You are on page 1of 35

CHAP 5 FINITE ELEMENTS FOR HEAT

TRANSFER PROBLEMS
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Nam-Ho Kim

HEAT CONDUCTION ANALYSIS


Analogy between Stress and Heat Conduction Analysis
Structural problem

Heat transfer problem

Displacement

Temperature (scalar)

Stress/strain

Heat flux (vector)

Displacement B.C.

Fixed temperature B.C.

Surface traction force

Heat flux B.C.

Body force

Internal heat generation

Youngs modulus

Thermal conductivity

In finite element viewpoint, two problems are identical if a proper


interpretation is given.

More Complex Problems


Coupled structural-thermal problems (thermal strain).
Radiation problem
2

THERMAL PROBLEM
Goals:

[K T ]{T } {Q}
Thermal load
Nodal temperature
Conductivity matrix

Solve for temperature distribution for a given thermal load.

Boundary Conditions
Essential BC: Specified temperature
Natural BC: Specified heat flux

STEADY-STATE HEAT TRANSFER PROBLEM


Fourier Heat Conduction Equation:
Heat flow from high temperature to low temperature

dT
qx kA
dx
Thermal conductivity (W/m/C )
Heat flux (Watts)

Exampleshigh
of 1D heat conduction problems
Thigh
qx
Tlow

qx

Tlow

GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION


Conservation of Energy
Energy In + Energy Generated = Energy Out + Energy Increase

Ein Egenerated Eout U


Two modes of heat transfer through the boundary
Prescribed surface heat flow Qs per unit area
Convective heat transfer Q h T T
h
h: convection coefficient (W/m2/C )

Qs
qx

Qg
A

qx +

dqx
Dx
dx

dx
5

GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION cont.


Conservation of Energy at Steady State
No change in internal energy (U = 0)

dq

qx QsPx h T T Px Qg Ax qx x x
dx
1 4 4 4 44 2 4 4 4 4 43 1 2 3
1
44
2
4 43
Egen
E

in

Eout

P: perimeter of the cross-section


dqx
Qg A hP T T QsP,
dx

0 x L

Apply Fourier Law


d
dT
kA
Qg A hP T T QsP 0,

dx
dx

0 x L

Rate of change of heat flux is equal to the sum of heat generated and
heat transferred
6

GOVERNING DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION cont.


Boundary conditions
Temperature at the boundary is prescribed (essential BC)
Heat flux is prescribed (natural BC)
Example: essential BC at x = 0, and natural BC at x = L:
T(0) T0

dT

kA
qL

dx x L

DIRECT METHOD
Follow the same procedure with 1D bar element
No need to use differential equation

Element conduction equation

Heat can enter the system only through the nodes


Qi: heat enters at node i (Watts)
Divide the solid into a number of elements
Each element has two nodes and two DOFs (Ti and Tj)
For each element, heat entering the element is positive

Q1

1
Q2

QN

Q3
i
qi(e)

xi

e
L(e)

Ti

j
Tj

q(je)

xj
8

ELEMENT EQUATION
Fourier law of heat conduction
(e)
i

Tj Ti

dT
kA
kA
dx
L(e)

From the conservation of energy for the element


(e)
i

(e)
j

(e)
j

kA

(Tj Ti )
L(e)

Combine the two equation


q(e)

kA
i

(e)
(e)
q
L
j

1 1
1 1

T i

T j

Element conductance matrix

Similar to 1D bar element (k = E, T = u, q = f)

ASSEMBLY
Assembly using heat conservation at nodes
Remember that heat flow into the element is positive
Equilibrium of heat flow:
T1 Q1
T Q
Ni

Qi qi(e)
[K T ] 2 2
e 1
NN M
M
TN QN
Same assembly procedure with 1D bar elements

Applying BC
Striking-the-rows works, but not striking-the-columns because
Q2 usually zero
prescribed temperatures are not

1
Element 1

q2(1)

q2(2)

3
Element 2
10

EXAMPLE
Calculate nodal temperatures of four elements
A = 1m2, L = 1m, k = 10W/m/C

200 C
Q1

T1

T2
1
Q2 = 500W

T3
2

T4
3

Q3 = 0

Q4 = 200W
T5
4

Q5 = 0

Element conduction equation


q1(1)
1 1 T 1
10
(1)

1 1 T 2
q2

q(2)

1 1 T2
2
10
(2)

1 1 T3
q3

q(3)

1 1 T3
3
10
(3)

