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# Measurements

## REVIEW OF UNIT I and UNIT II

Learning Objectives
To introduce basic components of measurement
system

To understand
measurement systems

the

basic

properties

of

## Amplification and Conditioning

INSTRUMENTATION CHARACTERISTICS

used.

## Divided into two categories: static and

dynamic characteristics.

## Static characteristics refer to the

comparison between steady output and ideal
output when the input is constant.

## Dynamic characteristics refer to the

comparison between instrument output and
ideal output when the input changes.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
1.

ACCURACY
Accuracy is the ability of an instrument to show the
exact reading.
Always related to the extent of the wrong reading/non
accuracy.
Normally shown in percentage of error which of the
full scale reading percentage.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
2. PRECISION

## An equipment which is precise is not

necessarily accurate.

## Defined as the capability of an

instrument to show the same reading
when used each time (reproducibility of
the instrument).

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
Example :

XXX
XXX

X : result
Centre circle : true value

XXX
XXXX
XXX

## Low accuracy, low precision

Accuracy vs Precision

accuracy.

## High accuracy means that the mean is close to the true

value, while high precision means that the standard
deviation is small.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
3.

TOLERANCE

## Closely related to accuracy of an

equipment where the accuracy of an
equipment is sometimes referred to in
the form of tolerance limit.

## Defined as the maximum error

expected in an instrument.

## Explains the maximum deviation of an

output component at a certain value.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
4. RANGE OF SPAN

## Defined as the range of reading between

minimum value and maximum value for
the measurement of an instrument.

## Has a positive value e.g..:

The range of span of an instrument
which has a reading range of 100C to
100 C is 200 C.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
5. BIAS

## Constant error which occurs during the

measurement of an instrument.

## This error is usually rectified through calibration.

Example :
A weighing scale always gives a bias reading. This
equipment always gives a reading of 1 kg even
without any load applied. Therefore, if A with a
weight of 70 kg weighs himself, the given reading
would be 71 kg. This would indicate that there is
a constant bias of 1 kg to be corrected.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
6. LINEARITY

## Maximum deviation from linear relation between

input and output.

## The output of an instrument has to be linearly

proportionate to the measured quantity.

(% fs).

## The graph shows the output reading of an

instrument when a few input readings are entered.

## Linearity = maximum deviation from the reading of

x and the straight line.

Linearity

Output
Readings

Measured Quantity

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
7. SENSIVITY

## Defined as the ratio of change in output towards

the change in input at a steady state condition.

Sensitivity (K) =
i
: change in output; i : change in input

Example 1:
The resistance value of a Platinum Resistance
Thermometer changes when the temperature
increases. Therefore, the unit of sensitivity for
this equipment is Ohm/C.

Sensitivity

Most sensitive

## Variation of the physical variables

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
Example 2:
Pressure sensor A with a value of 2 bar
caused a deviation of 10 degrees.
Therefore, the sensitivity of the
equipment is 5 degrees/bar.
Sensitivity of the whole system is (k) =
k1 x k2 x k3 x .. x kn
i

k1

k2

k3

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
Example:
Consider a measuring system consisting of a transducer, amplifier
and a recorder, with sensitivity for each equipment given below:
Transducer sensitivity 0.2 mV/C
Amplifier gain
2.0 V/mV
Recorder sensitivity
5.0 mV/V
Therefore,
Sensitivity of the whole system:
(k) = k1 x k2 x k3
k = 0.2 mV x 2.0 V
C
mV
k = 2.0 mV/C

x 5.0 mV
V

Example :
The output of a platinum resistance thermometer
(RTD) is as follows:
Input(C)

Output(Ohm)

100

200

200

400

300

600

400

800

## Calculate the sensitivity of the equipment.

Answer :
Draw an input versus output graph. From that graph,
the sensitivity is the slope of the graph.
K =
graph = (400-200) ohm = 2 ohm/C
i
slope
(200-100) C

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
8. DEAD SPACE / DEAD BAND
Output
Reading

+
Measured
Variables
Dead Space

## Defined as the range of input reading when there

is no change in output (unresponsive system).

