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Chapter 8: Mechanical Failure & Failure

Analysis
ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
How do flaws in a material initiate failure?
How is fracture resistance quantified; how do different
material classes compare?
How do we estimate the stress to fracture?
How do loading rate, loading history, and temperature
affect the failure stress?

Ship-cyclic loading
from waves.
Adapted from chapter-opening
photograph, Chapter 8, Callister 7e. (by
Neil Boenzi, The New York Times.)

Computer chip-cyclic
thermal loading.
Adapted from Fig. 22.30(b), Callister 7e.
(Fig. 22.30(b) is courtesy of National
Semiconductor Corporation.)

Hip implant-cyclic
loading from walking.
Adapted from Fig. 22.26(b),
Callister 7e.

Fracture mechanisms
Ductile fracture
Occurs with plastic deformation

Brittle fracture
Occurs with Little or no plastic
deformation
Thus it is Catastrophic meaning it
occurs without warning!

Ductile vs Brittle Failure


Fracture
behavior:

Very
Ductile

Moderately
Ductile

Brittle

Large

Moderate

Small

Ductile fracture is
nearly always
desirable!

%El

Ductile:
warning before
fracture

Brittle:
No
warning

Example: Failure of a Pipe


Ductile failure:
--one piece
--large deformation

Brittle failure:
--many pieces
--small deformation

Moderately Ductile Failure


Evolution to failure:
necking

Resulting
fracture
surfaces

void
nucleation

void growth
and linkage

fracture

50
50mm
mm

(steel)
Inclusion
particles
serve as void
nucleation
sites.

shearing
at surface

100 mm
From V.J. Colangelo and F.A. Heiser,
Analysis of Metallurgical Failures (2nd
ed.), Fig. 11.28, p. 294, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., 1987. (Orig. source: P.
Thornton, J. Mater. Sci., Vol. 6, 1971, pp.
347-56.)

Fracture surface of tire cord wire


loaded in tension. Courtesy of F.
Roehrig, CC Technologies, Dublin,
OH. Used with permission.

Ductile vs. Brittle Failure

cup-and-cone fracture
Adapted from Fig. 8.3, Callister 7e.

brittle fracture

Brittle Failure
Arrows indicate point at which failure originated

Adapted from Fig. 8.5(a), Callister 7e.

Brittle Fracture Surfaces: Useful to examine


to determine causes of failure
Intergranular

Intergranular
(between grains)

4 mm

304 S. Steel
(metal)

(within grains)

316 S. Steel
(metal)

Reprinted w/permission
from "Metals Handbook", Reprinted w/ permission
9th ed, Fig. 633, p. 650.
from "Metals Handbook",
Copyright 1985, ASM
9th ed, Fig. 650, p. 357.
International, Materials
Copyright 1985, ASM
Park, OH. (Micrograph by
International, Materials
J.R. Keiser and A.R.
Park, OH. (Micrograph by
Olsen, Oak Ridge
D.R. Diercks, Argonne
National Lab.)
National Lab.)

Polypropylene
(polymer)
Reprinted w/ permission
from R.W. Hertzberg,
"Deformation and
Fracture Mechanics of
Engineering Materials",
(4th ed.) Fig. 7.35(d), p.
303, John Wiley and
Sons, Inc., 1996.

1 mm
(Orig. source: K. Friedrick, Fracture 1977,
Vol. 3, ICF4, Waterloo, CA, 1977, p. 1119.)

160 mm

Al Oxide
(ceramic)
Reprinted w/ permission
from "Failure Analysis of
Brittle Materials", p. 78.
Copyright 1990, The
American Ceramic
Society, Westerville, OH.
(Micrograph by R.M.
Gruver and H. Kirchner.)

3 mm

Failure Analysis Failure Avoidance


Most failure occur due to the presence of defects
in materials
Cracks or Flaws (stress concentrators)
Voids or inclusions

Presence of defects is best found before hand


and they should be determined non-destructively
X-Ray analysis
Ultra-Sonic Inspection
Surface inspection
Magna-flux
Dye Penetrant

Ideal vs Real Materials


Stress-strain behavior (Room Temp):
E/10

perfect matl-no flaws

TSengineering << TSperfect

carefully produced glass fiber


E/100

typical ceramic
0.1

materials

materials

typical strengthened metal


typical polymer

DaVinci (500 yrs ago!) observed...


-- the longer the wire, the
smaller the load for failure.
Reasons:
-- flaws cause premature failure.
-- Larger samples contain more flaws!

