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Skin Care Products

Parth Dev Jugnalia


13OIL1001

History of Skin Care

Ancient Egyptians (6000 years ago) used natural ingredients the


like olive oil, henna, ostrich eggs, dough, milk and essential oils
from plants and herbs to create natural skin care products

Cleopatra well-known for her beauty had her own anti-aging


methods and skin care regimen, which included bath in sour milk.

In Ancient Greece, the athletes would bath in olive oil and dust
their bodies in fine sand, to regulate body temperatures, making
the skin more resistant to heat, the sun rays, which prevented
from sunburns and slowed aging.

Ancient Greece exported cosmetics andskin careproducts to the


Mediterranean. Cosmetics were produced by female slaves called
Cosmetae in ancient Rome.

Ayurvedic skin care has been practiced since 5000 years. This
approach to skin care is holistic and considers the mind, body,
and spirit together. Ayurvedic skin careproducts often contain
the following herbs - aloe vera, almond, groundnut and walnut
shell, witch hazel, avocado, carrot etc.

The popularity of makeup and cosmetics fluctuated throughout


the medieval period up until the early 20thcentury, when their
popularity boomed due to their use in Hollywood and the theatre.

It was during this time that companies saw the potential for
mass-market cosmetics and the industry developed. Cheap,
mass-produced cosmetics were soon favoured overnatural skin
careand cosmetics made with synthetic chemicals became the
norm.

The Skin Care Regimen

To repair, nourish, revitalize the skin such a regimen is utilized.


Consists of 3 main parts:

Cleaners: Cleans the dust, dirt. Removes sweat, sebum, makeup


and Microorganisms.

Toners: Removes residual dirt traces. Makes the skin pore


tightened and leaves the skin feeling fresh and lively.

Moisturizers: Helps maintain the moisture levels in the skin


(horny layer) and forms a base for the make up to be applied
upon.

Cleaner
s

Cleansing Bars

Soaps were initially used. Offers good detergency but


creates highly alkaline conditions. Such conditions
may irritate the skin and cause dryness and scaling of
skin.

Subsequently market and consumers shifted to skin


friendlier that incorporated synthetic detergents. One
such product is the Syndet bar.

Properties: operates at near neutral pH. Provides rich


lather. Can work in hard water as well. Though are a
little costlier than normal soaps.

Additives like anti-wrinkle agent, hydrating


agent/moisturizing agents like propylene glycol,
glycerol too are added to the bar base.

Facial Wash

Characteristics: Thorough Cleansing. Mild to skin.


Contains a mixture of surfactants which work
synergistically, a refatting agent, thickener,
perfume, colouring dyes and water.
Utilizes anionic/amphoteric systems.
Amphoterics like: alkyl betaines, amido
alkylbetaines, sulfobetaines
Anionic like: fatty alcohol ether sulfates, fatty
acid carboxylates, sarcosinates, isethionates.

Cleansing Gels

Clear, coloured gel systems are becoming very popular.

The surfactant can be thickened with sodium chloride. Other


viscosity modifiers include cellulose derivatives, polyethylene
glycol (PEG) esters, xanthan gum and carbopol resins.

Humectants that can be used include glycerol, propylene glycol,


ethoxylated sorbitol and hydrolysed proteins. Silicone derivatives
too can be used.

Natural oils and extracts are easy to incorporate as skin


conditioners with the aid of nonionic emulsifiers.

Cleansing Creams and Milks

Cleansing Cream

Milks

w/o or o/w emulsions.

Are o/w emulsions

Contains Waxes, Mineral Oil and


petroleum Jelly; Triethanol
amine(Self emulsifying),
Carbomer 934 (Viscosity),
parabens, water.

Low viscosity alternatives to


creams applied using cottonwool.

Water soluble thickening


polymers and clay minerals are
used to increase stability of
emulsion and improve texture.

Application to the skin results in


a cooling effect which is
produced from slow evaporation
of the water contained in the
emulsion.

Reduction in oil phase produces


lotion.