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
9. RESOLUTION

## The smallest change in input reading

that can be traced accurately.

(% fs).

## Available in digital instrumentation.

STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
10. THRESHOLD

## When the reading of an input is

increased from zero, the input reading
will reach a certain value before
change occurs in the output.

## The minimum limit of the input reading

is threshold.

DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

## Explains the behaviour system of

instruments system when the input
signal is changed.

## Depends on a few standard input

signals such as step input, ramp
input dan sine-wave input.

Response time

## One would like to have a

measurement system with
fast response.

## In other words, the effect of

the measurement system on
the measurement should be
as small as possible.

EXAMPLE OF DYNAMIC
CHARACTERISTICS
Response from a 2nd order instrument:
Output
100%
90%

10%
tr

Time

EXAMPLE OF DYNAMIC
CHARACTERISTICS
Response from a 2nd order instrument:
1. Rise Time ( tr )

## Time taken for the output to rise from

10% to 90 % of the steady state value.
2. Settling time (ts)

state value.

## Measuring Instruments: ammeter, voltmeter,

ohmmeter.
You must be able to calculate currents and voltages in circuits that contain
real measuring instruments.

Measuring Instruments:
Ammeter
You know how to calculate the
current in this circuit:

V
I= .
R
If you dont know V or R, you can
measure I with an ammeter.

r
V

## Any ammeter has a resistance r. The current you

measure is
V
I=
.
R+r
To minimize error the ammeter resistance r should very
small.

## Example: an ammeter of resistance 10 m is used to

measure the current through a 10 resistor in series
with a 3 V battery that has an internal resistance of 0.5
. What is the percent error caused by the nonzero
resistance of the ammeter?
R=10
Actual current:
V
I=
R+r
3
I=
10+0.5

r=0.5
V=3 V
You might see the symbol
used instead of V.

I = 0.286 A = 286 mA

## Current with ammeter:

V
I=
R+r+RA
3
I=
10+0.5+0.01
I = 0.285 A = 285 mA
0.286- 0.285
% Error =
100
0.286
% Error = 0.3 %

R=10

r=0.5

RA

V=3 V

A Galvanometer
When a current is passed through a coil connected to a
needle, the coil experiences a torque and deflects.

## An ammeter is based on a galvanometer. OK, everything is

electronic these days, but the principles here still apply.

## For now, all you need to know is that the

deflection of the galvanometer needle is
proportional to the current in the coil
(red).
A typical galvanometer has a resistance of a few tens of
ohms.
Hold it right there. Didnt you say an ammeter must
have a very small resistance. Is there a physics mistake
in there somewhere?

## A galvanometer-based ammeter uses a galvanometer

and a shunt, connected in parallel: R
A
I

IG

RSHUNT
ISHUNT

## Everything inside the blue box is the ammeter.

The resistance of the ammeter is
1
1
1

RA RG RSHUNT
RG RSHUNT
RA
RG RSHUNT

R
G

IG

RSHUNT

ISHUNT
the galvanometer
1A full scale
means
a
Homework
hint: thereads
galvanometer
reads
1A full
current
of IG=1A
produces
full-scale
deflection
scale means
a current
of IaG=1A
produces
a full- of
the
galvanometer
The needleneedle.
deflection
scale
deflection of needle.
the galvanometer
Theis
proportional
to theiscurrent
I G.
needle deflection
proportional
to the current IG.
If you want the ammeter shown to read 5A full scale,
then the selected RSHUNT must result in IG=1A when
I=5A. In that case, what are ISHUNT and VAB (=VSHUNT)?

