JOYCE TRAVELBEE S THEORY ON HUMAN TO HUMAN RELATIONSHIP MODEL

PREPARED BY: HARVEY ALLAN G. DEL ROSARIO, R.N.

INTRODUCTION
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A nurse does not only seek to alleviate physical pain or render physical care- she ministers to the whole person. The existence of suffering, whether physical, mental or spiritual is the proper concern of the nurse. TRAVELBEE (1926-1973)

JOYCE TRAVELBEE 
worked as an assistant professor in the Department of Nursing, Louisiana state University, New Orleans became an instructor in psychiatric and mental health nursing in the Department of Nursing Education at New York University a professor at the University of Mississippi School of Nursing in Jackson finally at Hotel Dieu School of Nursing in New Orleans received her diploma in nursing from Charity Hospital, New Orleans graduated at Yale with a master of science in Nursing She died at a relatively young age in 1973 at age 47 while beginning doctoral study 

Interpersonal Aspects of Nursing in 1966 and 1971 (BOOK) Her work is also influenced by the philosophy of existentialism She acknowledged Ida Orlando s influence on her work and extended interpersonal relationship theory of Peplau Travelbee believed nursing is accomplished through human-to-human relationships that begins with: the original encounter emerging identities developing feelings of empathy later feelings of sympathy The nurse and patient attain a rapport in the final stage

FOUR MAJOR CONCEPTS

NURSING
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An interpersonal process whereby the professional nurse practitioner assist the individual or family to prevent or cope with the experience of illness and suffering and if necessary to assist the individual or family to find meaning in these experiences

HEALTH
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Health includes the individual s perceptions of health and the absence of disease

ENVIRONMENT
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Not Defined

HUMAN BEING
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A unique, irreplaceable individual who is in a continuous process of becoming, evolving, and changing.

Paradigmatic Origins (Conceptual framework)

‡Travelbee based her theoretical formulations on existentialist philosophy ‡she used the concepts of stages of development of the nurse-patient relationship, stages of suffering., tasks to be mastered, constant change and development and the becoming nature ‡Nurse and patient undergo several stages to achieve the goal of nurse-patient relationships PHASE OF ORIGINAL ENCOUNTER PHASE OF EMERGING IDENTITIES PHASE OF EMPATHY PHASE OF SYMPATHY PHASE OF RAPPORT

Application of the Nursing Process

Nursing Process Assessment Data collection and analysis

Human-to-human Relationship theory Phase of the original encounter:

Emotional knowledge colors impressions and perceptions of both nurse and the patient during initial encounters. Nursing diagnosis Phase of emerging identifies: Summary statement based on nurse both the nurse and patient begin to transcend their analysis with possible patient respective roles and perceive uniqueness in other involvement Outcome and Planning Phase of empathy: Mutually set outcome and goals this phase involves sharing another s psychological state but standing apart and not sharing feeling Implementation Phase of sympathy: Plans initiated the move toward sharing feeling and experiencing what others are achievement of mutually set goals feeling and experiencing is accomplished May accomplished by patient, health care professional or patient s family Evaluation Phase of rapport: Based on mutually established all previous phase culminate in the rapport defined as expected behaviors those experiences, thoughts and attitudes that both May lead termination of relationship nurse and patient undergo and are able to perceive, or initiation of new plans share and communicate

CLARITY
Travelbee s theory is clear because it only focuses on the relationship between the nurse and the patient

SIMPLICITY
The theory is simple to understand. the nurse and the patient needs to satisfy the stages in order for them to reach the goal. (establishing rapport)

GENERALITY
The theory according to Travelbee is specially designed for psychiatric patients. However it could also be used for different patients in the hospital setting.

EMPIRICAL PRECISIONS
Travelbee does not appear to develop her propositions using findings of research

CONSEQUENCES
The theory has the potential for use in practice within the limitations of the scope ‡only to individual patients who are ill and suffering ‡who are conscious ‡who are willing to invest in the development of rapport ‡who participate in finding meaning in and making decisions about care

CASE SCENERIO

PHASE OF ORIGINAL ENCOUNTER
A patient was admitted to the hospital due to depression. A Nurse was assigned to take care of the patient. Upon reading the chart and the history of the patient, the Nurse visited the patient, for the first time the nurse saw the patient, vice versa. The Nurse greeted the patient with enthusiasm but the patient was staring blank at the Nurse with no sense of wanting to live anymore, this is according to the Nurse s Assessment of the patient.

PHASE OF EMERGING IDENTITIES
Upon doing the assessment, the Nurse identified that the patient is within the probability of having suicide. So the nurse formulated a Nursing Care Plan (NCP) regarding suicide precautions for the patient. Made an agreement for a Nonsuicidal contract

PHASE OF EMPATHY
After such time that the Nurse interacted with the patient, the patient finally shared something to the nurse. The Nurse kept silent and listened to the patient attentively. The Nurse showed his concern to the patient by staying with the patient and listened to his concern

PHASE OF SYMPATHY
The patient is scheduled to have an ECT. The Nurse knowing that it will be a painful procedure to the patient, made a Nursing Care Plan regarding the care for post-ECT patients. The Nurse remembered his brother who was also a depressed patient who undergone ECT last 2years ago. The Nurse felt sympathy for the patient that he didn t leave the patient till he recovers from the ECT procedure

PHASE OF RAPPORT
The Nurse and the patient developed a special bonding that the patient quickly recovered from his state of depression

THEORY DERIVATION

SON

FATHER

The Diagram shows a young man trying to be the perfect son for his father. His father is a wealthy man that owns a multibillion company that he will manage soon. All his life, his father was stern to him that led to proving himself all the time. One day his father accidentally read his diary knowing all the emotions that was inside of him all those years but didn t finish reading it because he arrived. (Phase of the Original Encounter), that s when the father realized that all those years he d been hard to his son and didn t really know him at all, He decided to get to know his son on a father-son relationship and vice versa. (Phase of Emerging Identities), that s the time when the son verbalized his feeling through those struggling years to make his father proud of him, how frustrated he was to be the perfect son for him, the father kept silent and listened to his son attentively with the act of care and compassion. (Phase of Empathy), when they arrived home the father felt guilty and ashamed of himself for mistreating his son like that and sympathized for him. He then promised to himself that he will change the way he treat his son. (Phase of Sympathy), from that day onwards the Father and The Son solidify their bonding and making his son more active in their multibillion company and when the time comes that the father retires, his son will be able to manage the company with efficiency and precision with the help of his loving father beside him. (Phase of Rapport)

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