1 1 T4
q4

q(4)

1 1 T4
4
10
(4)

1 1 T5
q5
11

EXAMPLE cont.
Assembly
Q1
Q
2
Q 3
Q
4
Q5

q1(1)

(2)
q(1)

q
2
2

(2)
(3)
q3 q3 10

q( 4)
q(3)

4
4

( 4)

q5

1 1 0 0 0
1 2 1 0 0

0 1 2 1 0

0 0 1 2 1

0 0 0 1 1

T1
T
2
T3
T4
T5

Boundary conditions (T1 = 200 oC, Q1 is unknown)


1 1 0
1 2 1

10 0 1 2

0 0 1
0 0 0

0
0
1
2
1

0
0

1
1

200
T
2
T3
T
4
T5

Q 1

500

200

12

EXAMPLE cont.
Boundary conditions
Strike the first row
200
1 2 1 0 0

T2
0 1 2 1 0

10
T
0 0 1 2 1 3

T4

0 0 0 1 1
T5

500
0

200

Instead of striking the first column, multiply the first column with
o
T1 = 200
1 0move
0 to TRHS
500
2000
2
2 Cand

1 2 1 0 T
0
0

3

10

0 1 2 1 T4
200

0


0
0
0
0

1
1

T5

13

EXAMPLE cont.
Nodal temperatures
{T }T = { 200 230 210 190 190 } C

How much heat input is required to maintain T1 = 200oC?


Use the deleted first row with known nodal temperatures
Q1 10T1 10T2 0T3 0T4 0T5 300 W

Other example

100W

3
4

2
1
50 C

200W

Q=0

Q=0

14

GALERKIN METHOD FOR HEAT CONDUCTION


Direct method is limited for nodal heat input
Need more advanced method for heat generation and
convection heat transfer
Galerkin method in Chapter 3 can be used for this purpose
Consider element (e)
j
i
(e)
e
(e)
q
q
i
Interpolation
j
L(e)
xi

% TN (x) TN (x)
T(x)
i i
j j

x x

Ni (x) 1 (e) i , N j (x)


L

% N {T } N (x) N (x)
T(x)
j

i

Heat flux
dT%
1
(e)
dx L

x xi
L(e)
T i

T j

1
{T } B {T }
L(e)

Ti

Tj

xj

Temperature varies linearly

Heat flow is constant


15

GALERKIN METHOD cont.


Differential equation with heat generation
d
dT
kA
Qg A 0,

dx
dx

0 x L

Substitute approximate solution

d
dT%
kA

AQg R(x)
dx
dx

Residual

Integrate the residual with Ni(x) as a weight


d

dT%
x dx kA dx AQg Ni (x)dx 0

xj

Integrate by parts

xj
xj
xj
%
dT
dT%dNi
kA
Ni (x) kA
dx AQ gNi (x)dx
dx
dx dx
xi
xi
x
i

16

GALERKIN METHOD cont.


Substitute interpolation relation
xj

xj

dNj dNi
dNi
kA
T

T
x i dx j dx dx dx x AQgNi (x)dx q(x j )Ni (x j ) q(xi )Ni (x i )
i
i

Perform integration
kA
(e)
(e)
T

i
j
i
i
L(e)

xj

Q(e)
AQgNi (x)dx
i
xi

Repeat with Nj(x) as a weight


xj

kA
(e)
(e)
T

j
i
j
j
L(e)

Q(e)
AQgNj (x)dx
j
xi

17

GALERKIN METHOD cont.


Combine the two equations
kA
L(e)

(e)
Q(e)

q
1 1 T i
i
i
1 1 T Q(e) q(e)

j
j
j

(e)
(e)
[k (e)
]{
T
}

{
Q
}

{
q
}
T

Similar to 1D bar element

{Q(e)}: thermal load corresponding to the heat source


{q(e)}: vector of nodal heat flows across the cross-section

Uniform heat source


xj

(e)
N
(x)
AQ
L

i
g
{Q (e) } AQg
dx

2
xi
Nj (x)

Equally divided to the two nodes

Temperature varies linearly in the element, and the heat


flux is constant
18

EXAMPLE
Heat chamber
Wall temperature = 200 C
Uniform heat source inside
the wall Q = 400 W/m3.
Thermal conductivity of the
wall is k = 25 W/mC.
Use four elements through
the thickness (unit area)
Boundary Condition:
T1 = 200, qx=1 = 0.

