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Cells:

The Basic Units of Life

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Cells

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Tissues

Organs

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Organ
System
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Organis
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Cells
Every living thing has at least one
cell.
Some have only one and some have
trillions.
Most cells are too tiny to be seen
without a microscope.
A chicken egg is one of the largest cells.
Not all cells look or act the same.
You have 200 different kinds of cells:
blood cells, bone cells, muscle cells

Tissues
A tissue is a group of cells working
together to perform a specific job in
the body. The material around and
between the cells is also part of the
tissue.
Examples of tissue: red blood cells, fat,
and muscle

Organs
When two or more tissues work
together to perform a specific job,
the group of tissues is called an
organ.
Examples of organs: stomach, heart,
intestines, liver, lung, and skin
Plants also have different kinds of
tissues that work together. A leaf is a
plant organ that contains tissue that
traps light energy to make food.
Examples of plant organs: stem and

The Skin
The skin is the bodys largest organ.
An average-sized persons skin has a
mass of about 4.5 kg (almost 10
pounds!).

Brain Food
The part of the skin, hair, and nails
that we can see is DEAD tissue. Isnt
it strange that we put so much effort
into making sure our dead cells look
nice?

Organ Systems
Organs work together in groups to
perform particular jobs. These groups are
called organ systems.
Each system has a specific job to do in
the body.
Examples:
digestive system breaks down food to use by your
bodys cells
nervous system transmits information back in forth
between the brain and other parts of the body

There are 11 main organ


systems.
The organs in the organ system depend on
each other. If any part of the system fails, the
whole system is affected. And failure of one
organ system can affect other organ systems.
Main organ systems : integumentary system,
skeletal system, muscular system, nervous
system, endocrine system, cardiovascular
system, lymphatic system, respiratory system,
digestive system, urinary system, reproductive
system

Organism: Independent
Living
Anything that can live on its own
is called an organism.
All organisms are made up of at least
one cell.
organisms made up of one cell
unicellular
organisms made up of groups of cells
multicellular

The Big Picture


Although unicellular and multicellular organisms
can live on their own, they usually do not live
alone. Organisms interact with each other on
many different ways.
Populations groups of organisms that are of the
same kind and that live in the same area
Example all the white tail deer in the forest

Communities - two or more different populations


living in the same area
All the populations combined in the forest (deer, rabbits,
snakes, etc..)

Ecosystems all the communities and all the


nonliving things that affect it, such as water, soil,
rocks, temperature, and light
Ecosystems on land terrestrial ecosystems
Ecosystems in water aquatic ecosystems

Discovery of Cells

Seeing the first cells


1665 - Robert Hooke British
scientist used cork (soft plant tissue
found in the bark of a tree) He saw
tiny boxes and called them cells.

Early discoveries
1673 Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Dutch merchant used a handmade
microscope to look at pond scum He
saw many small creatures. He also
looked at blood from animals and
teeth scrapings. First to see bacteria
and discovered that yeast is a
unicellular organism.

The Cell Theory


Matthias Schleiden 1838 all plant parts
are made of cells
Theodore Swann 1839 - wrote the first part
of the cell theory.
o All organisms are composed of one or
more cells.
o The cell is the basic unit of life in all living
things.

1858 Rudolf Virchow wrote the third part


of the cell theory
o All cells come from existing cells

All cells have:


Cell membrane- surrounds all cells; acts as a
barrier between the inside of the cell and its
environment; controls what comes in and what
goes out

Hereditary material cells receive a copy of


hereditary material (DNA) It controls all of the
activities of the cell and contains the information
needed for that cell to make new cells

Organelles structures within a cell that allow it


to live, grow, and reproduce

Cytoplasm fluid that surrounds the organelles


within a cell

Small size almost all cells are too small to see


with the naked eye

Amoebas
An amoeba is a single celled (unicellular)
organism. It cannot get large enough to be
seen. As a cell gets larger, it needs more food
and produces more waste. Therefore more
material must be able to move in and out
through the cell membrane.
To keep up with these demands, a growing cell
needs a larger surface area through which to
exchange materials. As the cells volume
increases, its outer surface grows too.
Go to page 12 to help explain!!!
Surface-to-Volume Ratio

Benefits of being Multicellular


A single cell as big as you would have an
incredibly small surface-to-volume ratio
and would not survive because its outer
surface would be too small to allow in the
materials needed.
Multicellular organisms grow by
producing MORE cells, not LARGER
cells.
An elephant has more cells than you, not
larger cells.

