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CHAP 5 FINITE ELEMENTS FOR HEAT

TRANSFER PROBLEMS
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Nam-Ho Kim

HEAT CONDUCTION ANALYSIS

Analogy between Stress and Heat Conduction Analysis
Structural problem

Heat transfer problem

Displacement

Temperature (scalar)

Stress/strain

Heat flux (vector)

Displacement B.C.

Body force

Internal heat generation

Youngs modulus

Thermal conductivity

In finite element viewpoint, two problems are identical if a proper

interpretation is given.

More Complex Problems

Coupled structural-thermal problems (thermal strain).
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THERMAL PROBLEM
Goals:

[K T ]{T } {Q}
Nodal temperature
Conductivity matrix

Solve for temperature distribution for a given thermal load.

Boundary Conditions
Essential BC: Specified temperature
Natural BC: Specified heat flux

STEADY-STATE HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEM

Fourier Heat Conduction Equation:
Heat flow from high temperature to low temperature

dT
qx kA
dx
Thermal conductivity (W/m/C )
Heat flux (Watts)

Exampleshigh
of 1D heat conduction problems
Thigh
qx
Tlow

qx

Tlow

GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

Conservation of Energy
Energy In + Energy Generated = Energy Out + Energy Increase

Ein Egenerated Eout U

Two modes of heat transfer through the boundary
Prescribed surface heat flow Qs per unit area
Convective heat transfer Q h T T
h
h: convection coefficient (W/m2/C )

Qs
qx

Qg
A

qx +

dqx
Dx
dx

dx
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GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION cont.

Conservation of Energy at Steady State
No change in internal energy (U = 0)

dq

qx QsPx h T T Px Qg Ax qx x x
dx
1 4 4 4 44 2 4 4 4 4 43 1 2 3
1
44
2
4 43
Egen
E

in

Eout

dqx
Qg A hP T T QsP,
dx

0 x L

Apply Fourier Law

d
dT
kA
Qg A hP T T QsP 0,

dx
dx

0 x L

Rate of change of heat flux is equal to the sum of heat generated and
heat transferred
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GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION cont.

Boundary conditions
Temperature at the boundary is prescribed (essential BC)
Heat flux is prescribed (natural BC)
Example: essential BC at x = 0, and natural BC at x = L:
T(0) T0

dT

kA
qL

dx x L

DIRECT METHOD
Follow the same procedure with 1D bar element
No need to use differential equation

Heat can enter the system only through the nodes

Qi: heat enters at node i (Watts)
Divide the solid into a number of elements
Each element has two nodes and two DOFs (Ti and Tj)
For each element, heat entering the element is positive

Q1

1
Q2

QN

Q3
i
qi(e)

xi

e
L(e)

Ti

j
Tj

q(je)

xj
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ELEMENT EQUATION
Fourier law of heat conduction
(e)
i

Tj Ti

dT
kA
kA
dx
L(e)

(e)
i

(e)
j

(e)
j

kA

(Tj Ti )
L(e)

q(e)

kA
i

(e)
(e)
q
L
j

1 1
1 1

T i

T j

Similar to 1D bar element (k = E, T = u, q = f)

ASSEMBLY
Assembly using heat conservation at nodes
Remember that heat flow into the element is positive
Equilibrium of heat flow:
T1 Q1
T Q
Ni

Qi qi(e)
[K T ] 2 2
e 1
NN M
M
TN QN
Same assembly procedure with 1D bar elements

Applying BC
Striking-the-rows works, but not striking-the-columns because
Q2 usually zero
prescribed temperatures are not

1
Element 1

q2(1)

q2(2)

3
Element 2
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EXAMPLE
Calculate nodal temperatures of four elements
A = 1m2, L = 1m, k = 10W/m/C

200 C
Q1

T1

T2
1
Q2 = 500W

T3
2

T4
3

Q3 = 0

Q4 = 200W
T5
4

Q5 = 0

q1(1)
1 1 T 1
10
(1)

1 1 T 2
q2

q(2)

1 1 T2
2
10
(2)

1 1 T3
q3

q(3)

1 1 T3
3
10
(3)

