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Quality Function Deployment

(QFD) and House of Quality
By Julie VanLaanen
Turning the customer’s desires into
Engineering Specifications!!

January 25,


Identify a
Define the




The Design Process
- Multi-disciplinary Teamwork
- Highly integrated
- Iterative





January 25,



Quality Function Deployment
A methodology for defining the customer’s
desires in the customers own voice,
prioritizing these desires, translating them
into engineering requirements, and
establishing engineering targets for meeting
those requirements. QFD produces a
technical design specification that can be
used to determine best design choices.
January 25,

Continental Rehabilitation Hospital. . DaimlerChrysler. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Nissan Motors. Poland Ministry of Finance. NEC. Proctor & Gamble. Hughes Aircraft. NASA. Texas Instruments. Nokia. Hyundai Motor Company. Kodak.S. Volvo. Boeing. Ford Motor Co. Lockheed-Martin.Companies that have sent employees to QFD training 3M.. Raytheon. AT&T. Gillette. U. Kawasaki Heavy Industry. Seagate Technology. Chevron. Visteon. IBM. Department of Defense. Sun Microsystems. Samsung. Pratt & Whitney. General Motors. General Dynamics. Hayes Brake. Xerox ** **Referenced from the QFD Institute Website January 25. Motorola. Toshiba. NATO. Hewlett-Packard. EDS.

January 25. marketing. etc. field service.Why Use Quality Function Deployment? In a large project with large teams from several disciplines (engineering. QFD makes sure everyone is viewing the product in the same way. . manufacturing.) product definition and conception may vary from interest group to interest group.

Design without Quality Function Deployment January 25. .

. or find another job…. January 25.Get the design it right.

January 25. 5. 1.The Quality Function Deployment Method Identify the Customer(s) Determine Customer Requirements/Constraints Prioritize each requirement Competitive Benchmarking Translate Customer Requirements into Measurable Engineering specifications 6. 2. 4. 3. . Set Target values for each Engineering Specification 7. Critique design options based on the above to arrive at the best design choice.

. Your boss wants the new refrigerator to be more marketable. a frost-free refrigerator used in home applications. and the refrigerator is difficult to clean. Marketing has expressed an interest in the new refrigerator having a water and ice dispenser. Field service has indicated they have experienced failures when refrigerators fall off the delivery truck and have complaints the are difficult to install. the shelves can’t hold large containers and cannot be rearranged. January 25. You have been asked to redesign the company’s main product. Present customer complaints about the old refrigerator include: the refrigerator is unreliable and noisy.Experiment with the QFD Process through an example: Designing a Refrigerator You are a team of engineers working for the New World Refrigerator Company.

.Step 1: Identifying the Customer(s) • • • • Who wants the product? Who will build the product and how? Who will sell the product? Who will use the product? January 25.

QFD Example Designing a Refrigerator Step 1: Identify All Customer(s) – – – – – Families using the refrigerator Marketing Specialist Shop resellers Manufacturing Team Engineering Team January 25. .

Step 2: Determining Customer Requirements Develop a list of all the customer requirements and constraints IN THE CUSTOMERS OWN WORDS. What is the difference between a customer requirement and a customer constraint? January 25. .

Requirement Functional Requirements are statements of the specific performance of the design: What the product should do.Constraint vs. Constraints are external factors that in some way limit the selection of system or subsystem characteristics. January 25. .

If not met. January 25. . customer is NOT happy. Creation of excitement features will differentiate your product from the competition.Types of Requirements • Basic Needs – Requirements so fundamental they are often not expressed. • Excitement Needs – Requirements that cause immediate happiness. • Performance Needs – Requirements which provide increased satisfaction as performance improves. however they are crucial and must be identified.

.QFD Example Designing a Refrigerator Step 2: Determine Customer Requirements/Constraints – – – – – – – – – – – – Refrigerator must look cool (excitement) Refrigerator must function reliably (basic) Refrigerator should dispense water and ice (excitement) Children should be able to access contents (performance) Refrigerator should be quiet (performance) Shelves should be flexible (performance) Surfaces easy to clean (basic) Refrigerator should have low energy consumption (excitement) Large items should fit in refrigerator (basic) Low cost (basic) Fits easily into kitchen (basic) Easy to deliver and install (basic) January 25.

Step 3: Prioritizing the Requirements Each Requirement/Constraint should be listed in order of importance. . and money should be invested to achieve the Requirement/Constraint Prioritizing can be done in many ways. time. This helps the designer decide how much effort. we will demonstrate the use of a Binary Comparison to generate a weighting factor January 25.

