Heat transfer

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Heat transfer

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 35

TRANSFER PROBLEMS

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Nam-Ho Kim

Analogy between Stress and Heat Conduction Analysis

Structural problem

Displacement

Temperature (scalar)

Stress/strain

Displacement B.C.

Body force

Youngs modulus

Thermal conductivity

interpretation is given.

Coupled structural-thermal problems (thermal strain).

Radiation problem

2

THERMAL PROBLEM

Goals:

[K T ]{T } {Q}

Thermal load

Nodal temperature

Conductivity matrix

Boundary Conditions

Essential BC: Specified temperature

Natural BC: Specified heat flux

Fourier Heat Conduction Equation:

Heat flow from high temperature to low temperature

dT

qx kA

dx

Thermal conductivity (W/m/C )

Heat flux (Watts)

Exampleshigh

of 1D heat conduction problems

Thigh

qx

Tlow

qx

Tlow

Conservation of Energy

Energy In + Energy Generated = Energy Out + Energy Increase

Two modes of heat transfer through the boundary

Prescribed surface heat flow Qs per unit area

Convective heat transfer Q h T T

h

h: convection coefficient (W/m2/C )

Qs

qx

Qg

A

qx +

dqx

Dx

dx

dx

5

Conservation of Energy at Steady State

No change in internal energy (U = 0)

dq

qx QsPx h T T Px Qg Ax qx x x

dx

1 4 4 4 44 2 4 4 4 4 43 1 2 3

1

44

2

4 43

Egen

E

in

Eout

dqx

Qg A hP T T QsP,

dx

0 x L

d

dT

kA

Qg A hP T T QsP 0,

dx

dx

0 x L

Rate of change of heat flux is equal to the sum of heat generated and

heat transferred

6

Boundary conditions

Temperature at the boundary is prescribed (essential BC)

Heat flux is prescribed (natural BC)

Example: essential BC at x = 0, and natural BC at x = L:

T(0) T0

dT

kA

qL

dx x L

DIRECT METHOD

Follow the same procedure with 1D bar element

No need to use differential equation

Qi: heat enters at node i (Watts)

Divide the solid into a number of elements

Each element has two nodes and two DOFs (Ti and Tj)

For each element, heat entering the element is positive

Q1

1

Q2

QN

Q3

i

qi(e)

xi

e

L(e)

Ti

j

Tj

q(je)

xj

8

ELEMENT EQUATION

Fourier law of heat conduction

(e)

i

Tj Ti

dT

kA

kA

dx

L(e)

(e)

i

(e)

j

(e)

j

kA

(Tj Ti )

L(e)

q(e)

kA

i

(e)

(e)

q

L

j

1 1

1 1

T i

T j

ASSEMBLY

Assembly using heat conservation at nodes

Remember that heat flow into the element is positive

Equilibrium of heat flow:

T1 Q1

T Q

Ni

Qi qi(e)

[K T ] 2 2

e 1

NN M

M

TN QN

Same assembly procedure with 1D bar elements

Applying BC

Striking-the-rows works, but not striking-the-columns because

Q2 usually zero

prescribed temperatures are not

1

Element 1

q2(1)

q2(2)

3

Element 2

10

EXAMPLE

Calculate nodal temperatures of four elements

A = 1m2, L = 1m, k = 10W/m/C

200 C

Q1

T1

T2

1

Q2 = 500W

T3

2

T4

3

Q3 = 0

Q4 = 200W

T5

4

Q5 = 0

q1(1)

1 1 T 1

10

(1)

1 1 T 2

q2

q(2)

1 1 T2

2

10

(2)

1 1 T3

q3

q(3)

1 1 T3

3

10

(3)

1 1 T4

q4

q(4)

1 1 T4

4

10

(4)

1 1 T5

q5

11

EXAMPLE cont.

Assembly

Q1

Q

2

Q 3

Q

4

Q5

q1(1)

(2)

q(1)

q

2

2

(2)

(3)

q3 q3 10

q( 4)

q(3)

4

4

( 4)

q5

1 1 0 0 0

1 2 1 0 0

0 1 2 1 0

0 0 1 2 1

0 0 0 1 1

T1

T

2

T3

T4

T5

1 1 0

1 2 1

10 0 1 2

0 0 1

0 0 0

0

0

1

2

1

0

0

1

1

200

T

2

T3

T

4

T5

Q 1

500

200

12

EXAMPLE cont.

Boundary conditions

Strike the first row

200

1 2 1 0 0

T2

0 1 2 1 0

10

T

0 0 1 2 1 3

T4

0 0 0 1 1

T5

500

0

200

Instead of striking the first column, multiply the first column with

o

T1 = 200

1 0move

0 to TRHS

500

2000

2

2 Cand

1 2 1 0 T

0

0

3

10

0 1 2 1 T4

200

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

T5

13

EXAMPLE cont.

