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When we planning training, we need to be involved in three stages. Needs assessments, development and training. Needs assessment stage involves compiling of information on whether the organization requires training or not, types of training required and specialized knowledge, skills and ability required. Training needs can arise from a short fall, deficiency or gap occurring at either one of these area :a) Needs of the organizational level b) Needs at the occupational level c) Needs at the individual level


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Before training is undertaken, HRD professional has to ascertain why training is needed and what is intended to be attained by having the training program. The clarity and certainty of a need is obtained by undertaking a TNA. Training Needs Identification (TNI) is seen precursor to TNA. Ascertained training need exists before assessment is undertaken. Determine first that particular problem can be overcome through training because not all organizational ills can be solve by training.


Needs assessment is the systematic process for determining goals, identifying discrepancies between the goal and the status quo and establishing the priorities for action. A need is present when there is a discrepancy or gap between the way things ‘might be’ and the ‘way there are’. Needs assessment is a systematic process of determining what ought to be (goals) and measuring the amount of discrepancy (needs) between what ought to be and what actually is in order to determine priorities for action.


Desired sent situation : what actually is situation : what ought

Discrepancy gap

Figure : Organization Needs


To compile and analyze information pertaining to what measures are being implemented in the present and what measure should be implemented in the present and future. • If we find that there is a gap between the two, we could ascertain whether training could narrow the gap. • We could use the data obtained through the TNA process to choose :IV. Which group requires training. V. Training content and methodology. VI. Duration of training. VII. How to evaluate training outcome.

Training needs assessment involve comparing
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On recruitment – Job specification vs Trainee specification. On the job – Required performance vs Present performance. Future need – Predicted need vs Present ability.

Performance standards
Actual Performance Level
The Need

Expected Performance Level


Expected Performance

Actual Deficiency - Performance = In performance = Training Need
Figure: Occupational/ Individual Training Need

*Useful to note

A number of parties are involved in any situation, therefore, any training activity carries a variety of expectation. Mapping the stakeholders’ interests can be an integral part of TNA. Stakeholders here can include, the management, the trainer’s supervisors, the trainees, the trainers and the clients of the organization. Stakeholders interest can impact the problem being investigated and should therefore be assessed as part of TNA. In short, training needs assessment is the process of gathering information about people to be trained, the jobs they are doing and the need (deficiency of knowledge, skill and attitude) for their training and development.

Change in technology 2. Shifting market trend / demands 3. Legislative or policy changes 4. Organizational restructuring 5. Succession requirements 6. Problems associated with work processes 7. Output evaluation( quality of production, productivity,etc.) 8. Other issues relating to human resources a. Introduction – for new staff in the organisation b. Staff development – career planning to develop knowledge and skill

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Low output Low reliability Poor quality High wastage/scrap Falling standard or performance Increase in time to perform tasks Time taken to learn how to perform tasks is to long Low utilization of machines and equipment High machine breakdown time High accident rates High labour turnover Low motivation High absenteeism Poor staff and management relationship Frequent delay Frequent dispute and strikes Customer complaints about staff inefficiency Lack of cooperation Recruitment problems Declining profits


Training Needs assessment can be due to:
a.Perceived Need :
When people in authority or the management feel that a training need exists, due to an existing problem or anticipated change. When employees express the need or want for a particular program to meet performance deficiency in their jobs. When studies indicate that there is a need for training, for example, due to a drop in present job performance (a reactive response) or projected future need( proactive response).

b.Felt Need:

c.Actual Need:

Process of TNA

Surveillance: Identification of problem Investigation: Data collection

Data Analysis/Interpretation


Non Training Solution

Training as a Solution

TNA : 3 Stage Procedure
Surveillance 3. Investigation 4. Analysis

Review vital data of your organization.  Obtain documents with state-of-theorganization theme.  Have up-to-date and broad picture what is happening to the total organization.  Look for areas of performance problems and training opportunities.  Maintain informal contact with individuals throughout the organization  Assess attitude and feelings of members of the organization.  Keep informed about all current policies, targets and standards related to work.

2. Investigation
Undertake investigation if you discover a performance gap or management seems to think that a training need may be present.  Common data-gathering technique :-Observation -Interviews -Questionnaires -Diaries -Work samples -Performance appraisals -Studies -Psychological tests

3. Analysis
 Intellectual

skill, difficult to describe.  Sharpened by practice and assisted by modern techniques of statistical analysis.  Organization, Job and Person Analysis.

1. Organization Analysis
 Includes

a statement of objectives and policies at organization department, and section levels, as well as analyses of the human resource available and of the organization climate.

2. Job Analysis
 Specifies

standard of job performance.  Provide breakdown of job into component tasks and investigate ways of performing those tasks( with a view to improving efficiency).  Specify skills,Knowledge and attitudes that a person requires in order to do the job to standard.

3.Person Analysis
 Look

at the occupant of the job  Measure current level of performance and diagnose requirements(if any) to bring performance to standard.

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Time Cost/Benefit Cause and Effect Timeless Participation

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