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MOTIVATION &

THEORIES

Motivation
Motivation is the characteristic that

helps you to achieve your goal. It is the


drive that pushes you to work hard .It is
the energy that gives you the strength to
get up and keep going - even when
things are not going your way.

Theories of Motivation
Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Maslow s theory
of Motivation
Hierarchy of Needs

Maslows Theory
We each have a hierarchy of needs that

ranges from "lower" to "higher." As lower


needs are fulfilled there is a tendency for
other, higher needs to emerge.
Maslows theory maintains that a person

does not feel a higher need until the


needs of the current level have been
satisfied.

Maslow's hierarchy
pyramid

Self Actualization

Applying Maslow's Needs


Hierarchy - Business Management

Physiological Motivation: Provide ample

breaks for lunch , paysalaries that allow workers


tobuy life's essentials.
Safety Needs: Provide a working environment

which is safe, relative job security, and freedom


from threats.
Social Needs:Generate a feeling of acceptance,

belonging by reinforcing team dynamics.

Esteem Motivators: Recognize

achievements, assign important projects, and


provide status to make employees feel valued
and appreciated.
Self-Actualization:Offer challenging and

meaningful work assignments which enable


innovation, creativity, and progress according
to long-term goals.

Limitations and criticism


Maslows hierarchy makes sense but little

evidence supports its strict hierarchy.


Research has challenged the order imposed
by Maslows pyramid. As an example, in some
cultures, social needs are regarded higher
than any others.
Little evidence suggests that people satisfy

exclusively one motivating need at a time.

Herzberg's MotivationHygiene Theory

Two Factor Theory

motivation-hygiene
theory
Frederick Herzberg performed studies to

determine which factors in an employee's


work environment caused satisfaction or
dissatisfaction. He published his findings in
the 1959 book The Motivation to Work.
It states that there are certain factors in the

workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a


separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction.

motivation-hygiene
theory
Satisfiers :motivators

Motivati
ng
factors

Hygiene
factors

Applying Two factor Theory


in Business management

According to Herzberg: The job should have sufficient

challenge to utilize the full ability of the employee.


Employees who demonstrate increasing levels of

ability should be given increasing levels of


responsibility.
If a job cannot be designed to use an employee's full

abilities, then the firm should consider automating the


task or replacing the employee with one who has a
lower level of skill. If a person cannot be fully utilized,
then there will be a motivation problem

Limitation and criticism


Critics consider Herzberg's two factor theory

to be simplistic - what motivates one may be


a dissatisfying for someone else
Its for individuals, not as a homogeneous

group with one set of wants and needs


Some factors may be within your control,

some may not

ERG THEORY OF MOTIVATION

Clayton Alderfer developed this theory taking into account

the shortcomings of Maslows need Hierarchical Theory.


The major short coming of Maslows theory was that in

reality people do not necessarily fulfill their needs in a


hierarchical manner.

EXISTENCE NEEDS
This group of needs is concerned with

providing the basic requirements for material


existence, such as physiological and safety
needs.
In a work context this need is satisfied by
money earned in a job for the purchase of
food, shelter, clothing, etc.

RELATEDNESS NEEDS
This group of needs focuses on the desire to

establish and maintain interpersonal


relationships with family, friends, co-workers
and employers.
Interact with other people, receive public
recognition, and feel secure around people.
The amount of time most people spend at
work. this need is normally satisfied to some
extent by their relationships with colleagues
and managers.

GROWTH NEEDS

These needs are about the fulfillment of

desires to be creative, productive and to


complete meaningful tasks.
These needs are all about by personal
development. In a work context a person's
job, career, or profession can provide a
significant satisfaction of growth needs.

McClellands
theory of
Motivation

Introduction
David McClelland introduced this theory

during 1960s.
It is based on Maslows hierarchy of need.
According to him individual posses three

needs which are not innate they are


learned through culture, age and
experiences.

These are the main three


needs
The Need for Achievement
The Need for Affiliation
The Need for Power

These are the Motivators which are present in


varying degrees.

Need Of Achievement
It is the desire to do better solve
problems or master complex problems

The individuals who posses this need have


following characteristics :
They are Challenging
They like working Alone or with other

Achievers
They are self motivated
They like feedback to assess their progress
These individuals will perform better if money
is linked with their achievements.

Need for Affiliation


Desire for friendly and warm relationship with
others

Individual having this need have following


characteristics.
They are concerned in being liked and

being accepted
They Form Informal Relationships
They are very cooperative
These people perform better in Team.

Need of Power
It is the desire to control other and influence their
behavior

People with this need have following


characteristics.
They Like to control others
They are argumentative
They have ability to influence people
These people are suitable for leadership

roles.

Thank you... For


your motivation