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Chapter 2 : Blood
Circulation and
Transportation
2.1 Transports System in Humans
Structure of heart
 Function of the heart
 Blood vessels and their functions
 Comparison between arteries, veins and capil
laries
 Path of blood flow in the circulatory system
2.2 Human Blood
 Blood constituents and their function
 Blood group and compatibility
2.3 Transport System in Plants
 Transport tissues in plants
 The transportation of water through xylem
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Chapter 2 : Blood
Circulation and
Transportation



The transportation of food through p
hloem
Transpiration
Factors that affect the rate of transpir
ation
Role of transpiration in transport

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2.1 Transport System in Humans
Structure of the heart
Aorta
Semilunar
valve

From head
and body

To head
and body
To lungs

Pulmonary artery
From lungs
Pulmonary vein

Vena cava

Left atrium
Bicuspid valve

Right atrium

Left ventricle

Tricuspid
valve
Right ventricle
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Septum
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2.1 Transport System in Humans
Functions of the heart

A muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the whole body
Deoxygenated blood from the whole body flows back to the right
atrium via the vena cava. It then, sends blood to the right
ventricle and the right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary
artery. The pulmonary artery carries the blood to the lungs to
picks up oxygen
Oxygenated blood flows to the left atrium through the pulmonary
veins. Blood passes from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
Then, it is pumped out from the heart into the aorta which
distributes blood to various parts of the body
Responsible for distributing oxygen and nutrients to the body and
carrying away carbon dioxide and other waste products
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1 Transport System in Humans H Blood vessels and their function Direction of blood flow Blood capillary Artery Blood enters Valve opens Vein Blood flows out (a)Capillary joins artery and vein Valve close to prevent backflow of blood (b) Action of semilunar valve at the wall of the vein BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .2.

less muscular Very thin and only one cell thick Blood pressure High Low Very low Size of lumen (diameter) Big Very small Continue Small BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit . elastic Thin. less elastic. veins and capillaries Characterisitcs Arteries Veins Capillaries Appearance Connective tissue Connective tissue Smooth Lumen Smooth muscle muscle Lumen Lumen Endothelium tissue Endothelium tissue Endothelium tissue Thickness of wall Thick.1 Transport System in Humans Comparison between arteries. muscular.2.

1 Transport System in Humans Characterisitcs Arteries Veins Capillaries Presence of valve No Yes No Type of blood transported Oxygenated blood except the pulmonary artery Deoxygenated blood except the pulmonary vein Oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood Function Transport blood from the heart to the body tissues Transport Connect the blood from the arteries and the body tissues to veins the heart Rate of blood flow Fast Slow BM Version Very slow Previous Forward Menu Exit .2.

2.1 Transport System in Humans Path of blood flow in the circulatory system Head and neck Artery Heart Vein Hands Pulmonary artery Pulmonary vein Lungs Vena cava Aorta Heart Liver Stomach and intestine Kidneys Deoxygenated blood Legs Oxygenated blood Continue BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .

2.1 Transport System in Humans  The human blood circulatory system is divided into * Pulmonary circulation : Deoxygenated blood returning from the organs and tissues of the body travels from the right ventricle to the left atrium * Systemic circulation : Carries oxygenated blood from the heart to all tissues in the body except lungs and return deoxygenated blood which carries waste products back to the heart BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .

namely red blood cells.2 Human Blood Blood constituents and their functions Blood is a vital fluid tissue made up of liquids and solids The liquid component of blood is called plasma. white blood cells and platelets Plasma and blood cells in blood can be separated from a blood sample by using a centrifuge Continue BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit . which is light yellow in colour The solid component consists of blood cells.2.

2.2 Human Blood Characteristics Red blood cells White blood cells Shape Platelets No fixed shape Cytoplasmic fragment of cells that has no fixed shape Estimated size 8 m 10 m 2 – 3 m Presence of nucleus No Yes No Place of production Bone narrow Bone narrow and lymph node Biconcave disc Continue BM Version Bone narrow Previous Forward Menu Exit .

