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Rapid Tooling

Guided By
Dr. K.G.Dave
Assistant Professor
Dept. of Mech. Eng.,
LDCE, Ahmedabad

Presented By
Parikh Ravi Rajesh Kumar
Enroll. No140280708008
4th Sem. ME CAD/CAM
Dept. of Mech. Eng.,
LDCE, Ahmedabad

Introduction of Rapid prototyping

Rapid tooling
Differences Between Rapid Tooling And The Conventional
Rapid Tooling Methods method
2.indirect method
Soft tooling
Hard tooling
Rapid Tooling Techniques
1.Silicon rubber tooling
2.Epoxy tooling
3.Spray metal tooling
4. Rapid Solidification Process
5. Cast Kirksite Process

Rapid prototyping
Rapid Prototyping (RP) techniques are methods that allow
designers to produce physical prototypes quickly.
It consists of various manufacturing processes by which a
solid physical model of part is made directly from 3D CAD
model data without any special tooling.

Why is Prototyping Important?

Product designers want to have a physical model of a new part
or product design rather than just a computer model or line
Creating a prototype is an integral step in design
A virtual prototype (a CAD model of the part) may not be
sufficient for the designer to visualize the part adequately
Using RP to make the prototype, the designer can see and feel
the part and assess its merits and shortcomings

Why Rapid tooling?

Unfortunately with RP techniques, there is only a limited range
of materials from which prototypes can be made. Consequently
although visualization and dimensional verification are possible,
functional testing of prototypes often is not possible due to
different mechanical and thermal properties of prototype
compared to production part.

Rapid tooling
Rapid Tooling refers to mould cavities that are either directly or
indirectly fabricated using Rapid Prototyping techniques.
These are primarily used to create multiple prototypes. Rapid
prototyping techniques are not economical when more than one
prototype needs to built for the same component.

Differences Between Rapid Tooling And The

Conventional Method
Rapid Tooling
Conventional Method

The time that is used when

making implements using
this RT is very little.
The amount of money that
is used in the manufacture
of tools using RT is also
very little.
Tools that are made using
the RT method have a

The time that is used when

making implements using
this conventional method
is very large.
The amount of money that
is used in the manufacture
of tools using conventional
method is also very huge.
Tools that are made using
the conventional method
shorter life span.

Rapid Tooling Methods

Two approaches for tool-making:
1. Indirect RTM method
2. Direct RTM method

Indirect RTM method

Pattern is created by RP and the pattern is used to fabricate
the tool

Patterns for sand casting and investment casting

Direct RTM method

RP is used to make the tool it self

Soft Tooling: Silicone molds and the urethane process are used when a lower
volume of parts is needed (1-100). This is because the tooling
and piece price is more economical for lower quantities. On
average, silicone tools usually cost in the hundreds to
thousands of dollars, pending on the part geometry.
Siliconemolds can be used for prototype, bridge and
production of low volumes from one part to hundreds of parts.
Most silicone molds are good for about 25 shots per cavity.
Silicone molds are typically injected with material that is
manually gravity fed through a tube. Pending on the type of
material, it cantake anywhere between 1-24 hours to cure.
Once the parts within the mold cure, the molds aremanually
opened, and any necessary finishing is done by hand.


Soft Tooling:-


Hard Tooling:
Steel/aluminum tools areused for the injection
molding process for prototype or bridge, but these
tools are mostly used for high volume production
Steel/aluminum tools typically range in price from
thousands to tens of thousands of dollars. And pending
on the material and part geometry, the tool life can
range from thousands to millions of parts.
Steel/aluminum tools are injected with material from
an injection mold machine. The machine injects mold
into the mold with less man-power when compared to
silicone molds. The curing of material will take
between a few seconds to a few minutes, thus yielding
more parts much quicker than silicone tools.


