations in both energy and raw
materials
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PRESENT STATUS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT


-

STORAGE OF WASTE AT SOURCE IS LACKING


-

DOMESTIC WASTE THROWN ON STREETS


TRADE WASTE ON ROADS / STREETS
CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS LEFT UNATTENDED
BIO-MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSED IN MUNICIPAL
WASTE STREAM
- INDUSTRIAL WASTE DISPOSED OF IN OPEN
AREAS
SEGREGATION OF RECYCLABLE WASTE AT SOURCE
NOT DONE
-

PRIMARY COLLECTION OF WASTE NOT DONE AT


PLACE OF GENERATION
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Contd../..

DESIGN & LOCATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE STORAGE


DEPOTS INAPPROPRIATE, RESULTING IN LITTERING OF
GARBAGE .
-

STREET SWEEPING NOT DONE EVERYDAY

WASTE TRANSPORTATION DONE IN OPEN VEHICLES

WASTE PROCESSING PARTIALLY PRACTISED IN 35


ULBs ONLY
-

FINAL DISPOSAL DONE THROUGH CRUDE DUMPING

RAG PICKERS COLLECT RECYCLABLES FROM


MUNICIPAL BINS / DUMPSITES AND LITTER THE
CAUSING INSANITARY CONDITIONS

WASTE

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REASONS FOR IMPROPER MANAGEMENT OF WASTE

Lack of planning for waste management while planning


townships

Lack of proper institutional set up for


waste
management, planning and designing in urban local bodies

Lack of technically trained manpower

Lack of community involvement

Lack of expertise and exposure to city waste management


using modern techniques / best practices

Lack of awareness creation mechanism

Lack of Management Information Systems

Lack of funds with ULBs

Indifferent attitude of ULBs to levy user charges and


sustainability
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