2 Human Blood Characteristics Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Life span 120 days A few days to many months 8 – 10 days Presence of haemoglobin Yes No No About 7 millions About 200 000 to 400 000 Defence and immunity Help in blood clotting Number per About 5 cubic millimeter millions (mm3) Function Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .2.

O and AB People with blood type O are called universal donors because they can donate blood to any blood group.2.2 Human Blood Blood group and compatibility The human blood is divided into four groups namely group A. They can donate to group AB only Transfusion is a process of blood transfer from a donor to a recipient Agglutination will occur when the blood of two incompatible groups are mixed together Continue BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit . B. They can receive blood from group O only People with blood type AB are called universal recipients because they can receive blood from any blood group.

2 Human Blood Compability of different blood groups Donor’s blood type Recipient’s blood type A B O AB A /  /  B  / /  O   /  AB / / / / BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .2.

2.3 Transport System in Plants Transport tissues in plants Xylem Features  A long hollow tissue strengthened by fibre  Does not contain protoplasm  Gives support to plant with its thick and strong wall  Transports water and mineral salts from the roots to other parts of the plant   Functions Continue Phloem BM Version A soft living tissue  Rich with protoplasm Transports the product of photosynthesis (glucose) from the leaf to the rest of the plant for consumption or storage Previous Forward Menu Exit .

3 Transport System in Plants Monocotyledonous plant Root Phloem Hair root Dicotyledonous plant Xylem Phloem Xylem Epidermis Stem Epidermis Leaf Xylem Endodermis Xylem Phloem Phloem Xylem Hair root Cortex Epidermis Cortex Epidermis Xylem Phloem Phloem BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .2.

3 Transport System in Plants The transportation of water through xylem Red-coloured part Cross section of a stem Red-coloured part Red-coloured solution Balsam plant Continue Cross section of a root BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .2.

2.3 Transport System in Plants Procedures  A balsam plant is immersed into a beaker filled with a redcoloured solution. the epidermis of the stem and leaf is observed  A thin slice of the root and stem is cut and observed under a microscope Observation  Some red bands are found at the veins of the leaf and some part of the stem and root  From the cross section of the stem. The plant is then exposed to sunlight  After one day. it is observed that xylem tissues arranged in rings in each vascular bundle are coloured red Conclusion  Those red bands are xylem tissues which transport water from the root to the stem and leaves BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .

3 Transport System in Plants The transportation of food through phloem Swelling is due to accumulation of product of photosynthesis (food) First day Shrinking After few weeks Continue BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .2.

2.3 Transport System in Plants Procedures  The phloem tissues of a plant is removed by making a ring at the bark of its stem  The plant is left under sunlight and watered everyday  The plant is left for few weeks Observation  The bark above the ring swells  The bark below the ring shrivels  Leaves on the upper part of the ring do not wilt Inference  The bark above the ring swells because the food (glucose) cannot be transported to the lower portion without phloem tissue Continue BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .

2.3 Transport System in Plants   The bark below the ring shrivels because the food has been used up Leaves of the plant do not wilt because water and mineral salts can still be transported up through the xylem tissues Conclusion  Phloems tissues transport food (glucose) from the leaf to other parts of the plant BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .

3 Transport System in Plants Transpiration      Transpiration is the evaporation process where plants lose excessive water to the atmosphere in the form of water vapour The excess water will be removed through the stomata which can be found on both surfaces on the leaf Stomata consist of : * Stoma : The pore where water vapour is expelled out of the plant * Guard cell : Two kidney-shaped cells that contain chloroplasts Control the pore size of the stoma The stoma is smaller during hot days and bigger during cold days The opening of the stoma also allows exchange of gas Continue BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .2.

3 Transport System in Plants Guard cell Stoma Hot day Stoma is smaller Cold day Stoma is bigger Stomata on leaf surface BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .2.