1 1 T4
q4

q(4)

1 1 T4
4
10
(4)

1 1 T5
q5
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EXAMPLE cont.
Assembly
Q1
Q
2
Q 3
Q
4
Q5

q1(1)

(2)
q(1)

q
2
2

(2)
(3)
q3 q3 10

q( 4)
q(3)

4
4

( 4)

q5

1 1 0 0 0
1 2 1 0 0

0 1 2 1 0

0 0 1 2 1

0 0 0 1 1

T1
T
2
T3
T4
T5

Boundary conditions (T1 = 200 oC, Q1 is unknown)

1 1 0
1 2 1

10 0 1 2

0 0 1
0 0 0

0
0
1
2
1

0
0

1
1

200
T
2
T3
T
4
T5

Q 1

500

200

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EXAMPLE cont.
Boundary conditions
Strike the first row
200
1 2 1 0 0

T2
0 1 2 1 0

10
T
0 0 1 2 1 3

T4

0 0 0 1 1
T5

500
0

200

Instead of striking the first column, multiply the first column with
o
T1 = 200
1 0move
0 to TRHS
500
2000
2
2 Cand

1 2 1 0 T
0
0

3

10

0 1 2 1 T4
200

0

0
0
0
0

1
1

T5

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EXAMPLE cont.
Nodal temperatures
{T }T = { 200 230 210 190 190 } C

How much heat input is required to maintain T1 = 200oC?

Use the deleted first row with known nodal temperatures
Q1 10T1 10T2 0T3 0T4 0T5 300 W

Other example

100W

3
4

2
1
50 C

200W

Q=0

Q=0

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GALERKIN METHOD FOR HEAT CONDUCTION

Direct method is limited for nodal heat input
Need more advanced method for heat generation and
convection heat transfer
Galerkin method in Chapter 3 can be used for this purpose
Consider element (e)
j
i
(e)
e
(e)
q
q
i
Interpolation
j
L(e)
xi

% TN (x) TN (x)
T(x)
i i
j j

x x

Ni (x) 1 (e) i , N j (x)

L

% N {T } N (x) N (x)
T(x)
j

i

Heat flux
dT%
1
(e)
dx L

x xi
L(e)
T i

T j

1
{T } B {T }
L(e)

Ti

Tj

xj

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GALERKIN METHOD cont.

Differential equation with heat generation
d
dT
kA
Qg A 0,

dx
dx

0 x L

d
dT%
kA

AQg R(x)
dx
dx

Residual

Integrate the residual with Ni(x) as a weight

d

dT%
x dx kA dx AQg Ni (x)dx 0

xj

Integrate by parts

xj
xj
xj
%
dT
dT%dNi
kA
Ni (x) kA
dx AQ gNi (x)dx
dx
dx dx
xi
xi
x
i

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GALERKIN METHOD cont.

Substitute interpolation relation
xj

xj

dNj dNi
dNi
kA
T

T
x i dx j dx dx dx x AQgNi (x)dx q(x j )Ni (x j ) q(xi )Ni (x i )
i
i

Perform integration
kA
(e)
(e)
T

i
j
i
i
L(e)

xj

Q(e)
AQgNi (x)dx
i
xi

xj

kA
(e)
(e)
T

j
i
j
j
L(e)

Q(e)
AQgNj (x)dx
j
xi

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GALERKIN METHOD cont.

Combine the two equations
kA
L(e)

(e)
Q(e)

q
1 1 T i
i
i
1 1 T Q(e) q(e)

j
j
j

(e)
(e)
[k (e)
]{
T
}

{
Q
}

{
q
}
T

{Q(e)}: thermal load corresponding to the heat source

{q(e)}: vector of nodal heat flows across the cross-section

xj

(e)
N
(x)
AQ
L

i
g
{Q (e) } AQg
dx

2
xi
Nj (x)

Temperature varies linearly in the element, and the heat

flux is constant
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EXAMPLE
Heat chamber
Wall temperature = 200 C
Uniform heat source inside
the wall Q = 400 W/m3.
Thermal conductivity of the
wall is k = 25 W/mC.
Use four elements through
the thickness (unit area)
Boundary Condition:
T1 = 200, qx=1 = 0.