Hard Tooling:


Comparison of Soft & Hard Tooling:Soft Tooling

Low Cost Tooling
Higher Piece Part Cost
Faster Lead Time And
More Flexibility To Change
Increased Product Variance

Hard Tooling
Higher Cost Tooling
Lower Piece Part Cost
NO Design Flexibility
Longer Lead Time Due To
Tooling Lead Time
Process For High Volumes


Rapid Tooling Techniques


Silicon Rubber Tooling:

One of the most popular tooling applications for RP is the
production of room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone
rubber tooling
The purpose of RTV tools is to create urethane or epoxy
prototypes, often under vacuum (hence the term vacuum
The process of making a rubber mould consists of:
Making a master pattern, usually on an RP machine.
Finishing the pattern to the desired appearance.
Casting RTV silicone rubber around the pattern to form the
mould, and then injecting the mould with two-part thermoset
materials to create moulded plastic parts.


Silicon Rubber Tooling


Silicon Rubber Tooling

Silicone rubber tooling
provides fast, inexpensive
moulds, excellent part
cosmetics, and the option
of using multiple materials
The process is suitable for
small or medium-sized
Another benefit of silicone
rubber tooling is the
negative draft (undercuts)
that can be achieved due to
the flexibility of the mould

Epoxy tooling:
Its also known as Composite Tooling
Like silicone rubber tooling, epoxy-based composite tooling
requires a master pattern.
This pattern is created by RP process.
The pattern is finished and then embedded in a parting line
block to create the parting line of the mould.
Metal inserts are placed in areas where the epoxy is unlikely to
withstand the pressures of the injection-moulding process.
Epoxy is then cast against the pattern and parting line block
combination to create the first side of the tool.
Once the epoxy has cured, the assembly is inverted, and the
parting line is removed, leaving the pattern embedded in the
first side of the tool.
The second side of the tool is then cast against the first.


Epoxy tooling:


Spray metal tooling:

It is very similar to aluminium filled epoxy
In this process, against the RP pattern low temperature
metal alloys is sprayed
A thin metal coating is then arc-sprayed on the
resultant mould surface
It gives higher strength and maximum tool life
This process is suitable for larger parts


Spray metal tooling:

RP Model

Finished Model

Metal spraying


RSP Tooling
RSP stands for Rapid Solidification Process
We create a plastic model using SLA
And then we make moulds with either by epoxy tooling or
spray metal onto it
But most of the cases, ceramics are used
Whats significant in that is that we atomize the metal down to
as small as 5 microns.
When the metal hits the ceramic, because of the small size of
the droplets, they freeze very quickly, thus the rapid
This process results in extremely fine grain structure and the
alloys generally stay in solution and there is very little internal


RSP Tooling


Cast Kirksite
Kirksite is a zinc-aluminum alloy with excellent wear
resistance. (94 % Zn, 6% Al) with a melting point of 3855C)
The process for making cast kirksite tooling begins much like
the process for epoxy-based composite tooling, except that two
additional reversals are required to permit the creation of
tooling in a more durable material


Cast Kirksite Process:

First, a shrink-compensated master pattern of the part is
produced, typically using an RP process.
A rubber or urethane material is then cast against the part
master to create patterns for the core and cavity set, which will
be cast in kirksite.
Plaster is then cast against the core and cavity patterns to
create moulds into which the kirksite is cast.
Once the kirksite is cast into the plaster moulds, the plaster is
broken away, and the kirksite core and cavity are fit into a
mould base

Cast Kirksite Process:


3D Keltool
3D Keltool is a powder metal process used to make injectionmould inserts and other durable tooling from master patterns
It is very similar spray metal tooling
Keltool was originally developed by 3M in 1976 and was sold
and further developed by Keltool Inc. In 1996, 3D Systems
purchased the technology from Keltool Inc. and renamed it 3D


Process chain of 3D Keltool:

Master pattern
Silicone casting
Casting with a tool steel/Tungsten carbide/epoxy mixture
Burn-out of binder, sintering and infiltration with copper in
an oven
Tool insert ready for production


3D Keltool
This process requires a master pattern, typically an SLA
model, that can be used to develop a silicone mould that
will then be used to produce the Keltool mould.
The Keltool mould is then processed with a copper
infiltration and sintered to increase its strength and cure
the mould.
The finished Keltool part has the hardness of a A6 Tool
Steel and can be machined like a traditional hard tool.