2.3 Transport System in Plants Temperature Temperature Relative Relativehumidity humidity Light Light Factorsthat thataffect affect Factors therate rateof oftranspiration transpiration the Altitude Altitude Wind Windspeed speed Water Wateravailability availability BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit .

more water is sucked up from the xylem vessels in the leaves.3 Transport System in Plants Role of transpiration in transport     Transpiration helps in the absorption and transportation of water and minerals in plants As water is lost or used up by the plant. tranported up the stem and to the leaves BM Version Previous Forward Menu Exit . stem and roots The flow of water is continuous from the roots to the leaves The water in the soil contains minerals which are absorbed by the roots.2.

The End .

Versi BI Keluar .

2 Darah Manusia • Kandungan darah dan fungsinya • Kumpulan darah dan kesesuaian 2. vena dan kapilari • Laluan aliran darah dalam sistem peredaran 2.3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan • Pengangkutan tisu dalam tumbuhan • Pengangkutan air melalui xilem Versi BI Keluar .1 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Manusia • Struktur jantung • Fungsi jantung • Saluran darah dan fungsinya • Perbandingan di antara arteri.Bab 2 : Peredaran Darah dan Pengangkutan 2.

Bab 2 : Peredaran Darah dan Pengangkutan • • • • Pengangkutan makanan melalui floem Transpirasi Faktor yang mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi Peranan transpirasi dalam pengangkutan Versi BI Keluar .

2.1 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Manusia Struktur jantung Injap sabit Aorta Dari kepala dan badan Ke kepala dan badan Ke peparu Arteri pulmonari Dari peparu Vena pulmonari Vena kava Aurikel kiri Injap bikuspid Aurikel kanan Injap trikuspid Ventrikal kanan Ventrikel kiri Septum Versi BI Keluar .

Kemudian. Kemudian ia menghantar darah ke ventrikel kanan dan ventrikel kanan mengepam darah ke dalam arteri pulmonari. ia dipam keluar dari jantung ke dalam aorta dan darah diedarkan ke seluruh bahagian badan • Bertanggungjawab untuk mengedar oksigen dan nutrien ke badan dan membawa keluar karbon dioksida dan produk buangan yang lain Versi BI Keluar . Darah melewati aurikel kiri ke dalam ventrikel kiri. Arteri pulmonari membawa darah ke peparu dan mengambil oksigen • Darah beroksigen mengalir dari aurikel kiri melalui vena pulmonari.1 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Manusia Fungsi jantung • Organ berotot yang mengepam darah keluar ke seluruh badan • Darah terdeoksigen daripada seluruh badan mengalir balik ke aurikel kanan melalui vena kava.2.

2.1 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Manusia Saluran darah dan fungsinya Arah aliran darah Kapilari darah Arteri Darah masuk Injap terbuka Vena Darah mengalir keluar (a) Kapilari menyambungkan arteri dengan vena Injap tertutup untuk mencegah darah mengalir balik (b) Tindakan injap sabit pada dinding vena Versi BI Keluar .

vena dan kapilari Ciri-ciri Arteri Vena Kapilari Rupa bentuk Tisu penghubung Tisu penghubung Otot Lumen Otot rata rata Lumen Lumen Tisu endothelium Tisu endothelium Tisu endothelium Ketebalan dinding Tebal. Nipis.1 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Manusia Perbandingan antara arteri. berotot. kurang dan setebal kenyal berotot satu sel Tekanan darah Tinggi Saiz lumen Kecil (diameter) Rendah Sangat rendah Besar Sangat kecil Versi BI Keluar . kurang Sangat nipis kenyal.2.

1 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Manusia Ciri-ciri Kehadiran injap Arteri Tiada Darah Jenis darah yang diangkut beroksigen kecuali arteri pulmonari Vena Kapilari Ada Tiada Darah terdeoksigen kecuali vena pulmonari Darah beroksigen dan darah terdeoksigen Fungsi Mengangkut darah dari jantung ke tisu badan Mengangkut Menghubungdarah dari kan arteri tisu badan ke dengan vena jantung Kadar aliran darah Laju Perlahan Sangat perlahan Versi BI Keluar .2.