Reprinted w/
permission from R.W.
Hertzberg,
"Deformation and
Fracture Mechanics
of Engineering
Materials", (4th ed.)
Fig. 7.4. John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., 1996.

Considering Loading Rate Effect


Increased loading rate...
-- increases y and TS
-- decreases %EL

TS

Why? An increased rate


allows less time for
dislocations to move past
obstacles.

larger
TS

smaller

Impact (high strain rate) Testing


Impact loading (see ASTM E23 std.):
-- severe testing case
-- makes material act more brittle
-- decreases toughness
Useful to compare alternative materials
for severe applications

(Charpy Specimen)

Adapted from Fig. 8.12(b),


Callister 7e. (Fig. 8.12(b) is
adapted from H.W. Hayden,
W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The
Structure and Properties of
Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical
Behavior, John Wiley and Sons,
Inc. (1965) p. 13.)

final height

initial height

Considering Temperature Effects


Increasing temperature...
--increases %EL and Kc

Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT)...

Impact Energy

FCC metals (e.g., Cu, Ni)


BCC metals (e.g., iron at T < 914C)
polymers
Brittle

More Ductile
High strength materials ( y > E/150)

Temperature
Ductile-to-brittle
transition temperature

Adapted from Fig. 8.15,


Callister 7e.

Figure 8.3

Variation in ductile-to-brittle transition temperature with alloy composition. (a)


Charpy V-notch impact energy with temperature for plain-carbon steels with various carbon levels
(in weight percent). (b) Charpy V-notch impact energy with temperature for FeMn0.05C alloys
with various manganese levels (in weight percent).

(From Metals Handbook, 9th


ed., Vol. 1, American Society
for Metals, Metals Park, OH,
1978.)

Design Strategy: Build Steel Ships


Quickly!
Pre-WWI: The Titanic

Reprinted w/ permission from R.W. Hertzberg,


"Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering
Materials", (4th ed.) Fig. 7.1(a), p. 262, John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., 1996. (Orig. source: Dr. Robert D.
Ballard, The Discovery of the Titanic.)

WWII: Liberty ships

Reprinted w/ permission from R.W. Hertzberg,


"Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering
Materials", (4th ed.) Fig. 7.1(b), p. 262, John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., 1996. (Orig. source: Earl R. Parker,
"Behavior of Engineering Structures", Nat. Acad. Sci.,
Nat. Res. Council, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., NY,
1957.)

Problem: Used a type of steel with a DBTT ~ Room temp.

As a Designer: Stay Above The DBTT!

Flaws are Stress Concentrators!


Results from crack propagation
Griffith Crack Model:
1/ 2

m 2o

t
t

K t o

where
t = radius of curvature of
crack tip
o = applied stress
m = stress at crack tip
Adapted from Fig. 8.8(a), Callister 7e.

Concentration of Stress at Crack Tip

Adapted from Fig. 8.8(b), Callister 7e.

Engineering Fracture Design


Avoid sharp corners!

o
max
Stress Conc. Factor, K t =
w
max

r,
fillet
radius

2.5

max is the concentrated


stress in the narrowed
region

Adapted from G.H.


Neugebauer, Prod. Eng.
(NY), Vol. 14, pp. 82-87
1943.)

2.0

increasing w/h

1.5
1.0

0.5
1.0
sharper fillet radius

r/h

Crack Propagation
Cracks propagate due to sharpness of crack tip
A plastic material deforms at the tip, blunting the
crack.
plastic
deformed
region
brittle

Energy balance on the crack


Elastic strain energy energy is stored in material as it is elastically deformed
this energy is released when the crack propagates
creation of new surfaces requires (this) energy

When Does a Crack Propagate?


Crack propagates if applied stress is above critical
stress

i.e., m >c
orKt > Kc

1/ 2

2E s
c

where
E = modulus of elasticity
s = specific surface energy
a = one half length of internal crack
Kc = c/ 0

For ductile materials replace s by s + p


where p is plastic deformation energy

Fracture Toughness
Metals/
Alloys
100

K Ic (MPa m 0.5 )

70
60
50
40
30

Graphite/
Ceramics/
Semicond

Polymers

C-C(|| fibers) 1

Steels
Ti alloys
Al alloys
Mg alloys

20

Al/Al oxide(sf) 2
Y2 O 3 /ZrO 2 (p) 4
C/C( fibers) 1
Al oxid/SiC(w) 3
Si nitr/SiC(w) 5
Al oxid/ZrO 2 (p) 4
Glass/SiC(w) 6