Binary Comparison Compare each requirement/constraint to all others. Sum up ‘score’ for each requirement and use percentages to determine order of importance. January 25. . using a 0 and 1 to determine which is most important.

QFD Example Designing a Refrigerator Step 3: Prioritize Customer Requirements January 25. .

It provides a perspective on what the best-in-class product is and what makes it so. .) January 25. or point of reference and range.Step 4: Competitive Benchmarking Benchmarking provides a standard. value. and performance. Final outcomes from benchmarking include discoveries about where the product and industry appear to be headed in the future (industry trends. that can be used to judge quality.

What do you look for while Benchmarking your product? • • • • • • • • Functions performed Targeted Market Segment Cost Reliability/Warranty Geometry. . whereas assembly in high-labor rate countries requires designs with complex multi-functional snap-fit parts January 25. Space Requirements Material used on individual parts Ergonomics Where they were manufactured .Assembly in low-labor cost countries can enable the use of complex assembly processes with many inexpensive parts.

.com) • World Wide Web • Similar Technology • Yellow Pages January • Consumer Reports ( to find Benchmark Information? • Stores and other locations with similar products • Libraries • Thomas Register of Companies ( • Trade Magazines • Patents (www.thomasregister.

some subjective.Competitive Benchmarking Once you have obtained data about potential competitors. Some comparisons are objective. . January 25. you need to compare each competing product with your customer requirements and constraints.

QFD Example Designing a Refrigerator Step 4: Competition Benchmarking – – – – Identify Competitors Test and Analyze Competitor Products Reverse Engineer Competitor Products Rate Competitor Products against customer requirements/constraints January 25. .

Amana – Analyze Competitor Products • Efficiency Ratings. etc. Physical size. . Frigidaire. – Rate Competitor Products against customer requirements/constraints January 25. Noise Measurements.QFD Example Designing a Refrigerator Step 4: Competition Benchmarking – Identify Competitors • Maytag. Cost. Weight. GE. Whirlpool. Temperature range.

and you researched a ton of market information. you’ve spoken with your client and have their vision.Step 5: Translating Customer Requirements into Engineering Specifications You’ve got a list of general requirements. But normally the information you gathered isn’t specific enough in an engineering sense. • Low cost • Reliable • Strong • Sustainable What do those words mean in the engineering world? January 25. .

. you must take your customer’s requirements and constraints and translate them into measurable engineering specifications: • Low cost – Production cost under $250 – Retail cost under $500 • Reliability => – MTBF of 200.000 hours – Warranty against failure of 3 years • Quiet – Noise in front of Refrigerator below 30 decibels • Size – Standard footprint of 24 inch depth • Easy to clean – % of space rated easy to clean (may need to do some testing) January 25.Step 5 and 6: Translating Customer Requirements into Engineering Specifications and setting engineering target values As an Engineer.

January 25. .Step 6: Set Engineering Targets for Design Specifications Determine reasonable Engineering Targets for each of your Design Specifications 1. Ascertain how the competition meets the engineering targets 2. Remember targets are not set in stone – they can change as the product develops Engineering targets must be measurable and or testable to be useful.

Create an Engineering Specification Document 2. How do you organize it? 1.Visualizing your QFD You have all this information. Show information in a House of Quality January 25. Create a Competitive Benchmarking Document 3. .

.January 25.

.QFD Example Designing a Refrigerator Put prioritized Customer Requirements into a House of Quality Chart January 25.

1 = the design does not meet the requirement 2 = the design meets the requirement slightly 3 = the design meets the requirement somewhat 4 = the design meets the requirement mostly 5 = the design completely meets the requirement January 25. .Competitive Benchmarking Scale Below is a possible scale for rating the competition’s product based on customer requirements.

.QFD Example Designing a Refrigerator January 25.

.House of Quality Example Designing a Refrigerator January 25.

com/offsite. .Taken From: Six Sigma web site at: http://www.asp? A=Fr&Url= January 25.

Example of a completed House of Quality January 25. .

.com/offsite.asp? A=Fr&Url=http://w ww.npdsolutions.isixsig ma.Referenced from Sixsigma Financial Services at: m.html January 25.

• QFD Institute • Six-sigma Financial Service at http://finance. David Munoz and Dr.References • Presentation from Dr. Bob Frost • Web Research • Product Design: Techniques in Reverse Engineering and New Product Development by Kevin Otto & Kristin Wood pp January 25. .com/ //www.isixsigma.npd-solutions.isixsigma.html • Six Sigma web page www.

Homework On the web under Assignments is the QFD Assignment – – Each team needs to create a QFD and a House of Quality document These documents will be updated throughout the semester and used in your final Proposal as your design specification document January 25. .