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:

**Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force
**

Method

**Structural Analysis 7th Edition in SI Units
**

Russell C. Hibbeler

**Statically Indeterminate Structures
**

• Advantages & Disadvantages

• For a given loading, the max stress and

deflection of an indeterminate structure are

generally smaller than those of its statically

determinate counterpart

• Statically indeterminate structure has a

tendency to redistribute its load to its

redundant supports in cases of faulty designs

or overloading

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

© 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

**Statically Indeterminate Structures
**

• Advantages & Disadvantages

• Although statically indeterminate structure

can support loading with thinner members &

with increased stability compared to their

statically determinate counterpart, the cost

savings in material must be compared with

the added cost to fabricate the structure

since often it becomes more costly to

construct the supports & joints of an

indeterminate structure

• Careful of differential disp of the supports as

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method

Structural Analysis 7 Edition

well

© 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

th

**Statically Indeterminate Structures
**

• Method of Analysis

• To satisfy equilibrium, compatibility & forcedisp requirements for the structure

• Force Method

• Displacement Method

**Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method
**

Structural Analysis 7th Edition

© 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Force Method of Analysis: General Procedure • From free-body diagram. there would be 4 unknown support reactions • 3 equilibrium eqn • Beam is indeterminate to first degree • Use principle of superposition & consider the compatibility of disp at one of the supports • Choose one of the support reactions as redundant & temporarily removing its effect on the beam Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

we will remove the rocker at B • As a result. the load P will cause B to be displaced downward • By superposition. the unknown reaction at B causes the beam at B to be displaced upward Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Force Method of Analysis: General Procedure • This will allow the beam to be statically determinate & stable • Here.

Force Method of Analysis: General Procedure • Assuming +ve disp act upward. we get : 0 B B y f BB Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . we write the necessary compatibility eqn at the rocker as: 0 B ' BB ' BB B y f BB ' BB upward disp at B B y unknown reaction at B f BB linear flexibility coefficient sub second eqn into first eqn .

Force Method of Analysis: General Procedure • Using methods in Chapter 8 or 9 to solve for B and fBB. By can be found • Reactions at wall A can then be determined from eqn of equilibrium • The choice of redundant is arbitrary Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

replacing fixed support by pin support • The rotation at A caused by P is A • The rotation at A caused by the redundant MA at A is ’AA Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Force Method of Analysis: General Procedure • The moment at A can be determined directly by removing the capacity of the beam to support moment at A.

' AA M A AA Compatibility requires : 0 A M A AA Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Force Method of Analysis: General Procedure Similarly.

Maxwell’s Theorem of Reciprocal Disp: Betti’s Law • The disp of a point B on a structure due to a unit load acting at point A is equal to the disp of point A when the load is acting at point B f BA f AB • Proof of this theorem is easily demonstrated using the principle of virtual work Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

Maxwell’s Theorem of Reciprocal Disp: Betti’s Law • The theorem also applies for reciprocal rotations • The rotation at point B on a structure due to a unit couple moment acting at point A is equal to the rotation at point A when the unit couple is acting at point B Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

1 Determine the reaction at the roller support B of the beam.Example 10. Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . EI is constant.

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Solution Principle of superposition By inspection. the beam is statically indeterminate to the first degree. The redundant will be taken as By. We assume By acts upward on the beam.

Solution Compatibility equation ( ) 0 B B y f BB eqn(1) B and f BB are easily obtained using standard table. f BB EI EI Sub into eqn (1) : 9000 576 0 By B y 15.6kN EI EI Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . 9000kNm 3 576m 3 B .

4 Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam. Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Example 10. Neglect the effects of axial load. EI is constant.

Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . The 2 end moments at A & B will be considered as the redundant. the beam is indeterminate to the second degree. The beam’s capacity to resist these moments is removed by placing a pin at A and a rocker at B.Solution Principle of Superposition Since axial load is neglected.

A EI EI AA 2 2 1 . 151. AB BA EI EI EI Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . BB .Solution Compatibility eqn Reference to points A & B requires 0 A M A AA M B AB eqn (1) 0 B M A BA M B BB eqn (2) The required slopes and angular flexibility coefficients can be determined using standard tables.1 A .9 118 .

1 1 2 M A M B EI EI EI M A 61.9 2 1 M A M B EI EI EI 0 118 .9kNm.1kNm. M B 28. Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Solution Compatibility eqn Sub into eqn (1) and (2)gives : 0 151.

Composite Structures • Composite structures are composed of some members subjected only to axial force while other members are subjected to bending • If the structure is statically indeterminate. the force method can conveniently be used for its analysis Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

Take E = 200GPa & I = 300(106)mm4 for the beam and A = 1800mm2 for each bar. Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Example 10. Determine the force in member BD.10 The beam is supported by a pin at A & two pin-connected bars at B.

Force in member BD is chosen as the redundant. This member is therefore sectioned to eliminate its capacity to sustain a force.Solution Principle of superposition The beam is indeterminate to the first degree. Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

we require 0 BD FBD f BDBD (1) The method of virtual work will be used to compute BD and fBDBD Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Solution Compatibility eqn With reference to the relative disp of the cut ends of member BD.