Cleansing Cream

Cleansing Milk

INGREDIENTS

w/w %

Mineral Oil

40.0

Bees Wax

15.0

Perolatum

5.0

IPM

5.0

Triethanolamine

Preservatives

q.s.

Water

Upto 100

Method of Production:
1. Heat the mix of Blue components(A) to 75C.
2. Heat the water to 75C and dissolve Yellow components(B) in it.
3. Add Yellow components(B) to Blue(A) at 75C while constant
stirring.
4. Cool to room temperature and add perfume.

Toner
s

Basic skin toners will contain the astringent material, water,


moisturizer and preservative.

The active component of these products also exhibit the


following properties to varying degrees: sensation of skin
tightening, erection of hairs, temporary reduction of pore size,
antiperspirancy, rapid coagulation of blood from a fresh wound and
skin healing.

Used for both dry and normal skin. Alcohol-free toners preferred
since alcohol can leave the skin feeling dry. Menthol often used
instead to provide cooling sensation.

Multitude of moisturizers have become available for these systems


such as sodium hyaluronate, silicone derivatives such as
dimethicone copolyol, panthenol and water-soluble vitamin E
derivatives.

Toning solutions can be thickened to form using carbomers,


cellulose derivatives forming gels like toners.

Moisturize
rs

Moisturizing creams, gels and lotions applied for the relief of the
signs and symptoms of dry skin, leaving it soft and smooth. The
skin scales become more transparent and therefore less visible.

Broadly of 3 types:

Emollient: Form thin film of occlusive materials such as an oil or


waxes making the skin feel soft, smooth and reducing
transepidermal water loss (TEWL).

Humectants: Hygroscopic materials draw water to the outer


skin(horny layer) and holds it there. This water would come from
the water in the finished formulation and the lower epidermal
layers rather than the external environment.

Hydrophilic Matrices: Large molecular weight substances that


create film over skin retarding water evaporation. Earliest
utilized substance was oatmeal. Modern day ones form a
peptide like film which also function as humectant.

The basic components of a moisturizing product include


moisturizer(s), emulsifier system, water, preservative and
antioxidants if necessary.

Many of the basic raw materials for moisturizers originate from


the petroleum industry. Cost, bulk availability, and reproducible
quality were influential in their introduction.

List of some
commonly used
moisturizing agent

Day moisturizing products tend to be light, oil-in-water emulsions


which are designed to spread easily and rub into the skin quickly.
Component

w/w%

Stearic Acid

20.0

Glycerol

4.0

Potassium Hydroxide

1.4

Preservative

q.s

Water

Upto 100

Perfume

q.s

Neutralization of the fatty acid


with a base such as
triethanolamine or potassium
hydroxide produces an emulsifier
system.

Method of Production: Heat Yellow


phase and Blue phase separately
at 75C. Then add Yellow phase to
Blue phase with constant stirring.
Cool to 35C and add Pink.

Night moisturizing products are supposed to be left on the skin


overnight serve to provide nutrients to the skin which may have been
lost during the day.

Hand and Body Lotions: similar in formulation to the day


moisturizers.

Manufacturing: Heat (A) and (B) independently to 75C. Now add (B)
to (A) slowly with continuous stirring. Cool to 35C, add perfume.

Sunscreen
Preparations

UV rays divided into regions: far-UV radiation (100-200nm),


UVC (200-280 nm), UVB (280-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm).

When UV light penetrates skin, it can interact with biological molecules,


give
up its energy and cause transient and/or permanent changes in those
biological molecules which translate into skin damage.

The level of protection from sunburn afforded by a sun product is


described by the sun protection factor (SPF).

Some sunscreen agents are: Organics like p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA)


and its derivatives, Cinnamates, Dibenzoylmethanes; Inorganic
compounds which have radiation scattering and reflective properties like
talc, mica, kaolin and metal oxides.

Important requisite of any sunscreen product is that it should withstand


water, either in the form of sweat, or from the sea or a swimming pool.
This can be achieved by using w/o emulsion type formulations or
ingredients like silicone oils, polyvinylpyrrolidones

The best cosmetics in Life:


Truth - for lips
Pity - for eyes
Charity - for hands
Smile - for face and
Love - for heart