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INTRODUCTION TO

STANDARDS
ISO Standards, ASTM Standards, WHO
Standards, Material Standards, British
Standards and Pakistan Standards

What is the Standard


Definition
A standard is a document, established by consensus that

provides rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities


or their results. (ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004)
May specify performance of products or personnel
May define terms to alleviate as much misunderstanding
as possible
Examples:
Ensure that light bulbs fit into sockets
Ensure film fits into cameras that can be purchased anywhere in the world
Provide an international definition of risk

Standard Development
Standards development is a method of documenting

processes, principles, or technical requirements and


recommendations that are established by authority,
custom, or consent
Organizations who develop standards are called
standards-setting organizations (SSOs) or standardsdevelopment organizations (SDOs)
Standards can be either regional, national, or international.

Standard Development
Products of standards development can be
Informal
- Are often referred to as specifications
- Usually do not involve participation by a significant part of any industry, profession, or

pertinent stakeholders
- May not use a formal process during development
- Over time may be accepted by stakeholders and then become the de facto standard, or
may be submitted for formal standardization

Formal
- Often referred to as standards
- Based on a formal process
- Usually consensus based incorporating viewpoints of several stakeholders
- ISO 31000:2009 Risk Management-Principles and Guidelines is an example

Two Primary Approaches to Standards


Standards bodies
coordinate standardization
activities

Approach in
many
economies

Approach
in the United
States
Bottom Up
Independent Standards Development
Organizations (SDO) drive
standardization activities

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National Standards Bodies


Many countries have a national standards institute that

represents the country in international and regional


standards activities
Examples include
AFNOR (France)
BSI (UK)

ANSI (US)
DIN (Germany)
GOST R (Russia)
IRAM (Argentina)
JISC (Japan)
KEBS (Kenya)
SA (Australia)
SAC (China)
SASO (Saudi Arabia)
CSA (Canada)
SNZ (New Zealand) DGN (Mexico)
PSQCA-PS (Pakistan)
IS (Indian Standard)

International Standard Bodies


ISO (International Organization for Standardization )
IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission)
ITU (International Telecommunication Union)

World Standards Coop


eration
(WSC) alliance.

International Commission on Illumination (CIE)


ASTM International
IEEE- (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
TAAPI (Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry)
SAE International (Society of Automotive Engineers)
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

Difference Between
Specification Standard and
Code

Standard, Code and Specification


A Standard can be defined as a set of technical definitions

and guidelines that function as instructions for designers,


manufacturers, operators, or users of equipment. Ex
ASME31.3 is a standard for process piping.
A standard becomes a Code when it has been adopted by
one or more governmental bodies and is enforceable by
law, or when it has been incorporated into a business
contract.
Specifications clearly and accurately describe the
technical requirements of any given product or process
and are used heavily by purchasing departments for
controlling the quality of incoming materials

BENEFITS OF THE
STANDARDS

For Business
International Standards are strategic tools and guidelines to help

companies tackle some of the most demanding challenges of modern


business. They ensure that business operations are as efficient as
possible, increase productivity and help companies access new markets.
Benefits include:
Cost savings - International Standards help optimise operations and
therefore improve the bottom line
Enhanced customer satisfaction - International Standards help improve
quality, enhance customer satisfaction and increase sales
Access to new markets - International Standards help prevent trade
barriers and open up global markets
Increased market share - International Standards help increase
productivity and competitive advantage
Environmental benefits - International Standards help reduce negative
impacts on the environment

For Society
Confident on Product: When products and services conform to

International Standards consumers can have confidence that


they are safe, reliable and of good quality. For example, ISO's
standards on road safety, toy safety and secure medical
packaging are just a selection of those that help make the world
a safer place.
Consumer Benefits: To make sure that the benefits of ISO
International Standards are as broad as possible, ISO supports
the involvement of consumers in standard development work
with its Committee on consumer policy (COPOLCO).
Preserve Environment and Health of Citizen International
Standards on air, water and soil quality, on emissions of gases
and radiation and environmental aspects of products contribute
to efforts to preserve the environment and the health of citizens.

For Government
Public Policy: ISO standards draw on international expertise and

experience and are therefore a vital resource for governments when


developing public policy.
National governments can use ISO standards to support public policy,
for example, by referencing ISO standards in regulations. This has a
number of benefits, including:
Expert opinion - ISO standards are developed by experts. By
integrating an ISO standard into national regulation, governments can
benefit from the opinion of experts without having to call on their
services directly.
Opening up world trade - ISO standards are international and adopted
by many governments. By integrating ISO standards into national
regulation, governments help to ensure that requirements for imports
and exports are the same the world over, therefore facilitating the
movement of goods, services and technologies from country to country.

Who is IOS and What Is ISO?


The International Organization for Standardization (IOS) is a

worldwide federation of national standards bodies.

Working through Technical Committees, it has developed and

published over 18,000 different ISO standards that are used


internationally for subjects ranging from film speeds to wine
glasses to quality management systems.