Many kinds of cells


Having many different cells that are
specialized for specific jobs allows
multicellular organisms to perform more
functions than unicellular organisms.
Different kinds of cells can form tissues and
organs with different functions.
Some specialized cells: muscle cells, eye
cells, brain cells.
Be glad you are not UNICELLULAR! How
boring!

Two
types of cells
Prokaryotic
Eukaryotic
Cells

Cells

More complex
Also called bacteria
All other cells
Worlds smallest cells
Have a nucleus
No nucleus
Have membraneCircular DNA (shaped
covered organelles
like a rubber band)
Linear DNA stored in
No membrane-covered
the nucleus
organelles

Eukaryotic Cells
Animal Cells
1.
2.
3.
4.

Nucleus
Ribosomes
Cell Membrane
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
5. Lysosomes
6. Mitochondria
7. Golgi Complex

Plant Cells
1. Nucleus
2. Ribosomes
3. Cell Membrane
4. Endoplasmic Reticulum
5. Lysosomes
6. Mitochondria
7. Golgi Complex
8. Cell Wall
9. Large Vacuole
10.Chloroplast

The Cell's Command Center -The

Nucleus

Largest and most visible organelle in a


eukaryotic cell
Surrounded by a nuclear membrane for
protection
Stores DNA that has information on how to
make all the cells proteins (almost all
chemical reactions important to the cells life
involve protein)
Read more: List of Organelles | eHow.com
http://
www.ehow.com/info_8642034_list-organelles.

The Energy Plant --

Mitochondria

ATP (molecule that supplies energy to

fuel the cells activities) made here


from food molecules
Bean shaped surrounded by two
membranes
Must have oxygen
Highly active cells (such as heart and
liver) have thousand
Powerhouse of the cell

Protein Factory --

Ribosomes
Make protein chains out of amino
acids
Smallest but MOST abundant organelle
Not covered with a membrane

ALL cells have ribosomes (prokaryotes


included)

The Cells Delivery System


Endoplasmic Reticulum
Membrane-covered compartment
that makes lipids and other
materials for use inside and outside
the cell
Breaks down drugs and other
damaging chemicals
Internal delivery system
Looks like flattened sacks stacked
side by side

Shipping Golgi Complex


Packaging -Vesicles
Looks like the ER but is located closer
to the cell membrane
Modifies lipids and proteins from
the ER and delivers them to
other parts of the cell or outside
the cell
Vesicles are pieces of the Golgi
complex that pinches off and stores
the final products

Trash Collector -Lysosomes


Specialized vesicles in animal cells
Contain enzymes
Destroy worn-out or damaged
organelles
Get rid of waste materials and
protect the cell from foreign
invaders
If the membrane of a lysosome
opens, the enzymes will spill out into
the cell and kill the cell. (How a

Plant Cells --

Chloroplasts
Only found in plants and algae
Energy-converter
Has two membranes and structures like
stacked coins and contains chlorophyll
which makes the chloroplast green
Chlorophyll traps the energy from
sunlight and uses it to make sugar in
the process photosynthesis.
Mitochondria then use the sugar to make
ATP.

Cell Wall

Found in plant cells


Outside the cell membrane
Made of cellulose (sugar)
Provides strength and support to
cell membrane

Water cooler-

Vacuoles

Most plant cells have very large


vacuoles.
Membrane-covered
Stores water and other liquids
When full, helps support the cell
When empty, the cell shrivels
(causing the plant to wilt)

Homeostasis

(1) The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its


internal conditions, so as to stabilize health and functioning,
regardless of the outside changing conditions
(2) The ability of the body or a cell to seek and maintain a
condition of equilibrium or stability within its internal
environment when dealing with external changes

In humans, homeostasis happens when the body regulates


body temperature in an effort to maintain an internal
temperature around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. For example,
we sweat to cool off during the hot summer days, and we
shiver to produce heat during the cold winter season.

Connective Tissue
Joins, supports,
cushions and
insulates
Examples: blood,
bone, cartilage,
ligaments,
tendons,

Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial tissues
consist of continuous
sheets of cells that
provide a protective
covering over the
whole body
They also form the
lining membranes of
internal organs,
cavities, and
passageways and
cover internal organs

Muscle Tissue
Contracts or
shortens to
cause
movement

Nerve Tissue
Carries message
to and from the
brain
Allows us to see,
hear, feel.
Makes up brain,
spinal cord and
nerves