Insulated
No heat flow

Wall
200 C

x
1m

19

EXAMPLE cont.
Element Matrix Equation
All elements are identical
1 1 T 1
100
T

1
1

Assembly

Q 1
q1(1)

(1)
Q

(2)
q

q
2 2 2

(2)
(3)
Q3 q3 q3 100

Q q(3) q( 4)
4

4
4
( 4)

q5
Q5

q1(1)
50

(1)
q
50
2

1
1
0
0
0

1
2
1
0
0

0
1
2
1
0

0
0
1
2
1

0
0

T1
T
2

T
3
T
4
T5

50

100

100
100

50

20

EXAMPLE cont.
Boundary Conditions
At node 1, the temperature is given (T1 = 200). Thus, the heat flux at
node 1 (Q1) should be unknown.
At node 5, the insulation condition required that the heat flux (Q5)
should be zero. Thus, the temperature at node 5 should be unknown.
At nodes 2 4, the temperature is unknown (T2, T3, T4). Thus the heat
flux should be known.
1
2
4
5
3
Q

Q1

1
1

100 0

0
0

1 0

0
2 1 0 0

1 2 1 0

0 1 2 1
0 0 1 1
0

200
T
2
T3
T
4
T5

50 Q1

100

100

100

50

21

EXAMPLE cont.
Imposing Boundary Conditions
Remove first row because it contains unknown Q1.
Cannot remove first column because T1 is not zero.
200
1 2 1 0 0

100
T
0 1 2 1 0 2 100

T3
100
0 0 1 2 1
100

4
0 0 0 1 1
50

T5
100( 1 200 2 T2 1 T3 ) 100
100(2 T2 1 T3 ) 100 20000

Instead, move the firstTcolumn


20000
2 1 0 0 2 100


20100
to the
1right.

0
100
2 1 0 T3 100


100

0 1 2 1 T4 100

0
100


0
50
0
0

1
1

T5 50

22

EXAMPLE cont.
Solution
T1 200 C, T2 203.5 C, T3 206 C, T4 207.5 C, T5 208 C

Discussion
In order to maintain 200 degree at node 1, we need to remove heat

Q1 50 100T1 100T2 350


Q1 400 W
23

CONVECTION BC
Convection Boundary Condition
Happens when a structure is surrounded by fluid
qh
Does not exist in structural problems
BC includes unknown temperature (mixed BC) T

Wall
T

qh hS(T T)

Fluid Temperature
Convection Coefficient
Heat flow is not prescribed. Rather, it is a function of temperature on
the boundary, which is unknown

1D Finite Element
When both Nodes 1 and 2 are convection boundary
q1 hAT1 hAT1

T
1
q2 hAT2 hAT2
T1

T2

T2
24

EXAMPLE (CONVECTION ON THE BOUNDARY)


Element
equation
kA 1 1
L 1 1

T1

T1
h1

q1(1)
T 1
(1)
T2
q2

T2
1

kA 1 1
L 1 1

T3
2

h3

T 3

q(2)

T2
2
(2)
T3
q3

Balance of heat flow


Node 1: q1(1) h1A(T1 T1 )
(2)
Node 2: q(1)

q
2
2 0

Node 3: q(2)

h
A(T
3
3
3 T3 )

Global matrix equation


h1A(T1
1 1 0 T1
kA


1 2 1 T2
0

L
0 1 1 T3 h3 A(T3

T1)

T3 )
25

EXAMPLE cont.
Move unknown nodal temperatures to LHS
kA
kA

h
A

1
L
L

2kA
kA

L
L

kA

h1AT1
T 1
kA

0
2

L

T
h
AT

3
3 3
kA
h3 A

The above matrix is P.D. because of additional positive terms


in diagonal
How much heat flow through convection boundary?
After solving for nodal temperature, use
q1(1) h1A(T1 T1 )

This is convection at the end of an element


26

EXAMPLE: FURNACE WALL


Firebrick
k1=1.2W/m/oC
hi=12W/m2/oC
Insulating brick
k2=0.2W/m/oC
ho=2.0W/m2/oC

0
16.8 4.8
4.8 6.47 1.67

0
1.67 3.67

Insulating
brick

Firebrick

Ta = 20 C

Tf = 1,500
C
hi

T1

T 2
T
3

{T } T {1,411 1,190 552} C Convection

No heat flow

boundary

Convection
boundary
20 C

2
q(2)

h
(T

T
)

1054
W/m
3
0
a
3

Tf

0.12 m

0.25 m

18,000

40

1,500 C

ho

T1
hi

T2
1

T3
2

ho

Ta
27

CONVECTION ALONG A ROD


Long rod is submerged into a fluid
Convection occurs across the entire surface
Governing differential equation
d
dT

kA

AQ

hP
T
T 0, 0 x L
g

dx
dx

P 2(b h)

Convection
Fluid T

b
qi(e)

xi

q(je)

Convection

xj
28

CONVECTION ALONG A ROD cont.