The ISO develops technical and industrial standards across a

wide array of disciplines that allow for organizations across the


globe to be measured by an international norm.

The official purpose for the issuance of ISO Standards is to

facilitate world trade through standardization.

Most Popular Types of ISO Standards


ISO 9001 Quality Management System
ISO 14000 Environmental Management System
ISO 22000 Food Management System
ISO 26000 Social Responsibility
ISO 150001 Energy Management
ISO 45001 - Occupational health and safety-

OSHAS- 18001
ISO 31000- Risk Management

Difference Between
Certification and
Accreditation

Certification and Accreditation


Certification is the confirmation that a client operates in

line with a set of requirements, provide by a standard


setter
Accreditation is the confirmation that a certification body is
able to thoroughly assess clients against these
requirements and issue certificates in an impartial
manner.

ASTM Standards
Originally called the American Society for Testing and

Materials,
ASTM International is an international standards
organization that develops and publishes voluntary
consensus technical standards for a wide range of
materials, products, systems, and services.
There are about 12,575 ASTM voluntary consensus
standards operate globally
ASTM standards have been adopted, by incorporation or
by reference, in many federal, state, and municipal
government regulations.

ASTM Standards Covers


Iron and Steel Products
Nonferrous Metal Products
Metals Test Methods and Analytical Procedures
Construction
Petroleum Products, Lubricants, and Fossil Fuels
Paints, Related Coatings, and Aromatics
Textiles
Plastics
Rubber
Electrical Insulation and Electronics
Water and Environmental Technology
Nuclear, Solar, and Geothermal Energy
Medical Devices and Services
General Methods and Instrumentation
General Products, Chemical Specialties, and End Use Product

WHO Standards
The World Health Organization (WHO ) is a specialized

agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with


international public health. It was established on 7 April
1948, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO
is a member of the United Nations Development Group.
WHO normally establish the standards related to the
health of individuals.
Examples of Standards include Water Quality, Food
Safety and Electromagnetic fields, radiations etc

Pakistan Standards PS
The Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority,

under the Ministry of Science and Technology, is the


national standardization body. In performing its duties and
functions, PSQCA is governed by the PSQCA Act, 1996.
The main objective is to establish standards for
manufacturer promoting industrial development which
ultimately help consumers and ensure health and safety
of consumers.
About 5000 different standards of products ranging from
tennis ball up to bicycle and car have been established
by PSQCA

Areas of Standardization PSQCA


Agriculture & Food
Chemical
Civil Engineering
Electrotechnical
Electronics
Mechanical / Automobile
Textile
Weights & Measures
ICT
Healthcare

How You will Adopt the


Standard

Conformity Assessment
Conformity assessment, also known as compliance

assessment is any activity to determine, directly or indirectly,


that a process, product, or service meets relevant technical
standards and fulfills relevant requirements.
Conformity assessment activities may include:
Testing
Surveillance
Inspection
Auditing
Certification
Registration
Accreditation

Audit
A systematic and independent examination to determine

whether quality activities and related results comply with


planned arrangements and whether these arrangements
are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve
objectives.
An ISO Audit is basic terms means checking to ensure
you are actually doing what you say you are doing.

Audit Objectives
Verify that the management system is in compliance with

the relevant ISO standard


Check to ensure that the actions taken to meet the quality
objectives of the organisation are suitable
Verify that any problems within the management system
have been addressed
Look for any improvements that can be made to the
system

Types of Audit
First Party Audit also known as an internal audit. These audits

are usually conducted internally by your own staff (that are trained
to carry out internal audits), or they can be carried out by an
external company on your behalf if you do not have the internal
resources.
Second Party Audit also known as a supplier audit. These audits
are usually carried out by lead auditors with your organisation, and
are designed to ensure that the companies that supply
products/services to you are doing what they say they are doing.
Again, these audits can be carried out by an external company if
you do not have the internal resources.
Third Party Audit also know as a certification audit. These audits
are always carried out by a Certification Body auditor. These audits
are for the purpose of gaining certification to the relevant ISO
standard by an approved body.

Benefits of internal Audit

What is Surveillance Audit

What is Auditor and Audite

Auditor and Auditee


Auditee

An auditee is an organization (or part of an organization)


that is being audited. Organizations can include companies,
corporations, enterprises, firms, charities, associations,
and institutions. Organizations can be either incorporated or
unincorporated and can be privately or publicly owned.
Auditor
An auditor is a person who carries out
audits. Auditors collect evidence in order to evaluate how
well audit criteria are being met. They must be objective,
impartial, independent, and competent.

Inspection
An

inspection is, most generally, an organized


examination or formal evaluation exercise.

In engineering activities inspection involves the


measurements, tests, and gauges applied to certain
characteristics in regard to an object or activity.
Inspections may be a visual inspection or involve sensing
technologies such as ultrasonic testing, accomplished
with a direct physical presence or remotely such as a
remote visual inspection, and manually or automatically
such as an automated optical inspection.

Difference between
Inspection and Audit