Insulated
No heat flow

Wall
200 C

x
1m

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EXAMPLE cont.
Element Matrix Equation
All elements are identical
1 1 T 1
100
T

1
1

Assembly

Q 1
q1(1)

(1)
Q

(2)
q

q
2 2 2

(2)
(3)
Q3 q3 q3 100

Q q(3) q( 4)
4

4
4
( 4)

q5
Q5

q1(1)
50

(1)
q
50
2

1
1
0
0
0

1
2
1
0
0

0
1
2
1
0

0
0
1
2
1

0
0

T1
T
2

T
3
T
4
T5

50

100

100
100

50

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EXAMPLE cont.
Boundary Conditions
At node 1, the temperature is given (T1 = 200). Thus, the heat flux at
node 1 (Q1) should be unknown.
At node 5, the insulation condition required that the heat flux (Q5)
should be zero. Thus, the temperature at node 5 should be unknown.
At nodes 2 4, the temperature is unknown (T2, T3, T4). Thus the heat
flux should be known.
1
2
4
5
3
Q

Q1

1
1

100 0

0
0

1 0

0
2 1 0 0

1 2 1 0

0 1 2 1
0 0 1 1
0

200
T
2
T3
T
4
T5

50 Q1

100

100

100

50

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EXAMPLE cont.
Imposing Boundary Conditions
Remove first row because it contains unknown Q1.
Cannot remove first column because T1 is not zero.
200
1 2 1 0 0

100
T
0 1 2 1 0 2 100

T3
100
0 0 1 2 1
100

4
0 0 0 1 1
50

T5
100( 1 200 2 T2 1 T3 ) 100
100(2 T2 1 T3 ) 100 20000

Instead, move the firstTcolumn

20000
2 1 0 0 2 100

20100
to the
1right.

0
100
2 1 0 T3 100

100

0 1 2 1 T4 100

0
100

0
50
0
0

1
1

T5 50

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EXAMPLE cont.
Solution
T1 200 C, T2 203.5 C, T3 206 C, T4 207.5 C, T5 208 C

Discussion
In order to maintain 200 degree at node 1, we need to remove heat

Q1 50 100T1 100T2 350

Q1 400 W
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CONVECTION BC
Convection Boundary Condition
Happens when a structure is surrounded by fluid
qh
Does not exist in structural problems
BC includes unknown temperature (mixed BC) T

Wall
T

qh hS(T T)

Fluid Temperature
Convection Coefficient
Heat flow is not prescribed. Rather, it is a function of temperature on
the boundary, which is unknown

1D Finite Element
When both Nodes 1 and 2 are convection boundary
q1 hAT1 hAT1

T
1
q2 hAT2 hAT2
T1

T2

T2
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Element
equation
kA 1 1
L 1 1

T1

T1
h1

q1(1)
T 1
(1)
T2
q2

T2
1

kA 1 1
L 1 1

T3
2

h3

T 3

q(2)

T2
2
(2)
T3
q3

Balance of heat flow

Node 1: q1(1) h1A(T1 T1 )
(2)
Node 2: q(1)

q
2
2 0

Node 3: q(2)

h
A(T
3
3
3 T3 )

Global matrix equation

h1A(T1
1 1 0 T1
kA

1 2 1 T2
0

L
0 1 1 T3 h3 A(T3

T1)

T3 )
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EXAMPLE cont.
Move unknown nodal temperatures to LHS
kA
kA

h
A

1
L
L

2kA
kA

L
L

kA

h1AT1
T 1
kA

0
2

L

T
h
AT

3
3 3
kA
h3 A

The above matrix is P.D. because of additional positive terms

in diagonal
How much heat flow through convection boundary?
After solving for nodal temperature, use
q1(1) h1A(T1 T1 )

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Firebrick
k1=1.2W/m/oC
hi=12W/m2/oC
Insulating brick
k2=0.2W/m/oC
ho=2.0W/m2/oC

0
16.8 4.8
4.8 6.47 1.67

0
1.67 3.67

Insulating
brick

Firebrick

Ta = 20 C

Tf = 1,500
C
hi

T1

T 2
T
3

No heat flow

boundary

Convection
boundary
20 C

2
q(2)

h
(T

T
)

