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Skin Care Products

Parth Dev Jugnalia


History of Skin Care

Ancient Egyptians (6000 years ago) used natural ingredients the

like olive oil, henna, ostrich eggs, dough, milk and essential oils
from plants and herbs to create natural skin care products

Cleopatra well-known for her beauty had her own anti-aging

methods and skin care regimen, which included bath in sour milk.

In Ancient Greece, the athletes would bath in olive oil and dust
their bodies in fine sand, to regulate body temperatures, making
the skin more resistant to heat, the sun rays, which prevented
from sunburns and slowed aging.

Ancient Greece exported cosmetics andskin careproducts to the

Mediterranean. Cosmetics were produced by female slaves called
Cosmetae in ancient Rome.

Ayurvedic skin care has been practiced since 5000 years. This
approach to skin care is holistic and considers the mind, body,
and spirit together. Ayurvedic skin careproducts often contain
the following herbs - aloe vera, almond, groundnut and walnut
shell, witch hazel, avocado, carrot etc.

The popularity of makeup and cosmetics fluctuated throughout

the medieval period up until the early 20thcentury, when their
popularity boomed due to their use in Hollywood and the theatre.

It was during this time that companies saw the potential for
mass-market cosmetics and the industry developed. Cheap,
mass-produced cosmetics were soon favoured overnatural skin
careand cosmetics made with synthetic chemicals became the

The Skin Care Regimen

To repair, nourish, revitalize the skin such a regimen is utilized.

Consists of 3 main parts:

Cleaners: Cleans the dust, dirt. Removes sweat, sebum, makeup

and Microorganisms.

Toners: Removes residual dirt traces. Makes the skin pore

tightened and leaves the skin feeling fresh and lively.

Moisturizers: Helps maintain the moisture levels in the skin

(horny layer) and forms a base for the make up to be applied


Cleansing Bars

Soaps were initially used. Offers good detergency but

creates highly alkaline conditions. Such conditions
may irritate the skin and cause dryness and scaling of

Subsequently market and consumers shifted to skin

friendlier that incorporated synthetic detergents. One
such product is the Syndet bar.

Properties: operates at near neutral pH. Provides rich

lather. Can work in hard water as well. Though are a
little costlier than normal soaps.

Additives like anti-wrinkle agent, hydrating

agent/moisturizing agents like propylene glycol,
glycerol too are added to the bar base.

Facial Wash

Characteristics: Thorough Cleansing. Mild to skin.

Contains a mixture of surfactants which work
synergistically, a refatting agent, thickener,
perfume, colouring dyes and water.
Utilizes anionic/amphoteric systems.
Amphoterics like: alkyl betaines, amido
alkylbetaines, sulfobetaines
Anionic like: fatty alcohol ether sulfates, fatty
acid carboxylates, sarcosinates, isethionates.

Cleansing Gels

Clear, coloured gel systems are becoming very popular.

The surfactant can be thickened with sodium chloride. Other

viscosity modifiers include cellulose derivatives, polyethylene
glycol (PEG) esters, xanthan gum and carbopol resins.

Humectants that can be used include glycerol, propylene glycol,

ethoxylated sorbitol and hydrolysed proteins. Silicone derivatives
too can be used.

Natural oils and extracts are easy to incorporate as skin

conditioners with the aid of nonionic emulsifiers.

Cleansing Creams and Milks

Cleansing Cream


w/o or o/w emulsions.

Are o/w emulsions

Contains Waxes, Mineral Oil and

petroleum Jelly; Triethanol
amine(Self emulsifying),
Carbomer 934 (Viscosity),
parabens, water.

Low viscosity alternatives to

creams applied using cottonwool.

Water soluble thickening

polymers and clay minerals are
used to increase stability of
emulsion and improve texture.

Application to the skin results in

a cooling effect which is
produced from slow evaporation
of the water contained in the

Reduction in oil phase produces


Cleansing Cream

Cleansing Milk


w/w %

Mineral Oil


Bees Wax










Upto 100

Method of Production:
1. Heat the mix of Blue components(A) to 75C.
2. Heat the water to 75C and dissolve Yellow components(B) in it.
3. Add Yellow components(B) to Blue(A) at 75C while constant
4. Cool to room temperature and add perfume.


Basic skin toners will contain the astringent material, water,

moisturizer and preservative.

The active component of these products also exhibit the

following properties to varying degrees: sensation of skin
tightening, erection of hairs, temporary reduction of pore size,
antiperspirancy, rapid coagulation of blood from a fresh wound and
skin healing.

Used for both dry and normal skin. Alcohol-free toners preferred
since alcohol can leave the skin feeling dry. Menthol often used
instead to provide cooling sensation.

Multitude of moisturizers have become available for these systems

such as sodium hyaluronate, silicone derivatives such as
dimethicone copolyol, panthenol and water-soluble vitamin E

Toning solutions can be thickened to form using carbomers,

cellulose derivatives forming gels like toners.


Moisturizing creams, gels and lotions applied for the relief of the
signs and symptoms of dry skin, leaving it soft and smooth. The
skin scales become more transparent and therefore less visible.

Broadly of 3 types:

Emollient: Form thin film of occlusive materials such as an oil or

waxes making the skin feel soft, smooth and reducing
transepidermal water loss (TEWL).

Humectants: Hygroscopic materials draw water to the outer

skin(horny layer) and holds it there. This water would come from
the water in the finished formulation and the lower epidermal
layers rather than the external environment.

Hydrophilic Matrices: Large molecular weight substances that

create film over skin retarding water evaporation. Earliest
utilized substance was oatmeal. Modern day ones form a
peptide like film which also function as humectant.

The basic components of a moisturizing product include

moisturizer(s), emulsifier system, water, preservative and
antioxidants if necessary.

Many of the basic raw materials for moisturizers originate from

the petroleum industry. Cost, bulk availability, and reproducible
quality were influential in their introduction.

List of some
commonly used
moisturizing agent

Day moisturizing products tend to be light, oil-in-water emulsions

which are designed to spread easily and rub into the skin quickly.


Stearic Acid




Potassium Hydroxide





Upto 100



Neutralization of the fatty acid

with a base such as
triethanolamine or potassium
hydroxide produces an emulsifier

Method of Production: Heat Yellow

phase and Blue phase separately
at 75C. Then add Yellow phase to
Blue phase with constant stirring.
Cool to 35C and add Pink.

Night moisturizing products are supposed to be left on the skin

overnight serve to provide nutrients to the skin which may have been
lost during the day.

Hand and Body Lotions: similar in formulation to the day


Manufacturing: Heat (A) and (B) independently to 75C. Now add (B)
to (A) slowly with continuous stirring. Cool to 35C, add perfume.


UV rays divided into regions: far-UV radiation (100-200nm),

UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm).

When UV light penetrates skin, it can interact with biological molecules,

up its energy and cause transient and/or permanent changes in those
biological molecules which translate into skin damage.

The level of protection from sunburn afforded by a sun product is

described by the sun protection factor (SPF).

Some sunscreen agents are: Organics like p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA)

and its derivatives, Cinnamates, Dibenzoylmethanes; Inorganic
compounds which have radiation scattering and reflective properties like
talc, mica, kaolin and metal oxides.

Important requisite of any sunscreen product is that it should withstand

water, either in the form of sweat, or from the sea or a swimming pool.
This can be achieved by using w/o emulsion type formulations or
ingredients like silicone oils, polyvinylpyrrolidones

The best cosmetics in Life:

Truth - for lips
Pity - for eyes
Charity - for hands
Smile - for face and
Love - for heart