Nodal temperatures

{T }T = { 200 230 210 190 190 } C

Use the deleted first row with known nodal temperatures

Q1 10T1 10T2 0T3 0T4 0T5 300 W

Other example

100W

3

4

2

1

50 C

200W

Q=0

Q=0

14

Direct method is limited for nodal heat input

Need more advanced method for heat generation and

convection heat transfer

Galerkin method in Chapter 3 can be used for this purpose

Consider element (e)

j

i

(e)

e

(e)

q

q

i

Interpolation

j

L(e)

xi

% TN (x) TN (x)

T(x)

i i

j j

x x

L

% N {T } N (x) N (x)

T(x)

j

i

Heat flux

dT%

1

(e)

dx L

x xi

L(e)

T i

T j

1

{T } B {T }

L(e)

Ti

Tj

xj

15

Differential equation with heat generation

d

dT

kA

Qg A 0,

dx

dx

0 x L

d

dT%

kA

AQg R(x)

dx

dx

Residual

d

dT%

x dx kA dx AQg Ni (x)dx 0

xj

Integrate by parts

xj

xj

xj

%

dT

dT%dNi

kA

Ni (x) kA

dx AQ gNi (x)dx

dx

dx dx

xi

xi

x

i

16

Substitute interpolation relation

xj

xj

dNj dNi

dNi

kA

T

T

x i dx j dx dx dx x AQgNi (x)dx q(x j )Ni (x j ) q(xi )Ni (x i )

i

i

Perform integration

kA

(e)

(e)

T

i

j

i

i

L(e)

xj

Q(e)

AQgNi (x)dx

i

xi

xj

kA

(e)

(e)

T

j

i

j

j

L(e)

Q(e)

AQgNj (x)dx

j

xi

17

Combine the two equations

kA

L(e)

(e)

Q(e)

q

1 1 T i

i

i

1 1 T Q(e) q(e)

j

j

j

(e)

(e)

[k (e)

]{

T

}

{

Q

}

{

q

}

T

{q(e)}: vector of nodal heat flows across the cross-section

xj

(e)

N

(x)

AQ

L

i

g

{Q (e) } AQg

dx

2

xi

Nj (x)

flux is constant

18

EXAMPLE

Heat chamber

Wall temperature = 200 C

Uniform heat source inside

the wall Q = 400 W/m3.

Thermal conductivity of the

wall is k = 25 W/mC.

Use four elements through

the thickness (unit area)

Boundary Condition:

T1 = 200, qx=1 = 0.

Insulated

No heat flow

Wall

200 C

x

1m

19

EXAMPLE cont.

Element Matrix Equation

All elements are identical

1 1 T 1

100

T

1

1

Assembly

Q 1

q1(1)

(1)

Q

(2)

q

q

2 2 2

(2)

(3)

Q3 q3 q3 100

Q q(3) q( 4)

4

4

4

( 4)

q5

Q5

q1(1)

50

(1)

q

50

2

1

1

0

0

0

1

2

1

0

0

0

1

2

1

0

0

0

1

2

1

0

0

T1

T

2

T

3

T

4

T5

50

100

100

100

50

20

EXAMPLE cont.

Boundary Conditions

At node 1, the temperature is given (T1 = 200). Thus, the heat flux at

node 1 (Q1) should be unknown.

At node 5, the insulation condition required that the heat flux (Q5)

should be zero. Thus, the temperature at node 5 should be unknown.

At nodes 2 4, the temperature is unknown (T2, T3, T4). Thus the heat

flux should be known.

1

2

4

5

3

Q

Q1

1

1

100 0

0

0

1 0

0

2 1 0 0

1 2 1 0

0 1 2 1

0 0 1 1

0

200

T

2

T3

T

4

T5

50 Q1

100

100

100

50

21

EXAMPLE cont.

Imposing Boundary Conditions

Remove first row because it contains unknown Q1.

Cannot remove first column because T1 is not zero.

200

1 2 1 0 0

100

T

0 1 2 1 0 2 100

T3

100

0 0 1 2 1

100

4

0 0 0 1 1

50

T5

100( 1 200 2 T2 1 T3 ) 100

100(2 T2 1 T3 ) 100 20000

20000

2 1 0 0 2 100

20100

to the

1right.

0

100

2 1 0 T3 100

100

0 1 2 1 T4 100

0

100

0

50

0

0

1

1

T5 50

22

EXAMPLE cont.

Solution

T1 200 C, T2 203.5 C, T3 206 C, T4 207.5 C, T5 208 C

Discussion

In order to maintain 200 degree at node 1, we need to remove heat

Q1 400 W

23

CONVECTION BC

Convection Boundary Condition

Happens when a structure is surrounded by fluid

qh

Does not exist in structural problems

BC includes unknown temperature (mixed BC) T

Wall

T

qh hS(T T)

Fluid Temperature

Convection Coefficient

Heat flow is not prescribed. Rather, it is a function of temperature on

the boundary, which is unknown

1D Finite Element

When both Nodes 1 and 2 are convection boundary

q1 hAT1 hAT1

T

1

q2 hAT2 hAT2

T1

T2

T2

24

Element

equation

kA 1 1

L 1 1

T1

T1

h1

q1(1)

T 1

(1)

T2

q2

T2

1

kA 1 1

L 1 1

T3

2

h3

T 3

q(2)

T2

2

(2)

T3

q3

Node 1: q1(1) h1A(T1 T1 )

(2)

Node 2: q(1)

q

2

2 0

Node 3: q(2)

h

A(T

3

3

3 T3 )

h1A(T1

1 1 0 T1

kA

1 2 1 T2

0

L

0 1 1 T3 h3 A(T3

T1)

T3 )

25

EXAMPLE cont.