1054
W/m
3
0
a
3

Tf

0.12 m

0.25 m

18,000

40

1,500 C

ho

T1
hi

T2
1

T3
2

ho

Ta
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CONVECTION ALONG A ROD

Long rod is submerged into a fluid
Convection occurs across the entire surface
Governing differential equation
d
dT

kA

AQ

hP
T
T 0, 0 x L
g

dx
dx

P 2(b h)

Convection
Fluid T

b
qi(e)

xi

q(je)

Convection

xj
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CONVECTION ALONG A ROD cont.

DE with approximate temperature

d
dT%

%
kA

AQg hP T T R(x)
dx
dx

Minimize the residual with interpolation function Ni(x)

d

dT%

%
x dx kA dx AQg hP(T T) Ni (x)dx 0

xj

Integration by parts
xj
xj
xj
xj
xj
dT%
dT%dNi
% dx AQ N (x)dx hPT N dx
kA
Ni (x) kA
dx hPTN
i
g i
i

dx
dx
dx
xi
xi
xi
xi
x
i

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CONVECTION ALONG A ROD cont.

Substitute interpolation scheme and rearrange
xj

xj

dNj dNi
dNi
i i TN
j j )Ni dx
x kA Ti dx Tj dx dx dx x hP(TN
i
i
xj

xi

Tj
kA
(e) Ti
T Tj hpL
Q(e)
q(e)
i
i
(e) i
L
3
6

xj

Q(e)

(AQ

hPT
)Ni (x)dx
i
g
xi

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CONVECTION ALONG A ROD cont.

Finite element equation with convection along the rod
kA
(e)
L

1 1
hPL(e) 2 1
1 1 6 1 2

(e)
T i
Q(e)

q
i
i

(e)
(e)
T j
Q

q j
j

(e)
(e)
[k (e)

} {q(e) }
T ] [k h ] T {Q

k

(e)
h

hPL(e)

2 1
1 2

(e)
(e)
Q
AQ
L

hPL
T 1

i
g
(e)
{Q }

Q
2
1
j

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EXAMPLE: HEAT FLOW IN A COOLING FIN

k = 0.2 W/mm/C, h = 2104 W/mm2/C
Element conductance matrix
2 1
0.2 200 1 1
2 10 4 320 40
[k ] [k ]

1 1
1 2
40
6

(e)
T

(e)
h

2 10 320 40 30
{Q }

(e)

Element 1

Convection
T = 30 C

160 mm

330 C

1.25 mm

Insulated

120 mm
T1

T2
1

T3
2

T4
3
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EXAMPLE: HEAT FLOW IN A COOLING FIN cont.

Element conduction equation

q1(1)
1.8533 0.5733 T 1 38.4

0.5733 1.8533 T 38.4
(1)
q
2

Element 1
2
1.8533 0.5733 T2
Element 2 0.5733 1.8533 T3

q(2)

38.4

2

(2)
38.4

q3

1.8533 0.5733 T3
Element 3
T

0.5733
1.8533

q(3)

38.4

3
(3)
38.4

q4

Node 1

q1(1) Q1

Node 2

(2)
q(1)
2 q2 0

Node 3

(2)
q(2)

q
3
3 0

Node 4

q(3)
4 hA(T T4 )

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Assembly
0
0
1.853 .573
.573 3.706 .573
0

0
.573 3.706 .573

0
.573 1.853
0

T1
T
2

T3
T4

38.4 Q1

76.8

76.8

38.4 hA(T T4 )

0
0
1.853 .573
.573 3.706 .573
0

0
.573 3.706 .573

0
.573 1.893
0

330
T
2

T
3

T4

38.4 Q1

76.8

76.8

39.6

0
3.706 .573
.573 3.706 .573

0
.573 1.893

T2

T3
T
4

265.89

76.8

39.6

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EXAMPLE: HEAT FLOW IN A COOLING FIN cont.

Solve for temperature
T1 330C, T2 77.57C, T3 37.72C, T4 32.34 C
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

40

80

120

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