AExample:
galvanometer-based
ammeter uses
a galvanometer
what shunt resistance
is required
for an
and
a shunt,
connected
in parallel:
ammeter
to have
a resistance
of 10 m, if the
galvanometer resistance is 60 ?
R

1
1
1

RA RG RS

1
1
1

RS RA RG

RG RA 60 .01
RS

0.010
RG - R A
60-.01 (actually 0.010002

IG

RS
IS

## The shunt resistance is chosen so that IG does not

exceed the maximum current for the galvanometer
and so that the effective resistance of the ammeter is
very small.

RG RA 60 .01
RS

0.010
RG - R A
60-.01
To achieve such a small resistance, the shunt is
probably a large-diameter wire or solid piece of metal.

Measuring Instruments:
Voltmeter

## You can measure a voltage by placing a galvanometer

in parallel with the circuit component across which you
wish to measure the potential difference.
RG
G

Vab=?

R=10

r=0.5
V=3 V

## Example: an galvanometer of resistance 60 is used

to measure the voltage drop across a 10 k resistor in
series with a 6 V battery and a 5 k resistor (neglect
the internal resistance of the battery). What is the
percent error caused by the nonzero resistance of the
galvanometer?
R1=10 k
First calculate the actual voltage drop.
a
Req R1 +R2 =15103
V
6V
-3
I

0.4

10
A
3
Req 1510
Vab =IR 0.4 10-3 10103 4 V

R2=5 k
V=6 V

## The measurement is made with the galvanometer.

60 and 10 k resistors in
parallel are equivalent to an
59.6 resistor. The total
equivalent resistance is 5059.6
, so 1.19x10-3 A of current
flows from the battery.
The voltage drop from a to b is
then measured to be
6-(1.19x10-3)(5000)=0.07 V.
The percent error is.
4-.07
% Error =
100=98%
4

RG=60

R1=10 k

R2=5 k
V=6 V
I=1.19 mA

## To reduce the percent error, the device being used as

a voltmeter must have a very large resistance, so a
voltmeter can be made from galvanometer in series
with a large resistance.

V
Vab

RSer

Va

b
Everything inside the blue box is the voltmeter.

Homework
hints: the galvanometer
1A full scale
mean
a current of
of I GI =1A
the galvanometer
reads 1A reads
full scale
wouldwould
mean
a current
G=1A
would produce a full-scale deflection of the galvanometer needle.

## would produce a full-scale deflection of the galvanometer needle.

If
youwant
want
voltmeter
shown
to full
read
10V
full
then
the result in
If you
the the
voltmeter
shown to
read 10V
scale,
then
thescale,
selected
R Ser must
Iselected
VSer
must result in IG=1A when Vab=10V.
G=1A whenR
ab=10V.

## Example: a voltmeter of resistance 100 k is used to

measure the voltage drop across a 10 k resistor in
series with a 6 V battery and a 5 k resistor (neglect
the internal resistance of the battery). What is the
percent error caused by the nonzero resistance of the
voltmeter?
R1=10 k
a
b
We already calculated the
actual voltage drop (3 slides
back).
R2=5 k
Vab =IR 0.4 10-3 10103 4 V
V=6 V

## The measurement is now made with the voltmeter.

100 k and 10 k resistors in
parallel are equivalent to an
9090 resistor. The total
equivalent resistance is 14090
, so 4.26x10-4 A of current
flows from the battery.
The voltage drop from a to b is
then measured to be
6-(4.26x10-4)(5000)=3.9 V.
The percent error is.
4- 3.9
% Error =
100=2.5%
4

RV=100 k

R1=10 k

R2=5 k
V=6 V
I=.426 mA

Not great, but much better. Larger Rser is needed for high accuracy.

Measuring Instruments:
Ohmmeter
An ohmmeter measures
resistance. An ohmmeter is
made from a galvanometer, a series resistance, and a
battery.
R
RSer
Everything inside the
G
blue box is the
G
ohmmeter.

## The ohmmeter is connected in parallel with the

unknown resistance with external power of. The
ohmmeter battery causes current to flow, and Ohms
law is used to determine the unknown resistance.

R=?

## To measure a really small resistance, an ohmmeter

wont work.
Solution: four-point probe.
A
V

law.