DE with approximate temperature

d
dT%

%
kA

AQg hP T T R(x)
dx
dx

Minimize the residual with interpolation function Ni(x)


d

dT%

%
x dx kA dx AQg hP(T T) Ni (x)dx 0

xj

Integration by parts
xj
xj
xj
xj
xj
dT%
dT%dNi
% dx AQ N (x)dx hPT N dx
kA
Ni (x) kA
dx hPTN
i
g i
i

dx
dx
dx
xi
xi
xi
xi
x
i

29

CONVECTION ALONG A ROD cont.


Substitute interpolation scheme and rearrange
xj

xj

dNj dNi
dNi
i i TN
j j )Ni dx
x kA Ti dx Tj dx dx dx x hP(TN
i
i
xj

(AQg hPT )Ni dx q(x j )Ni (x j ) q(x i )Ni (x i )


xi

Perform integration and simplify


Tj
kA
(e) Ti
T Tj hpL
Q(e)
q(e)
i
i
(e) i
L
3
6

xj

Q(e)

(AQ

hPT
)Ni (x)dx
i
g
xi

Repeat the same procedure with interpolation function Nj(x)


30

CONVECTION ALONG A ROD cont.


Finite element equation with convection along the rod
kA
(e)
L

1 1
hPL(e) 2 1
1 1 6 1 2

(e)
T i
Q(e)

q
i
i

(e)
(e)
T j
Q

q j
j

(e)
(e)
[k (e)

} {q(e) }
T ] [k h ] T {Q

Equivalent conductance matrix due to convection


k

(e)
h

hPL(e)

2 1
1 2

Thermal load vector


(e)
(e)
Q
AQ
L

hPL
T 1

i
g
(e)
{Q }

Q
2
1
j

31

EXAMPLE: HEAT FLOW IN A COOLING FIN


k = 0.2 W/mm/C, h = 2104 W/mm2/C
Element conductance matrix
2 1
0.2 200 1 1
2 10 4 320 40
[k ] [k ]

1 1
1 2
40
6

(e)
T

(e)
h

Thermal load vector


2 10 320 40 30
{Q }

(e)

Element 1

Convection
T = 30 C

160 mm

330 C

1.25 mm

Insulated

120 mm
T1

T2
1

T3
2

T4
3
32

EXAMPLE: HEAT FLOW IN A COOLING FIN cont.


Element conduction equation

q1(1)
1.8533 0.5733 T 1 38.4


0.5733 1.8533 T 38.4
(1)
q
2

Element 1
2
1.8533 0.5733 T2
Element 2 0.5733 1.8533 T3

q(2)

38.4

2

(2)
38.4

q3

1.8533 0.5733 T3
Element 3
T

0.5733
1.8533

q(3)

38.4

3
(3)
38.4

q4

Balance of heat flow


Node 1

q1(1) Q1

Node 2

(2)
q(1)
2 q2 0

Node 3

(2)
q(2)

q
3
3 0

Node 4

q(3)
4 hA(T T4 )

33

EXAMPLE: HEAT FLOW IN A COOLING FIN cont.


Assembly
0
0
1.853 .573
.573 3.706 .573
0

0
.573 3.706 .573

0
.573 1.853
0

T1
T
2

T3
T4

38.4 Q1

76.8

76.8

38.4 hA(T T4 )

Move T4 to LHS and apply known T1 = 330


0
0
1.853 .573
.573 3.706 .573
0

0
.573 3.706 .573

0
.573 1.893
0

330
T
2

T
3

T4

38.4 Q1

76.8

76.8

39.6

Move the first column to RHS after multiplying with T1=330


0
3.706 .573
.573 3.706 .573

0
.573 1.893

T2

T3
T
4

265.89

76.8

39.6

34

EXAMPLE: HEAT FLOW IN A COOLING FIN cont.


Solve for temperature
T1 330C, T2 77.57C, T3 37.72C, T4 32.34 C
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

40

80

120

35