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A technical person can use the graphic language as powerful means of
communication with others for conveying ideas on technical matters.
However, for effective exchange of ideas with others, the
Architect/Engineer must have proficiency in,
(i)language, both written and oral,
(ii)Symbols associated with basic sciences and
(iii) the graphic language.
Architectural drawing is a suitable graphic language from which any
trained person can visualize the required object. As, a Technical drawing
displays the exact picture of an object, it obviously conveys the same
ideas to every trained eye.
Irrespective of language barriers, the drawings can be effectively used
in other countries, in addition to the country where they are prepared.
Thus, the Architectural/Engineering drawing is the universal language of
all Architects/Engineers.

Architectural Drafting


.Basic pencil motions.

.Basic pencil motions.

.Angles that can be made with the 30°–60° triangle and 45º triangle. individually or in combination.

Architectural floor plan symbol template. .

● Amount of detail to be shown. such as 12".Scale shape The drawing scale selected depends on: ● Actual size of the structure. or 24". ● Amount of dimensions and notes required. ● Sheet size selected. Drafting machine scales are purchased by designating the length needed. 18". ● Common standard practice that regulates the scale of specific drawing types. .

The following scales and their notation are frequently used on architectural drawings. 1/8" = 1'-0" 3/8" = 1'-0" 1 1/2" = 1'-0" 3/32" = 1'-0" 1/2" = 1'-0" 3" = 1'-0" 3/16" = 1'-0" 3/4" = 1'-0" 12" = 1'-0" 1/4" = 1'-0" 1" = 1'-0" millimeter = mm dekameter = dam centimeter = cm hectometer = hm decimeter = dm kilometer = km meter = m .

However. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES. the drawing shall contain a note stating: UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. the inch value should be followed by the abbreviation in. On drawings where all dimensions are in either inches or millimeters. . the International System of Units (SI) linear unit.According to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Where some millimeters are shown on an inch-dimensioned drawing. Where some inches are shown on a millimeter-dimensioned drawing. individual identification of units is not required. (or MILLIMETERS as applicable). which is commonly used on drawings is the millimeter. the millimeter value should be followed by the symbol mm.

.Common metric scale calibrations and measurements.

.1 mile 1 yard 1 foot 1 inch = 1.8 millimeters = 25.9144 meter = 0.6093 kilometers = 914.3 meters = 0.3048 meter = 0.0254 meter Common metric scale calibrations and measurements.4 millimeters = 304.4 millimeters = 1609.

Metric Scales METRIC SCALES THAT MATCH ARCHITECT AND CIVIL SCALES Inch-to-Feet Architectural Scales 1:1 1:5 1:10 1:20 1:50 1:100 1:200 1:500 1:1000 FULL SCALE. 1:1 Close to 3" = 1'–0" Between 1" = 1'–0" and 1 1/2" = 1'– 0" Between 1/2 " = 1'–0" and 3/4" = 1'–0" Close to 1/4 " = 1'–0" Close to 1/8" = 1'–0" Close to 1/16 " = 1'–0" .

Drafting Media and Reproduction Methods PAPERS AND FILMS Good quality paper Polyester Film Durability Smoothness Erasability Dimensional stability Transparency Cost .

Projection of a foreshortened orthographic surface. .ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Orthographic projection to form orthographic view.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Elevations as Multiviews .

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Elevations as Multiviews .


Manually drawn construction lines are drawn with very little pressure using a pencil with H to 2H lead. if lettering on a drawing is 1/8“ (3 mm) high. then the lightly drawn guidelines are placed 1/8" (3 mm) apart. Guidelines are similar to construction lines in that they should be drawn lightly enough so they do not reproduce. Object Lines In architectural drafting the outline lines—or object lines. . and if drawn properly do not need to be erased.They are drawn very lightly so they do not reproduce and so they are not mistaken for any other lines on the drawing. as they form the outline of views. Guidelines are drawn to guide your manual lettering. For example. Object lines are used to define the outline and Characteristic features of architectural plan components.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TYPES OF LINES Construction Lines and Guidelines Construction lines are used for laying out a drawing. as they are commonly called—are a specific thickness so they stand out from other lines.


(B) All lines the same thickness.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TYPES OF LINES (A) Thick outlines. . (C) Accent with shading.

These dashed features are important but subordinate to the main emphasis of the drawing. the terms are interchangeable in architectural drafting. In architectural drafting. . dashed lines can also be considered hidden lines because they are used to show drawing features that are not visible in the view or plan. Dashed lines are used to show drawing features that are not visible in the view or plan.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TYPES OF LINES Dashed Lines In mechanical drafting dashed lines are called hidden lines.

or dots. Dimension lines show the length of the dimension and terminate at the related extension lines with slashes. . Extension and dimension lines.ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TYPES OF LINES Extension and Dimension Lines Extension lines show the extent of a dimension. arrowheads.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TYPES OF LINES Leader Lines Extension lines show the extent of a dimension. or dots. Dimension lines show the length of the dimension and terminate at the related extension lines with slashes. arrowheads. Extension and dimension lines. .