8 / cos 45o ) AE 0 (69.8 / cos 30 o ) AE 0.816)(1.Solution Compatibility eqn For BD we require application of the real loads and a virtual unit load applied to the cut ends of the member BD.3)(0.333 x 3 )(0) dx EI (0)(1)(1. We will consider only bending strain energy in the beam & axial strain L Mm energy nNLin the bar. BD dx 0 EI AE 3 (30 x 3.326mm Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

8 / cos 45o ) AE AE 1.816) 2 (1. f BD L 0 m2 n2L dx EI AE 3 (0 2 ) dx 0 EI (0.8 / cos 30 o ) (1) 2 (1.Solution Compatibility eqn For fBDBD we require application of a real unit load & a virtual unit load at the cut ends of member BD.092(10 5 )m / kN Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

0003264 FBD (1.092)(10 5 ) FBD 29.9kN (C ) Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Solution Compatibility eqn Sub into eqn (1) yields 0 BD FBD f BD BD 0 0.

... f R 0 1 11 1 12 2 1n n 2 f 21 R1 f 22 R2 . f nn Rn 0 Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd ... f 2 n Rn 0 n f n1 R1 f n 2 R2 . we can write n compatibility eqn f R f R .Additional remarks on the force method of analysis • Flexibility coefficients depend on the material and geometrical properties of the members and not on the loading of the primary structure • For a structure having n redundant reactions...........

Additional remarks on the force method of analysis BD are caused by both the real loads on the primary structure and by support settlement & dimensional changes due to temperature differences or fabrication errors in the members • The above eqn can be re-cast into a matrix form or simply: fR • Note that fij=fji • Hence. the flexibility matrix will be Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7 Edition symmetric © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd th .

Symmetric Structures • A structural analysis of any highly indeterminate structure or statically determinate structure can be simplified provided the designer can recognise those structures that are symmetric & support either symmetric or antisymmetric loadings • For horizontal stability. a pin is required to support the beam & truss. Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

so both these structures will deflect & produce the same internal loading as their reflected counterpart • As a result.Symmetric Structures • Here the horizontal reaction at the pin is zero. they can be classified as being symmetric • Not the case if the fixed support at A was replaced by a pin since the deflected shape & internal loadings would not be the same on its left & right side Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

Symmetric Structures • A symmetric structure supports an antisymmetric loading as shown • Provided the structure is symmetric & its loading is either symmetric or antisymmetric then a structural analysis will only have to be performed on half the members of the structure since the same or opposite results will be produced on the other half Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

Symmetric Structures • A separate structural analysis can be performed using the symmetrical & antisymmetrical loading components & the results superimposed to obtain the actual behaviour of the structure Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

curve will result • Reaction at A • To determine the influence line for the reaction at A . a unit load is placed on the beam at successive points • At each point. the deflected shapes will be a series of straight line segments • For statically indeterminate beams.Influence lines for Statically Indeterminate Beams • For statically determinate beams. the reaction at A must be Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7 Edition computed th © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

Influence lines for Statically Indeterminate Beams • Reaction at A • A plot of these results yields the influence line • The reaction at A can be determined by the force method • The principle of superposition is applied • The compatibility eqn for point A is: Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

Influence lines for Statically Indeterminate Beams • Reaction at A • A plot of these results yields the influence line • The reaction at A can be determined by the force method • The compatibility A is: 0 f AD Ay f AA eqn Ayfor point f AD / f AA of 1 reciprocal disp • By Maxwell’s theorem f f f A AD DA y f AA DA Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

it can be shown that 1 f DE VE f EE Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Influence lines for Statically Indeterminate Beams • Shear at E • Using the force method & Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal disp.

Influence lines for Statically Indeterminate Beams • Moment at E • The influence line for the moment at E can be determined by placing a pin or hinge at E • Applying a +ve unit couple moment. it can be shown that 1 f DE M E EE Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . the beam then deflects to the dashed position • Using the force method & Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal disp.

the beam then deflects to the dashed position • Using the force method & Maxwell’s theorem of reciprocal disp.Influence lines for Statically Indeterminate Beams • Moment at E • The influence line for the moment at E can be determined by placing a pin or hinge at E • Applying a +ve unit couple moment. it can be shown that Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

CD & FG in order to create the largest +ve moment at I Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .Qualitative Influence lines for Frames • The shape of the influence line for the +ve moment at the center I of girder FG of the frame is shown by the dashed lines • Uniform loads would be placed only on girders AB.

EI is constant.Example 10. Plot numerical values every 2m Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .11 Draw the influence line for the vertical reaction at A for the beam.

This is done using a vertical roller device. Applying a vertical unit load at A yields the shape of the influence line.Solution The capacity of the beam to resist reaction Ay is removed. Using the conjugate beam method to determine ordinates of the influence line. Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

M D' 0 D M D' 18 1 2 2 34. since no moment exists on the conjugate beam at B' B M B' 0 For D' .Solution For B' .67 (2) (2) EI 2 EI EI 3 Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .

72 A M A' EI Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd .33 C M C ' (4) (4) EI 2 EI EI 3 For A' .Solution For C' . M C' 0 18 1 4 4 61.

852 0. A should correspond to a numerical value of 1 for the influence line ordinate at A.Solution •Since a vertical 1kN load acting at A on the beam will cause a vertical reaction at A of 1kN. •Thus dividing theAother computed disp by this factor.481 0 Chapter 10: Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Force Method Structural Analysis 7th Edition © 2009 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd . we x y obtain A C D B 1 0. the disp at A.

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