2.1 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Manusia Laluan aliran darah dalam sistem peredaran Kepala dan leher Tangan Arteri Jantung Arteri pulmonari Vena Vena pulmonari Peparu Vena kava Aorta Jantung Hati Darah terdeoksigen Perut dan usus Ginjal Darah beroksigen Kaki Versi BI Keluar .

2.1 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Manusia • Sistem peredaran darah manusia dibahagikan kepada * Peredaran pulmonari : Mengembalikan darah terdeoksigen dari organ dan tisu badan yang meneruskan perjalanan dari ventrikel kanan ke aurikel kiri * Peredaran sistemik : Membawa darah beroksigen dari jantung ke semua tisu dalam badan kecuali peparu dan mengembalikan darah terdeoksigen yang membawa bahan buangan kembali ke jantung Versi BI Keluar .

sel darah putih dan platlet • Plasma dan sel darah dalam darah boleh dipisahkan dari sampel darah menggunakan centrifuge Versi BI Keluar .2 Darah Manusia Kandungan darah dan fungsinya • Darah adalah aliran tisu yang amat penting yang terbina daripada cecair dan pepejal • Komponen cecair darah dipanggil plasma yang berwarna kuning muda • Komponen pepejal terdiri daripada sel darah iaitu sel darah merah.2.

2.2 Darah Manusia Ciri-ciri Sel darah merah Sel darah putih Platlet Bentuk Tiada bentuk tetap Dwicekung Tiada bentuk tetap Anggaran saiz 8 m 10 m 2 – 3 m Kehadiran nukleus Tiada Ada Tiada Sumsum tulang Sumsum tulang dan kelenjar linfa Sumsum tulang Tempat penghasilan Versi BI Keluar .

2.2 Darah Manusia Ciri-ciri Sel darah merah Sel darah putih Platlet 8 – 10 hari Tiada Jangka hayat 120 hari Beberapa hari ke beberapa bulan Kehadiran hemoglobin Ada Tiada Bilangan per Lebih kurang Lebih kurang milimeter padu 5 juta 7 juta (mm3) Fungsi Mengangkut oksigen dan karbon dioksida Lebih kurangt 200 000 ke 400 000 Membantu Mempertahan dalam pembekuan -kan badan darah Versi BI Keluar .

2 Darah Manusia Kumpulan darah dan kesesuaian • Darah manusia dibahagikan kepada empat kumpulan iaitu kumpulan A. Mereka boleh menderma kepada kumpulan AB sahaja • Pemindahan darah adalah satu proses memindahkan darah daripada penderma kepada penerima • Pengaglutinatan akan berlaku apabila dua jenis darah yang tidak sesuai dicampurkan Versi BI Keluar . O dan AB • Manusia yang mempunyai darah O dipanggil penderma universal kerana mereka boleh menderma darah kepada sebarang kumpulan darah. Mereka boleh menerima darah dari kumpulan O sahaja • Manusia yang mempunyai darah jenis AB dipanggil penerima universal kerana mereka boleh menerima darah dari sebarang kumpulan darah. B.2.

2.2 Darah Manusia Kesesuaian kumpulan darah yang berbeza Jenis darah penderma Jenis darah penerima A B O AB A /  /  B  / /  O   /  AB / / / / Versi BI Keluar .

3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan Pengangkutan tisu dalam tumbuhan Xilem Floem Ciri-ciri • Salur panjang berdinding tebal • Tidak mengandungi protoplasma • Tisu lembut • Kaya dengan protoplasma Fungsi • Memberi sokongan kepada tumbuhan dengan dindingnya yang tebal dan kuat • Mengangkut air dan garam mineral dari akar ke bahagian lain tumbuhan • Mengangkut hasil fotosintesis (glukosa) dari daun ke bahagian lain tumbuhan untuk kegunaan dan simpanan Versi BI Keluar .2.

2.3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan Tumbuhan monokotiledon Akar Akar rambut Floem Xilem Floem Xilem Epidermis Batang Epidermis Daun Tumbuhan dikotiledon Xilem Endodermis Xilem Floem Floem Xilem Floem Akar rambut Kortex Epidermis Kortex Epidermis Xilem Floem Versi BI Keluar .