10
7
6
5
4

Diamond
Si carbide
Al oxide
Si nitride

0.7
0.6
0.5

PET
PP
PVC

Composites/
fibers

PC

<100>

Si crystal
<111>
Glass -soda
Concrete

PS
Polyester

Glass 6

K1c plane strain stress


concentration factor with
edge crack; A Material
Property we use for design,
developed using ASTM Std:
ASTM E399 - 09 Standard
Test Method for Linear-Elastic
Plane-Strain Fracture
Toughness K Ic of Metallic
Materials
Composite reinforcement geometry is: f =
fibers; sf = short fibers; w = whiskers; p =
particles. Addition data as noted (vol. fraction
of reinforcement):
1. (55vol%) ASM Handbook, Vol. 21, ASM Int., Materials
Park, OH (2001) p. 606.
2. (55 vol%) Courtesy J. Cornie, MMC, Inc., Waltham,
MA.
3. (30 vol%) P.F. Becher et al., Fracture Mechanics of
Ceramics, Vol. 7, Plenum Press (1986). pp. 61-73.
4. Courtesy CoorsTek, Golden, CO.
5. (30 vol%) S.T. Buljan et al., "Development of Ceramic
Matrix Composites for Application in Technology for
Advanced Engines Program", ORNL/Sub/85-22011/2,
ORNL, 1992.
6. (20vol%) F.D. Gace et al., Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., Vol.
7 (1986) pp. 978-82.

As Engineers we must Design Against Crack


Growth
Crack growth condition:
K Kc = Y a
Largest, most stressed cracks grow first!
--Result 1: Max. flaw size
dictates design stress!

design

Kc

Y amax

fracture
no
fracture

--Result 2: Design stress


dictates max. flaw size!
2

amax

amax

1 K c

Y design

fracture

amax

no
fracture

Y is a material behavior shape factor

Design Example: Aircraft Wing


Material has Kc = 26 MPa-m0.5
Two designs to consider...
Design A
--largest flaw is 9 mm
--failure occurs at stress = 112 MPa

Kc
c
Y amax

Use...

Design B
--use same material
--largest flaw is 4 mm
--failure stress = ?

Key point: Y and Kc are the same in both designs!


--Result:

112 MPa

9 mm

amax

Reducing flaw size pays off!

4 mm

amax

Answer: ( c )B 168 MPa

Lets look at Another Situation


Steel subject to tensile
stress of 1030 MPa, it has
K1c of 54.8 MPa(m) a
handbook value
If it has a largest surface
crack .5 mm (.0005 m) long
will it grow and fracture?

What crack size will result


in failure?

Ka Y a a
here
Y 1
Y a a 1*1030* 3.141*.0005 40.82
Since K a < K1c the part won't fail!

K1c Y c a
K1c

Y c

a .0009m .9mm

54.8
1*1030

3.1416

Figure 8.7 Two mechanisms for improving fracture toughness of ceramics by crack
arrest. (a) Transformation toughening of partially stabilized zirconia involves the stressinduced transformation of tetragonal grains to the monoclinic structure, which has a larger
specific volume. The result is a local volume expansion at the crack tip, squeezing the
crack shut and producing a residual compressive stress. (b) Microcracks produced during
fabrication of the ceramic can blunt the advancing crack tip

Fatigue behavior:
Fatigue = failure under cyclic stress
specimen compression on top
bearing

bearing

motor

counter

flex coupling
tension on bottom

Stress varies with time.


-- key parameters are S (stress
amplitude), m, and frequency

max
m
min

(Fig. 8.18 is from


Materials Science in
Engineering, 4/E by Carl.
A. Keyser, Pearson
Education, Inc., Upper
Saddle River, NJ.)

S
time

Key points when designing in Fatigue inducing situations:


-- fatigue can cause part failure, even though max < c.
-- fatigue causes ~ 90% of mechanical engineering failures.
Because of its importance, ASTM and ISO have developed many
special standards to assess Fatigue Strength of materials

Some important Calculations in


Fatigue Testing
A Material 6.4 mm in is subject to (fatiguing) loads:
5340 N - tensile then compressive

max 5340
min

6.4*10 2
5340
3
6.4*10

5340

3.22 105

5340

165.99 MPa

3.22 10

165.99 MPa

max min 165.99 165.99 MPa


m mean stress

0
2
2
r stress range Max min 331.99 MPa
a stress amplitude S r 2 165.99 MPa

Figure 8.8 Fatigue corresponds to the brittle fracture of


an alloy after a total of N cycles to a stress below the
tensile strength.

