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The Gaps Model of Service


Tahsina Khan

Gaps Model of Service Quality Words of mouth communicatio n Past Experience Personal Needs Expected Service Customer Gap CUSTOME R COMPANY Perceived Service Service Delivery (Pre and Post Contact) Gap 1 Gap 4 External Communications to Customers Gap 3 Customer-driven Service Designs and Standards Gap 2 Management Perceptions of Customers Expectations 2 .

Results because of not knowing what customers expects. Results because of not selecting the right service designs and standards.Different Types of Service Gaps The Key points for each gap can be summarized as follows: The Customer Gap: The difference between customer expectations and perceptions. Gap 1: The difference between what customers expected and what the management thinks about. 3 . Gap 2: The difference between management’s perceptions of customer expectations and the translation of those perceptions into service quality specifications and designs.

due to deviation from the service standards. Results because of not delivering to service design and standards. Resulting from high promise and poor performance. Gap 4: The difference between the service delivered to the customers and the promise of the firm to the customers about its service quality. 4 .Different Types of Service Gaps Gap 3: The difference between specifications or standards of service quality and the actual service delivered to the customers. Results because of not matching performance to promises.

 Customer perceptions are subjective assessments of actual service experiences. To do so the service marketer has to close the provider gaps. Customer expectations are the standards or reference point for performance against which service experiences are compared.Managerial Implications  A service marketer first close the customer gap (between the customer perceptions and expectations). 5 .

whereas customer perceptions are subjective assessments of the actual service experiences. Closing the gap between what customers expect and what they perceive is critical to delivering quality service. Customer expectations are standards or reference points that customers bring into the service experience. 6 .The Customer Gap Expected Service Customer Gap Perceived Service The customer gap is the difference between customer expectations and perceptions. it forms the basis for the gaps model.

the gaps model suggests that four other gaps the provider gaps – needs to be closed. These gaps occur within the organization providing the service.The Provider Gaps To close the all important customer gap. 7 .

Provider Gap 1: Not Knowing What Customers Expect Customer Expectations GA P1 Inadequate marketing research orientation Lack of upward communication Insufficient relationship focus Inadequate Service Recovery Company Perceptions of Customer Expectations 8 .

Provider Gap 2: Not Having the Right Service Quality Designs and Standards GA P2 Customer-driven Service Designs and Standards Poor Service Design Absence of Customer Driven Standards Inappropriate physical evidence and servicescape Company Perceptions of Customer Expectations 9 .

Provider Gap 3: Not Delivering to Service Designs and Standards Service Delivery GA P3 Deficiencies in human resource policies Customers who do not fulfill roles Problems with service intermediaries Failure to match supply and demand Customer-driven Service Designs and Standards 10 .

Provider Gap 4: Not Matching Performance to Promises GA P4 Service Delivery Lack of Integrated Services Marketing Communications Ineffective Management of Customer Expectations Overpromising Inadequate Horizontal Communications External Communications to Customers 11 .

The key to closing the customer gap is to close provider gaps 1 through 4 and keep them closed. customers perceive service quality shortfalls. The gaps model of service quality serves as a framework for service organizations attempting to improve quality service and services marketing. 12 . To the extent that one or more of provider gaps 1 through 4 exist.