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Class presentation Summary of direct displacement based Design of structures

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CHAPTER 3

DIRECT DISPLACEMENT-BASED

DESIGN

FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

Muhammad Noman

15-UET/PhD-civ-78

3.1 INTRODUCTION

DDBD (Direct Displacement Based Design)

developed recently

Aim: mitigating deficiencies in force-based

design (explained by Dr. Syed Saqib already)

Fundamental Philosophy: To design a

structure which would achieve a given

performance limit state under given seismic

intensity

The Design Procedure determines the strength

required at designated plastic hinges locations to

achieve the design aims in terms of defined

displacement objectives

METHOD

The design method is

explained with figure,

which considers SDOF

representation of frame

building

Ki = Initial Elastic

Stiffness

rKi= Post Yield

Stiffness

Ke= Secant stiffness at

maximum displacement

d

terms of Elastic, Pre-Yield properties (Initial

stiffness Ki, Elastic Damping)

DDBD characterizes the structure by secant

stiffness Ke at maximum displacement d, and

viscous damping (zeta).

Thus representative of the combined elastic

damping and hysteretic energy absorbed during

inelastic response.

system at maximum displacement can be found

by inverting the normal equation:

Ke = 4 ^

2 me / Te^2

Where me is effective mass Te is effective period

Design base shear force

Vbase =Ke d

PERFORMANCE LEVELS

In recent years there has been increased interest

in defining seismic performance objectives for

structures.

In vision 2000 document, four performance levels

and four levels of seismic excitation are

considered.

The performance levels are designated as:

1. Fully Operational 2. Operational

3. Life Safe

3. Near Collapse

are defined:

EQ-I: 87% probability in 50 years

EQ-II:

50% probability in 50 years

EQ-III: 10% probability in 50 years

EQ-IV:

2% probability in 50 years

A) Cracking Limit State: For Concrete & Masonry

members the onset of cracking generally marks the point

for a significant change in stiffness

B) First-Yield Limit State: A second significant change

in stiffness of concrete and masonry members occurs at

onset of yield in the extreme tension reinforcement

C) Spalling Limit State: Associated with onset of

negative incremental stiffness and possibly sudden

strength loss

D) Buckling Limit State: Beyond this state, removal

and replacement of member is required

E) Ultimate Limit State: inability to carry imposed

loads

10

11

A) Serviceability limit state: This corresponds

to the fully functional seismic performance level

B) Damage Control limit state: At this limit

state, a certain amount of repairable damage is

acceptable, but the cost should be significantly

less than the cost of replacement

C) Survival limit state: Extensive damage may

have to be accepted, to the extent that it may not

be economically or technically feasible to repair

the structure after the earthquake

12

3.4 SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM

STRUCTURES

13

displacement from strain limits

Consequently there are two possible limit state curvatures,

based on concrete compression and reinforcement tension

respectively

14

The yield displacement is required for two reasons:

1: If structural considerations define limit

displacement

2: In order to calculate viscous damping

15

16

DAMPING

The design procedure requires relationships

between displacement ductility and equivalent

viscous damping. Figure 3.1 (c)

The damping is sum of Elastic damping and

hysteretic damping

rule

Normally elastic damping used for:

Concrete structures: 0.05

Steel Structures:

0.02

17

Jacobsen who formulated the following equation:

displacement response

Fm and m are maximum force and displacement

achieved in stabilized loop

The above equation is related to Ke (Secant

stiffness) to maximum response. figure 3.8

18

19

A) characteristics

of some isolation

system,

incorporating

frictional sliders,

B) various

isolation systems

C) Ductile

Reinforced

concrete wall of

column

D) ductile

reinforced

concrete frame

structures

E) Ductile steel

structure

F) unbounded

Post tensioned

with little

damping

20

hysteretic component of response in the form:

hysteretic rules and used complex formulation

between ductility and viscous damping:

21

22

B) ELASTIC DAMPING

dynamic equation of equilibrium

substitute structure analysis with inelastic time

history results to determine the correction factor

to be applied to the elastic damping coefficient for

assumptions of either initial- stiffness elastic

damping. The equation 3.9 is thus slightly

changed to:

where

23

24

C) DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

displacement ductility of = 5 and effective period Te = 2.0 sec.,

and an elastic damping ratio of 0.05 (5%) related to tangent

stiffness elastic damping. Calculate the appropriate equivalent

viscous damping

Solution: from table 3.1: for TT, a= 0.215, b= 0.642, c= 0.824, d=

6.444

Hence from equation 3.12

25

damping only, since this is felt to be the correct structural

simulation, further these equations are for coefficient of

damping 0.05. for different coefficients, complex equation

(like equation 3.12) are used

26

E) GENERATION OF INELASTIC

DISPLACEMENT SPECTRA

modification factor

greater than 0.05 from eq. (2.8) into the damping ductility

equations eq.(3.17), spectral displacement reduction factors in the

form:

27

EQUATION

simplified to a single equation, once the design displacement and

damping have been determined

28

OF A SIMPLE BRIDGE PIER

29

3.5 MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM

STRUCTURES

For Multi Degree of Freedom (MDOF) structures, the

initial part of design process requires the

determination of the characteristics of the

Equivalent SDOF Substitute structures

The required characteristics are Equivalent Mass,

the Design Displacement, and the Effective Damping

When these have been determined, the design base

shear for the substitute structure can be determined

The base shear is then distributed between mass

elements of real structure as inertia forces, and

structure analyzed under these forces to determine

the design moments at locations of potential plastic

hinges

30

The characteristic design displacement of the

substitute structure depends on the:

Limit State of Displacement or Drift of the most

critical members of real structure

and an assumed displacement shape

This displacement shape is that which corresponds to

the in-elastic first mode at the design level of seismic

excitation

significant mass locations respectively

31

by:

design displacement at the critical mass c, c is

the value of the mode shape at mass c

32

A) FRAME BUILDINGS

equations, through approximation have been

shown to be adequate for design purposes:

(level n) respectively

33

B) CANTILEVER WALL

For cantilever wall buildings the maximum drift

will occur in the top storey

The value of this drift may be limited by code

maximum drift limit, or by plastic rotation

capacity of the base plastic hinge

34

35

36

With bridges it is less easy to determine the design

displacement profile, particularly for transverse

seismic response

The transverse displacement profile will depend

strongly on relative column stiffness, and more

significantly on relative displacement restraint

provided at the abutment, and super structure lateral

stiffness

For each bridge type three possible displacement

profiles are shown in fig. 3.19 corresponding to

abutment fully restrained against displacement, a

completely unrestrained abutment and one where

abutment is restrained, but has significant transverse

flexibility

37

38

39

DAMPING

A) VISCOUS DAMPING

This requires determination of displacement

ductility demand of the structure.

Since the design displacement d has already

been determined, from (eq. 3.26). The effective

yield displacement y needs to be interpolated

from the profile displacements at yield

40

41

B) INFLUENCE OF FOUNDATION

FLEXIBILITY ON EFFECTIVE

DAMPING

42

foundation for foundation and for the structure

can be expressed as

43

FOR A CANTILEVER WALL

BUILDING

44

45

46

47

FOR A CANTILEVER WALL BUILDING

48

49

50

51

3.6 P- EFFECT

3.6.1: CURRENT DESIGN

APPROACHES

members of the model may induce secondary moments due

to the fact that the ends of the member may no longer be

vertical in the deflected position. These secondary effects

for members can be accurately approximated through the

use of P-Delta analysis

This type of analysis is called P-Delta because the

magnitude of the secondary moment is equal to P, the

axial force in the member, times Delta, the distance one

end of the member is offset from the other end

52

Llk\

53

only reduces the lateral force, but also modifies

the entire lateral force-displacement

characteristics. The effective initial stiffness is

reduced, and the post yield stiffness may be

negative

P- effect is typically quantified by some form of

stability index, which compares the

magnitude of P- effect at either nominal yield or

at expected maximum displacement, to the

design base moment capacity of the structure.

54

3.6.2 THEORETICAL

CONSIDERATION

significance of P- effects depends on the shape of

the hysteretic response.

55

OF DIRECT DISPLACEMENT BASED

DESIGN

There are significant difficulties in rationally

considering P- effects in forced based design

In chapter 1, estimation of maximum expected

displacement from different codified force-based

designs is subject to wide variability

Furthermore, most force-based design codes seriously

underestimate the elastic and inelastic displacements,

and hence underestimate the severity of P- effects

The treatment of P- effects in DDBD is comparatively

straight forward

Unlike FBD, the design displacement is known at the

start of the design process and hence the P- moment is

also known before the required strength is determined

56

maximum design displacement

The initial strength corresponding to zero

displacement is thus given by:

take C=1

Steel structures are likely to be more critically

affected than will concrete structures

57

defined by Eq. 4.45 exceeds 0.05, the design base moment

capacity should be amplified for P- considerations as

indicated in Eq. 3.49, taking C=1

Concrete Structures: when the structural stability index

defined by Eq. 4.45 exceeds 0.10, the design base moment

capacity should be amplified for P- considerations as

indicated in Eq. 3.49, taking C=0.5

58

ACTIONS

3.7.1: A COMBINATION OF CURRENT FORCE-BASED

DESIGN APPROACHES

59

determine gravity moments (gross section

stiffness) and seismic moments (cracked-section

stiffness reduced by ductility factors), resulting

the moment combination would be meaningless

Therefore, the gravity moments should be

determined using the same effective stiffness as

appropriate for seismic design

In DDBD the effects of gravity moments are very

small in comparison with the seismic moments

60

IN DIRECT DISPLACEMENT-BASED DESIGN

to Torsional rotations as well as direct

translation under seismic response

61

CM = Centre of Mass

CR = Centre of Rigidity or Stiffness

CV = Centre of Shear Strength

In traditional elastic analysis of torsional effects

in buildings only the first two are considered, and

a structure is considered to have plan eccentricity

when CM and CR do not Coincide

But it has recently become apparent that for

structures responding in-elastically to seismic

excitation, the centre of strength is at least as

important as the centre of rigidity

62

TORSIONAL EFFECTS

A) Design to avoid Strength Eccentricity

B) Design to Minimize Strength Eccentricity

C) Modification of Design Displacement to

Account for Torsion

63

DISPLACEMENT BASED DESIGN

Special measures are required to ensure that

unintended plastic hinges do not occur at other

locations up the wall height, where adequate

detailing for ductility has not been provided

Unlike FBD in which only fundamental mode of

vibration is considered, actual structure will include

effects of higher modes

A further factor to be considered is that conservative

estimates of material strengths will normally be

adopted when determining the size of members and

the amount of reinforcing steel.

Amplification factors to be used in designing

(dynamic amplification factors, design strength etc)

64

3.10.1 INFLUENCE OF SEISMIC INTENSITY ON

DESIGN BASE SHEAR STRENGTH

sensitivity than found from current codified force

based design procedures

65

REQUIRED FRAME BASE SHEAR STRENGTH

66

PIER HEIGHT

67

WALL LENGTHS

68

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