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Architectural

Drafting
A technical person can use the graphic language as powerful means of
communication with others for conveying ideas on technical matters.
However, for effective exchange of ideas with others, the
Architect/Engineer must have proficiency in,
(i)language, both written and oral,
(ii)Symbols associated with basic sciences and
(iii) the graphic language.
Architectural drawing is a suitable graphic language from which any
trained person can visualize the required object. As, a Technical drawing
displays the exact picture of an object, it obviously conveys the same
ideas to every trained eye.
Irrespective of language barriers, the drawings can be effectively used
in other countries, in addition to the country where they are prepared.
Thus, the Architectural/Engineering drawing is the universal language of
all Architects/Engineers.

Architectural
Drafting
Architectural Drafting
Equipment

Basic pencil motions.

Basic pencil motions.

Angles that can be made with the 3060 triangle


and 45 triangle, individually or in combination.

Architectural floor plan


symbol template.

Scale
shape
The drawing scale selected depends on:
Actual size of the structure.
Amount of detail to be shown.
Sheet size selected.
Amount of dimensions and notes required.
Common standard practice that regulates the scale of specific
drawing types.
Drafting machine scales are purchased by designating the
length needed, such as 12", 18", or 24",

The following scales and their notation are frequently used on


architectural drawings.
1/8" = 1'-0"
3/8" = 1'-0"
1 1/2" = 1'-0"
3/32" = 1'-0" 1/2" = 1'-0"
3" = 1'-0"
3/16" = 1'-0" 3/4" = 1'-0"
12" = 1'-0"
1/4" = 1'-0"
1" = 1'-0"
millimeter = mm
dekameter =
dam
centimeter = cm
hectometer =
hm
decimeter = dm
kilometer =
km
meter = m

According to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the


International System of Units (SI) linear unit, which is commonly used
on drawings is the millimeter.
On drawings where all dimensions are in either inches or millimeters,
individual identification of units is not required.
However, the drawing shall contain a note stating:
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED, ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN
INCHES. (or MILLIMETERS as applicable).
Where some millimeters are shown on an inch-dimensioned drawing,
the millimeter value should be followed by the symbol mm. Where
some inches are shown on a
millimeter-dimensioned drawing, the inch value should be followed by
the abbreviation in.

Common metric scale calibrations and measurements.

1 mile
1 yard
1 foot
1 inch

= 1.6093 kilometers
= 914.4 millimeters
= 304.8 millimeters
= 25.4 millimeters

= 1609.3 meters
= 0.9144 meter
= 0.3048 meter
= 0.0254 meter

Common metric scale calibrations and measurements.

Metric
Scales

METRIC SCALES THAT MATCH


ARCHITECT AND CIVIL SCALES
Inch-to-Feet Architectural
Scales

1:1
1:5
1:10
1:20
1:50
1:100
1:200

1:500
1:1000

FULL SCALE, 1:1


Close to 3" = 1'0"
Between 1" = 1'0" and 1 1/2" = 1'
0"
Between 1/2 " = 1'0" and 3/4" =
1'0"
Close to 1/4 " = 1'0"
Close to 1/8" = 1'0"
Close to 1/16 " = 1'0"

Drafting Media and Reproduction Methods


PAPERS AND FILMS
Good quality paper
Polyester Film
Durability
Smoothness
Erasability
Dimensional stability
Transparency
Cost

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

Orthographic projection to
form orthographic view.

Projection of a foreshortened
orthographic surface.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
Elevations as Multiviews

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
Elevations as Multiviews

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
TYPES OF LINES

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
TYPES OF LINES
Construction Lines and Guidelines
Construction lines are used for laying out a drawing.They are drawn very lightly
so they do not reproduce and so they are not mistaken for any other lines on
the drawing. Manually drawn construction lines are drawn with very little pressure
using a pencil with H to 2H lead, and if drawn properly do not need to be erased.
Guidelines are similar to construction lines in that they should be drawn
lightly enough so they do not reproduce. Guidelines are drawn to guide your
manual lettering.
For example, if lettering on a drawing is 1/8 (3 mm) high, then the lightly
drawn guidelines are placed 1/8" (3 mm) apart.
Object Lines
In architectural drafting the outline linesor object lines, as they are commonly
calledare a specific thickness so they stand out from other lines, as they form
the outline of views. Object lines are used to define the outline and Characteristic
features of architectural plan components.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
TYPES OF LINES

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
TYPES OF LINES

(A) Thick outlines. (B) All lines the same thickness. (C) Accent with shading.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
TYPES OF LINES
Dashed Lines
In mechanical drafting dashed lines are called hidden lines; the terms are
interchangeable in architectural drafting.
Dashed lines are used to show drawing features that are not visible in the view or
plan.
In architectural drafting, dashed lines can also be considered hidden lines
because they are used to show drawing features that are not visible in the view or
plan.
These dashed features are important but subordinate to the main emphasis of the
drawing.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
TYPES OF LINES
Extension and Dimension Lines
Extension lines show the extent of a dimension.
Dimension lines show the length of the dimension and terminate at the
related extension lines with slashes, arrowheads, or dots.

Extension and dimension lines.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
TYPES OF LINES
Leader Lines
Extension lines show the extent of a dimension.
Dimension lines show the length of the dimension and terminate at the
related extension lines with slashes, arrowheads, or dots.

Extension and dimension lines.