3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan Pengangkutan air melalui xilem Bahagian berwarna merah Keratan rentas batang Larutan berwarna merah Pokok keembung Bahagian berwarna merah Keratan rentas akar Versi BI Keluar .2.

3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan Prosedur • Pokok keembung direndamkan ke dalam bikar yang berisi larutan berwarna merah.2. dapat diperhatikan yang tisu xilem tersusun dalam gelang dalam setiap bekas vaskular berwarna merah Kesimpulan • Jalur yang berwarna merah adalah tisu xilem yang mengangkut air daripada akar ke batang dan daun Versi BI Keluar . epidermis batang dan daun diperhatikan • Potong keratan rentas yang nipis bagi akar dan batang dan diperhatikan di bawah mikroskop Pemerhatian • Jalur merah ditemui pada vena daun dan sebahagiannya pada batang dan akar • Daripada keratan rentas batang. Tumbuhan ini kemudiannya didedahkan kepada cahaya matahari • Selepas satu hari.

3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan Pengangkutan makanan melalui floem Membengkak akibat pengumpulan hasil fotosintesis (makanan) Hari pertama Mengecut Selepas beberapa minggu Versi BI Keluar .2.

2.3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan Prosedur • Tisu floem tumbuhan disingkirkan dengan membuat gelang pada kulit kayu batang tumbuhan • Tumbuhan ini dibiarkan di bawah cahaya matahari dan air • Tumbuhan ini dibiarkan selama beberapa minggu Pemerhatian • Kulit kayu di bahagian atas gelang membengkak • Kulit kayu di bahagian bawah gelang mengecut • Daun pada bahagian atas gelang tidak layu Inferens • Kulit kayu pada bahagian atas gelang membengkak kerana tanpa tisu floem makanan (glukosa) tidak dapat diangkut ke bahagian bawah Versi BI Keluar .

3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan • Kulit kayu bahagian bawah gelang mengecut kerana makanan telah habis digunakan • Daun tumbuhan tidak layu kerana air dan garam mineral masih boleh diangkut melalui tisu xilem Kesimpulan • Tisu floem mengangkut makanan (glukosa) daripada daun ke bahagian lain tumbuhan Versi BI Keluar .2.

3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan Transpirasi • Transpirasi adalah proses penyejatan di mana tumbuhan hilang air berlebihan ke atmosfera dalam bentuk wap air • Air berlebihan akan disingkirkan melalui stoma yang boleh dijumpai pada kedua-dua permukaan daun • Stoma terdiri daripada : * Stoma : Liang di mana wap air dibuang keluar dari tumbuhan * Sel pengawal : Sel yang berbentuk dua ginjal yang mengandungi kloroplas yang mengawal saiz liang stoma • Stoma menjadi kecil pada hari panas dan besar pada hari sejuk • Bukaan stoma membenarkan pertukaran gas Versi BI Keluar .2.

3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan Sel pengawal Stoma Stoma atas permukaan daun Hari panas Stoma mengecil Hari sejuk Stoma membesar Versi BI Keluar .2.

3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan Suhu Suhu Kelembapan Kelembapanbandingan bandingan Cahaya Cahaya Ketinggian Ketinggian Faktoryang yang Faktor mempengaruhikadar kadar mempengaruhi transpirasi transpirasi Laju Lajuangin angin Adanya Adanyaair air Versi BI Keluar .2.

diangkut ke batang dan ke daun Versi BI Keluar .3 Sistem Pengangkutan dalam Tumbuhan Peranan transpirasi dalam pengangkutan • Transpirasi membantu dalam penyerapan dan pengangkutan air dan mineral dalam tumbuhan • Seperti mana air hilang atau habis digunakan oleh tumbuhan. batang dan akar • Aliran air berterusan daripada akar kepada daun • Air dalam tanih mengandungi mineral yang boleh diserap oleh akar. lebih banyak air disedut daripada salur xilem dalam daun.2.

Tamat .