Fatigue Design Parameters


Fatigue limit, Sfat:
--no fatigue failure if
S < Sfat

S = stress amplitude
unsafe
Sfat
safe

Fatigue Limit is defined in:


ASTM D671

case for
steel (typ.)

10 3

Adapted from Fig.


8.19(a), Callister 7e.

10 5
10 7
10 9
N = Cycles to failure

However, Sometimes, the


S = stress amplitude
fatigue limit is zero!
unsafe
safe
10 3

10 5
10 7
10 9
N = Cycles to failure

case for
Al (typ.)

Adapted from Fig.


8.19(b), Callister 7e.

Lets look at an Example


Given: 2014-T6 Alum. Alloy bar (6.4 mm )
find its fatigue life if a part is subject to loads:
5340 N - tensile then compressive
5340
max 5340
2
5 165.99 MPa
3
3.22

10
6.4*10 2
5340
min 5340
165.99MPa
2
3
3.22 105
6.4*10

max min 165.99 165.99 MPa

0
2
2
r Max min 331.99 MPa
a S r 2 165.99 MPa
Examining Fig (right) at S = 165.99
m

Fatigue Life = Cycles to Failure 7 106

For metals other than Ferrous alloys, F.S. is


taken as the stress that will cause failure
after 108 cycles

Figure 8.21 Fatigue behavior for an acetal polymer at various


temperatures.

(From Design Handbook for Du


Pont Engineering Plastics, used
by permission.)

For polymers, we
consider fatigue
life to be (only)
106 cycles to
failure thus fatigue
strength is the
stress that will
lead to failure
after 106 cycles

Fatigue Mechanism
Cracks in Material grows incrementally

da
m
K
dN

typ. 1 to 6

~ a

increase in crack length per loading cycle


crack origin

Failed rotating shaft

--crack grew even though


Kmax < Kc
--crack grows faster as
increases
crack gets longer
loading freq. increases.

Adapted from
from D.J. Wulpi,
Understanding How
Components Fail,
American Society for
Metals, Materials Park,
OH, 1985.

Figure 8.11 An illustration of how repeated stress applications can generate


localized plastic deformation at the alloy surface leading eventually to sharp
discontinuities.

Figure 8.12 Illustration of crack growth with number of stress cycles, N, at two
different stress levels. Note that, at a given stress level, the crack growth rate,
da/dN, increases with increasing crack length, and, for a given crack length such as
a1, the rate of crack growth is significantly increased with increasing magnitude of
stress.

Improving Fatigue Life


1. Impose a compressive
surface stresses
(to suppress surface
crack growth)

S = stress amplitude
Adapted from
Fig. 8.24, Callister 7e.

Increasing

near zero or compressive m


moderate tensile m
Larger tensile m
N = Cycles to failure

--Method 1: shot peening

--Method 2: carburizing

shot

put
surface
into
compression

2. Remove stress
concentrators.

bad
bad

C-rich gas

better
better

Adapted from
Fig. 8.25, Callister 7e.

Figure 8.17 Fatigue strength is increased by prior mechanical deformation


or reduction of structural discontinuities.

Other Issues in Failure Stress Corrosion


Cracking
Water can greatly accelerate
crack growth and shorten life
performance in metals,
ceramics and glasses
Other chemicals that can
generate (or provide H+ or O2-)
ions also effectively reduce
fatigue life as these ions react
with the metal or oxide in the
material

Figure 8.18 The drop in strength of glasses with duration of load (and without
cyclic-load applications) is termed static fatigue.

(From W. D. Kingery, Introduction to


Ceramics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
New York, 1960.)

Figure 8.19 The role of H2O in static fatigue depends on its reaction with the
silicate network. One H2O molecule and one Si OSi segment generate two
SiOH units, which is equivalent to a break in the network.

Figure 8.20 Comparison of (a) cyclic fatigue in metals and (b) static
fatigue in ceramics.

SUMMARY
Flaws produce stress concentrations that cause
premature failure.
Sharp corners produce large stress concentrations
and premature failure.
Failure type depends on T and stress:
- for noncyclic and T < 0.4Tm, failure stress decreases with:
- increased maximum flaw size,
- decreased T,
- increased rate of loading.

- for cyclic :

- cycles to fail decreases as increases.

- for higher T (T > 0.4Tm):


- time to fail decreases as or T increases.