Move unknown nodal temperatures to LHS

kA

kA

h

A

1

L

L

2kA

kA

L

L

kA

h1AT1

T 1

kA

0

2

L

T

h

AT

3

3 3

kA

h3 A

in diagonal

How much heat flow through convection boundary?

After solving for nodal temperature, use

q1(1) h1A(T1 T1 )

26

Firebrick

k1=1.2W/m/oC

hi=12W/m2/oC

Insulating brick

k2=0.2W/m/oC

ho=2.0W/m2/oC

0

16.8 4.8

4.8 6.47 1.67

0

1.67 3.67

Insulating

brick

Firebrick

Ta = 20 C

Tf = 1,500

C

hi

T1

T 2

T

3

No heat flow

boundary

Convection

boundary

20 C

2

q(2)

h

(T

T

)

1054

W/m

3

0

a

3

Tf

0.12 m

0.25 m

18,000

40

1,500 C

ho

T1

hi

T2

1

T3

2

ho

Ta

27

Long rod is submerged into a fluid

Convection occurs across the entire surface

Governing differential equation

d

dT

kA

AQ

hP

T

T 0, 0 x L

g

dx

dx

P 2(b h)

Convection

Fluid T

b

qi(e)

xi

q(je)

Convection

xj

28

DE with approximate temperature

d

dT%

%

kA

AQg hP T T R(x)

dx

dx

d

dT%

%

x dx kA dx AQg hP(T T) Ni (x)dx 0

xj

Integration by parts

xj

xj

xj

xj

xj

dT%

dT%dNi

% dx AQ N (x)dx hPT N dx

kA

Ni (x) kA

dx hPTN

i

g i

i

dx

dx

dx

xi

xi

xi

xi

x

i

29

Substitute interpolation scheme and rearrange

xj

xj

dNj dNi

dNi

i i TN

j j )Ni dx

x kA Ti dx Tj dx dx dx x hP(TN

i

i

xj

xi

Tj

kA

(e) Ti

T Tj hpL

Q(e)

q(e)

i

i

(e) i

L

3

6

xj

Q(e)

(AQ

hPT

)Ni (x)dx

i

g

xi

30

Finite element equation with convection along the rod

kA

(e)

L

1 1

hPL(e) 2 1

1 1 6 1 2

(e)

T i

Q(e)

q

i

i

(e)

(e)

T j

Q

q j

j

(e)

(e)

[k (e)

} {q(e) }

T ] [k h ] T {Q

k

(e)

h

hPL(e)

2 1

1 2

(e)

(e)

Q

AQ

L

hPL

T 1

i

g

(e)

{Q }

Q

2

1

j

31

k = 0.2 W/mm/C, h = 2104 W/mm2/C

Element conductance matrix

2 1

0.2 200 1 1

2 10 4 320 40

[k ] [k ]

1 1

1 2

40

6

(e)

T

(e)

h

2 10 320 40 30

{Q }

(e)

Element 1

Convection

T = 30 C

160 mm

330 C

1.25 mm

Insulated

120 mm

T1

T2

1

T3

2

T4

3

32

Element conduction equation

q1(1)

1.8533 0.5733 T 1 38.4

0.5733 1.8533 T 38.4

(1)

q

2

Element 1

2

1.8533 0.5733 T2

Element 2 0.5733 1.8533 T3

q(2)

38.4

2

(2)

38.4

q3

1.8533 0.5733 T3

Element 3

T

0.5733

1.8533

q(3)

38.4

3

(3)

38.4

q4

Node 1

q1(1) Q1

Node 2

(2)

q(1)

2 q2 0

Node 3

(2)

q(2)

q

3

3 0

Node 4

q(3)

4 hA(T T4 )

33

Assembly

0

0

1.853 .573

.573 3.706 .573

0

0

.573 3.706 .573

0

.573 1.853

0

T1

T

2

T3

T4

38.4 Q1

76.8

76.8

38.4 hA(T T4 )

0

0

1.853 .573

.573 3.706 .573

0

0

.573 3.706 .573

0

.573 1.893

0

330

T

2

T

3

T4

38.4 Q1

76.8

76.8

39.6

0

3.706 .573

.573 3.706 .573

0

.573 1.893

T2

T3

T

4

265.89

76.8

39.6

34

Solve for temperature

T1 330C, T2 77.57C, T3 37.72C, T4 32.34 C

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

0

40

80

120

35

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